Howard N E Stevens

University of Greenwich, London, ENG, United Kingdom

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Publications (37)123.52 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Conventional modified release preparations of tamsulosin HCl have been linked to increased incidence of cardiovascular adverse events, possibly due to rapid drug peaks soon after ingestion. A 'flattened' absorption profile has been shown to reduce the occurrence of these unwanted effects while improving symptom control. The potential of a novel triple-layered tablet to effect prolonged release and continuous absorption of tamsulosin HCl in the gastrointestinal tract was investigated in this clinical study. Gastrointestinal (GI) transit behaviour was monitored by scintigraphic imaging of technetium-labelled tablets. Drug absorption levels were simultaneously determined through pharmacokinetic analysis of blood samples. A mean Cmax of 6±3ng/nL was achieved after 324±184min (mean tmax). The mean AUC0-24h was noted as 4359±1880ng/mL.min. The mean gastric emptying and colon arrival times of the tablets were 105.2±68.9 and 270.1±32.0min post-dose; giving a mean small intestine transit time of 164.9±83.6min. Variations in gastrointestinal transit did not appear to influence drug absorption. Correlation of scintigraphic and PK data indicated that tamsulosin HCl is released steadily throughout the entire GI tract, suggesting that the mechanism of drug release is independent of GI site allowing drug release even in the low moisture environment of the colon.
    International Journal of Pharmaceutics 07/2013; · 3.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Gastrointestinal side-effects of alendronate (ALN) are believed to be associated with oesophageal lodging of tablets and perhaps reflux of gastric contents with alendronate under strongly acidic pH conditions. This leads to unfavourable posture restrictions when dosing. This clinical study evaluated gastric emptying and gastric pH after administration of Fosamax(®) tablets and a novel effervescent ALN formulation with a high buffering capacity. This novel formulation, EX101, was developed to potentially improve gastric tolerance. Gastric pH was monitored by nasogastric probes. Gastric emptying was determined simultaneously by scintigraphic imaging of (99m)Tc-DTPA labelled formulations. Both formulations tested rapidly cleared the oesophagus and there were no statistically significant or physiologically relevant differences in gastric emptying times. Mean pH at time to 50% gastric emptying of the radiolabel was significantly higher in EX101-treated subjects compared to those treated with Fosamax(®). At time to 90% gastric emptying of the radiolabel, mean pH values were comparable. Mucosal exposure to ALN at pH less than 3 is irritating to gastro-oesophageal tissue. Ingestion of Fosamax(®) resulted in ALN being present in the stomach at a pH below 3 within minutes. EX101 minimised the possibility of exposing the oesophagus (in case of reflux) to acidified ALN.
    International Journal of Pharmaceutics 05/2012; 432(1-2):57-62. · 3.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Drug release characteristics of freeze-dried wafers and solvent-cast films prepared from sodium carboxymethylcellulose have been investigated and compared. In vitro drug dissolution studies were performed using an exchange cell and drug release was measured by UV spectroscopy at 272 nm using distilled water. The dissolution profiles of hydrochlorothiazide from the wafers and films were compared by determining the rates of drug release, estimated from the % release versus time profiles and calculating their difference (f(1)) and similarity (f(2)) factors. The effects of drug loading, polymer content and amount of glycerol (GLY) (films) on the drug release characteristics of both formulations were investigated. Both the wafers and films showed sustained type release profiles that were best explained by the Korsmeyer-Peppas equation. Changes in the concentration of drug and GLY (films) did not significantly alter the release profiles whilst increasing polymer content significantly decreased the rate of drug release from both formulations. The rate of release was faster from the wafers than the corresponding films which could be attributed to differences in the physical microstructure. The results show the potential of employing both formulations in various mucosal drug delivery applications.
    Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy 06/2011; 38(1):47-54. · 1.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the in-vitro and in-vivo erosion profiles of two tablet formulations primarily consisting of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) and lactose. HPMC was used at concentrations below and above the reported values for polymer percolation threshold in controlled release matrix formulations: 20 and 40% (w/w) HPMC. In-vitro erosion behaviour was studied using traditional gravimetric and scintigraphic methods, with radiolabelled charcoal used as a marker to quantify erosion profiles in scintigraphic studies. Six healthy male subjects participated in a randomised crossover scintigraphic erosion study. Both in-vitro and in-vivo erosion profiles determined using the gravimetric and/or scintigraphic method for matrix tablets were dependent upon the concentration of HPMC, and erosion was faster for tablets containing 20% (w/w) HPMC than those containing 40% (w/w) HPMC. Good correlation was found between in-vitro gravimetric and scintigraphic erosion profiles for both tablets. Tablets containing 40% (w/w) HPMC (polymer level above percolation threshold) demonstrated robust in-vivo performance and showed stronger correlation with in-vitro erosion profiles. The study demonstrated that a matrix formulation with a lower concentration of HPMC and higher lactose concentration is more likely to perform poorly in the in-vivo environment.
    Journal of Controlled Release 10/2010; 147(1):70-5. · 7.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In vitro and in vivo erosion behaviour of erodible tablets consisting of glyceryl behenate and low-substituted hydroxypropylcellulose manufactured using three different methods: direct compression (DC), melt granulation (MG) and direct solidification (DS) was investigated. In vitro erosion behaviour was studied using gravimetric and scintigraphic methods. For scintigraphic investigations, the radiolabel was adsorbed onto activated charcoal and incorporated into tablets at a concentration that did not affect the erosion profile. A clinical study was carried out in six healthy volunteers using gamma scintigraphy. Tablet erosion was affected by the preparation method and was found to decrease in the order of preparation method, DC>MG>DS tablets. The mean in vivo onset time for all tablets (DC: 6.7±3.8 min, MG: 18.3±8.1 min, DS: 67±18.9 min) did not differ significantly from in vitro onset time (DC: 5.3±1 min, MG: 16.8±3.9 min, DS: 61.8±4.7 min). The mean in vivo completion times were found to be 36.6±9.7 (DC tablets), 70±18.3 min (MG tablets) and 192.5±39.9 min (DS tablets). Among the three different erodible tablets, MG tablets showed the highest correlation between in vitro and in vivo mean erosion profile and suggested a potential platform to deliver controlled release of water-insoluble compounds.
    European journal of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics: official journal of Arbeitsgemeinschaft fur Pharmazeutische Verfahrenstechnik e.V 10/2010; 77(1):148-57. · 3.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Freeze-dried (lyophilised) wafers and solvent cast films from sodium alginate (ALG) and sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) have been developed as potential drug delivery systems for mucosal surfaces including wounds. The wafers (ALG, CMC) and films (CMC) were prepared by freeze-drying and drying in air (solvent evaporation) respectively, aqueous gels of the polymers containing paracetamol as a model drug. Microscopic architecture was examined using scanning electron microscopy, hydration characteristics with confocal laser scanning microscopy and dynamic vapour sorption. Texture analysis was employed to investigate mechanical characteristics of the wafers during compression. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to investigate polymorphic changes of paracetamol occurring during formulation of the wafers and films. The porous freeze-dried wafers exhibited higher drug loading and water absorption capacity than the corresponding solvent evaporated films. Moisture absorption, ease of hydration and mechanical behaviour were affected by the polymer and drug concentration. Two polymorphs of paracetamol were observed in the wafers and films, due to partial conversion of the original monoclinic to the orthorhombic polymorph during the formulation process. The results showed the potential of employing the freeze-dried wafers and solvent evaporated films in diverse mucosal applications due to their ease of hydration and based on different physical mechanical properties exhibited by both type of formulations.
    International Journal of Pharmaceutics 04/2010; 389(1-2):24-31. · 3.99 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Panna Thapa, Howard N. E. Stevens, Alan J. Baillie
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    ABSTRACT: In vitro release of nicotine hydrogen tartrate (NHT) into phosphate buffer saline (PBS), pH 7.4 at 37C was studied in a diffusion cell, which, with a minimal dissolution volume on the donor side, was intended to mimic the low hydration environment of the nasal mucosa. Lyophilisates prepared from different concentrations (0.25, 0.5, 1, 2 & 3% w/w) of Methocel K4MP solution and K100LVP, K15MP, K100MP solutions (1 & 2%) containing NHT were placed on the diffusion cell membrane which was maintained just in contact with the constantly agitated liquid phase of the receptor compartment. Samples were withdrawn at regular time intervals from the receptor compartment, replaced by fresh medium and analysed spectrophotometrically at 260nm after appropriate dilution. As controls, nicotine release profiles from NHT powder & aqueous solution, Methocel K solutions, and simple powder blends of K4MP were also measured. The nicotine release was dependent on the concentration of Methocel K polymer, whether the donor side of the cell was presented with a solution or lyophilisate of NHT in polymer. Nicotine release decreased with increasing polymer concentration (t50% = 25 min and 75 min for lyophilisate prepared from 1% and 3% w/w K4MP respectively). However at any polymer concentration, nicotine release was faster from solution than from lyophilisate. The difference in nicotine release between solution and lyophilisate became more prominent at higher polymer concentration. Interestingly, nicotine release was independent of Methocel K molecular weight. In vitro nicotine release took place by anomalous diffusion.
    Kathmandu University Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology. 01/2010; 5(1).
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    ABSTRACT: Drug dissolution and release characteristics from freeze-dried wafers and solvent-cast films prepared from sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) have been investigated to determine the mechanisms of drug release from the two systems. The formulations were prepared by freeze-drying (wafers) or drying in air (films), the hydrated gel of the polymer containing paracetamol as a model soluble drug. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to examine differences between the physical structure of the wafers and films. Dissolution studies were performed using an exchange cell and drug release was measured by UV spectroscopy at 242 nm. The effects of drug loading, polymer content and amount of glycerol (films) on the release characteristics of paracetamol were investigated. The release profiles of paracetamol from the wafers and films were also compared. A digital camera was used to observe the times to complete hydration and dissolution of the wafers containing different amounts of CMC and how that impacts on drug release rates. Both formulations showed sustained type drug release that was modelled by the Korsmeyer-Peppas equation. Changes in the concentration of drug and glycerol (films) did not significantly alter the rate of drug release while increasing polymer content significantly decreased the rate of drug release from both formulations. The results show that the rate of paracetamol release was faster from the wafers than the corresponding films due to differences in their physical structures. The wafers which formed a porous network, hydrated faster than the more dense and continuous, (non-porous) sheet-like structure of the films.
    International Journal of Pharmaceutics 06/2009; 378(1-2):66-72. · 3.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Solvent-cast films from three polymers, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), sodium alginate (SA), and xanthan gum, were prepared by drying the polymeric gels in air. Three methods, (a) passive hydration, (b) vortex hydration with heating, and (c) cold hydration, were investigated to determine the most effective means of preparing gels for each of the three polymers. Different drying conditions [relative humidity - RH (6-52%) and temperature (3-45 degrees C)] were investigated to determine the effect of drying rate on the films prepared by drying the polymeric gels. The tensile properties of the CMC films were determined by stretching dumbbell-shaped films to breaking point, using a Texture Analyser. Glycerol was used as a plasticizer, and its effects on the drying rate, physical appearance, and tensile properties of the resulting films were investigated. Vortex hydration with heating was the method of choice for preparing gels of SA and CMC, and cold hydration for xanthan gels. Drying rates increased with low glycerol content, high temperature, and low relative humidity. The residual water content of the films increased with increasing glycerol content and high relative humidity and decreased at higher temperatures. Generally, temperature affected the drying rate to a greater extent than relative humidity. Glycerol significantly affected the toughness (increased) and rigidity (decreased) of CMC films. CMC films prepared at 45 degrees C and 6% RH produced suitable films at the fastest rate while films containing equal quantities of glycerol and CMC possessed an ideal balance between flexibility and rigidity.
    Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy 05/2009; 35(8):986-96. · 1.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Three time-delayed capsule (TDC) formulations were investigated in a pharmacoscintigraphic study, using a three-way crossover design in eight healthy male volunteers. Additionally, the pulsed release of a TDC was investigated with time-lapse photography, using a nondisintegrating riboflavin tablet. The photographic study indicated how the release characteristics of the TDC relied on the erosion of a tablet containing hypromellose (HPMC). Each TDC was duel radio labelled with indium-111 and technetium-99 m DTPA complexes, to observe drug release scintigraphically (theophylline was a marker compound). Three formulations, having in vitro dissolution release times of 1.8, 2.9 or 4.0 h were shown to compare favourably with mean in vivo scintigraphic release times of 2.7, 3.0 and 4.0 h for each formulation containing 20, 24 or 35% (w/w) HPMC concentrations respectively. An increase in HPMC concentration was associated with a delayed technetium release time, and followed the same rank order as the in vitro dissolution study. Observed radiolabel dispersion always occurred in the small intestine. In conclusion, the study established that the TDC performs and demonstrates an in vitro-in vivo correlation. Additionally, time and site of release were accurately visualized by gamma scintigraphy, and confirmed with determination of theophylline absorption.
    Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 05/2009; 98(11):4251-63. · 3.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The in vivo evaluation of colon-targeting tablets was conducted in six healthy male volunteers. A pectin-hydroxypropyl methylcellulose coating was compressed onto core tablets labelled with 4MBq (99m)Tc-DTPA. The tablets released in the colon in all subjects; three in the ascending colon (AC) and three in the transverse colon (TC). Tablets that released in the TC had reached the AC before or just after food (Group A). The other three tablets released immediately upon AC entry at least 1.5h post-meal (Group B). Release onset for Group B was earlier than Group A (343min vs 448min). Group B tablets exhibited a clear residence period at the ileocaecal junction (ICJ) which was not observed in Group A. Prolonged residence at the ICJ is assumed to have increased hydration of the hydrogel layer surrounding the core tablet. Forces applied as the tablets progressed through the ICJ may have disrupted the hydrogel layer sufficiently to initiate radiolabel release. Conversely, Group A tablets moved rapidly through the AC to the TC, possibly minimising contact times with water pockets. Inadequate prior hydration of the hydrogel layer preventing access of pectinolytic enzymes and reduced fluid availability in the TC may have retarded tablet disintegration and radiolabel diffusion.
    International Journal of Pharmaceutics 01/2009; 370(1-2):144-50. · 3.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To validate Magnetic Moment Imaging (MMI) for the investigation of gastrointestinal transit and disintegration of solid dosage forms and to correlate the MMI findings with the corresponding gamma scintigraphic data. Three magnetic tablets (MTs) were investigated using in vitro and in vivo tests. The clinical study was a four-way, crossover study with the following arms: (a) immediate-release tablets administered in fasted state; (b) immediate-release tablets administered after 400mL of Clinutren ISO; (c) enteric-coated tablets administered in the fasted state; and (d) non-disintegrating tablets studied in the lightly fed state (100mL of Clinutren ISO). In both the in vitro and in vivo studies, tablets were detected successfully by MMI and scintigraphy. There was a good correlation between gastric residence times and positional data (in the x, y and y, z-axes). In addition, MMI revealed early swelling behaviour of the tablet matrix. There was excellent agreement for the disintegration times of MT(A) in the fasted arm (scintigraphy 12.0+/-4.4min, MMI 11.8+/-4.4min). In the MT(A)-fed arm, onset times determined by scintigraphy were delayed in three subjects when compared to the corresponding MMI results. Delayed disintegration was observed with MT(A) administered after food (p<0.01) in both the techniques. The MMI device is a reliable imaging tool for tracking the transit and disintegration of a magnetic tablet through the gastrointestinal tract.
    European journal of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics: official journal of Arbeitsgemeinschaft fur Pharmazeutische Verfahrenstechnik e.V 01/2009; 74(1):84-92. · 3.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The variety of wound types has resulted in a wide range of wound dressings with new products frequently introduced to target different aspects of the wound healing process. The ideal dressing should achieve rapid healing at reasonable cost with minimal inconvenience to the patient. This article offers a review of the common wound management dressings and emerging technologies for achieving improved wound healing. It also reviews many of the dressings and novel polymers used for the delivery of drugs to acute, chronic and other types of wound. These include hydrocolloids, alginates, hydrogels, polyurethane, collagen, chitosan, pectin and hyaluronic acid. There is also a brief section on the use of biological polymers as tissue engineered scaffolds and skin grafts. Pharmacological agents such as antibiotics, vitamins, minerals, growth factors and other wound healing accelerators that take active part in the healing process are discussed. Direct delivery of these agents to the wound site is desirable, particularly when systemic delivery could cause organ damage due to toxicological concerns associated with the preferred agents. This review concerns the requirement for formulations with improved properties for effective and accurate delivery of the required therapeutic agents. General formulation approaches towards achieving optimum physical properties and controlled delivery characteristics for an active wound healing dosage form are also considered briefly. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 97: 2892–2923, 2008
    Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 07/2008; 97(8):2892 - 2923. · 3.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lyophilised wafers are being developed as topical drug delivery systems for the treatment of chronic wounds. This study describes the formulation of xanthan wafers containing a selective, insoluble MMP-3 inhibitor (UK-370,106) and a non-ionic surfactant, designed to release accurate doses of UK-370,106 directly to a suppurating wound bed. Stability of UK-370,106 in the wafer compared to a non-lyophilised gel suspension was investigated using a combination of light scattering, thermal and microscopic techniques. Particle size distributions in UK-370,106-loaded wafers were constant throughout an accelerated stability study (12 weeks, 40 degrees C) while the mean particle size in a non-lyophilised suspension increased by 15 microm in the same period. Thermal analysis of UK-370,106-loaded wafers highlighted an unexpected interaction between the drug and the surfactant that was further investigated using simple mixtures of each component. It was concluded that an in situ solvate of UK-370,106 and the non-ionic surfactant can form and that this may have implications towards the stability of UK-370,106 during the formulation process. Further concerns regarding high water contents (14%) in the wafer and its effect on product stability were unfounded and it was concluded that these novel delivery systems provided a viable alternative to gel suspensions.
    International Journal of Pharmaceutics 06/2008; 356(1-2):110-20. · 3.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate clearance from the buccal cavity and pharmacokinetic profiles of a sublingual spray formulation in the dog, to assist in interpretation of future pharmacokinetic studies. Radiolabelled buprenorphine in a spray formulation (400 microg/100 microl in 30% ethanol) was administered sublingually to four beagle dogs, and the residence in the oral cavity was determined using gamma scintigraphy. Pharmacokinetic sampling was performed to facilitate correlation of location of dose with significant pharmacokinetic events. Scintigraphic imaging revealed that clearance of the formulation from the oral cavity was rapid, with a mean T 50% clearance of 0.86 +/- 0.46 min, and T 80% clearance of 2.75 +/- 1.52 min. In comparison, absorption of buprenorphine was relatively slow, with a T max of 0.56 +/- 0.13 h. Good buccal absorption despite short residence time can be explained by lipophilicity of buprenorphine enabling rapid sequestration into the oral mucosa, prior to diffusion and absorption directly into systemic circulation. This study demonstrated rapid clearance of a sublingual solution from the canine oral cavity, with T 50% similar to results previously reported in man, providing initial confidence in using a conscious dog model to achieve representative residence times for a sublingual solution.
    Pharmaceutical Research 05/2008; 25(4):869-74. · 4.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the behaviour of an oral matrix modified release formulation in the canine gastrointestinal tract, and establish if a mechanical weakness previously observed in clinical studies would have been identified in the dog model. In vitro release profiles were obtained for two modified release matrix tablets containing UK-294,315, designed to release over either 6 (formulation A) or 18 (formulation B) hours. Tablets were labelled with (153)samarium and in vivo pharmacoscintigraphy studies were performed in four beagle dogs in the fasted state for both formulations, and following ingestion of an FDA high fat meal for formulation B. The matrix tablet formulations displayed significantly different in vitro release profiles (F (2) < 50), with time to 80% release for formulation A and B of 406 and 987 min respectively. Complete in vivo disintegration occurred at 339 +/- 181 and 229 +/- 171 for formulation A and B respectively in the fasted state, and at 207 +/- 154 min for formulation B in the fed state, in disagreement with in vitro release. The fed/fasted dog model would have predicted a lack of physical robustness in the matrix tablet formulation B, however it would not have predicted the clear fed/fasted effects on performance observed previously in man.
    Pharmaceutical Research 05/2008; 25(5):1075-84. · 4.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the current study was to investigate the in-vitro and in-vivo performance of a press-coated tablet (PCT) intended for time delayed drug release, consisting of a rapidly disintegrating theophylline core tablet, press-coated with barrier granules containing glyceryl behenate (GB) and low-substituted hydroxypropylcellulose (L-HPC). The PCTs showed pulsatile release with a lag time dependent upon the GB and L-HPC composition of the barrier layer. In-vivo gamma-scintigraphic studies were carried out for PCTs containing GB:L-HPC at 65:35 w/w and 75:25 w/w in the barrier layer in four beagle dogs, in either the fed or fasted state. The in-vivo lag time in both the fed and fasted states did not differ significantly (p>0.05) from the in-vitro lag time. Additionally, no significant difference (p<0.05) between in-vivo fed and fasted disintegration times was observed, demonstrating that in-vivo performance of the PCT was not influenced by the presence or absence of food in the gastrointestinal tract. A distinct lag time was obtained prior to the appearance of drug in plasma and correlated (R2=0.98) with disintegration time observed from scintigraphic images. However, following disintegration, no difference in pharmacokinetic parameters (AUC(0-6 dis), K(el), Cmax) was observed. The current study highlighted the potential use of these formulations for chronopharmaceutical drug delivery.
    European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics 09/2007; 67(2):515-23. · 3.83 Impact Factor
  • Fiona McInnes, Alan J Baillie, Howard N E Stevens
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    ABSTRACT: A range of methods is reported in the literature for assessing hydration and adhesion parameters in the performance of nasal bioadhesive formulations; however, these tests do not always represent the dynamic conditions in the nasal cavity. Lyophilised formulations intended for nasal administration were evaluated using in-vitro tests designed in an attempt to mimic relevant processes in the nasal cavity, and intended to discriminate between different formulations. Initial investigative studies using scanning electron microscopy revealed that the lyophilisate had a highly porous internal structure, expected to provide an ideal porous pathway for re-hydration. Vapour sorption analysis demonstrated substantial weight gain of the lyophilisates on exposure to 95% relative humidity, ranging from 38% to 66%. Agar was used as a synthetic mucosal model designed to provide a standardised quantity of water available for rehydration of the formulations in in-vitro tests. A dynamic adhesion test and a texture analyser sliding test were designed to quantify different aspects of the spreading and adhesion of the hydrating formulations on the synthetic mucosal surface. Examination of the lyophilised formulations using confocal microscopy allowed visualisation and quantification of the initial rate of water ingress into the lyophilisates, which was found to consist of an initial rapid phase, followed by a slower steady-state phase. The results demonstrated that the use of a combination of methods representing the dynamic conditions of the nasal cavity is advisable in order to evaluate a formulation fully and to avoid misleading conclusions.
    Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 07/2007; 59(6):759-67. · 2.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bioadhesive dosage forms are a potential method for overcoming rapid mucociliary transport in the nose. A lyophilised nasal insert formulation previously investigated in sheep demonstrated prolonged absorption of nicotine hydrogen tartrate suggestive of extended nasal residence, and increased bioavailability. The current study was performed to quantify nasal residence of the formulations using gamma scintigraphy, and to investigate the absorption of a larger molecule, namely insulin. A four-way crossover study was conducted in six healthy male volunteers, comparing a conventional nasal spray solution with three lyophilised nasal insert formulations (1-3% hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC)). The conventional nasal spray deposited in the posterior nasal cavity in only one instance, with a rapid clearance half-life of 9.2 min. The nasal insert formulations did not enhance nasal absorption of insulin, however an extended nasal residence time of 4-5 h was observed for the 2% HPMC formulation. The 1% HPMC insert initially showed good spreading behaviour; however, clearance was faster than for the 2% formulation. The 3% HPMC nasal insert showed no spreading, and was usually cleared intact from the nasal cavity within 90 min. In conclusion, the 2% HPMC lyophilised insert formulation achieved extended nasal residence, demonstrating an optimum combination of rapid adhesion without over hydration.
    European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 06/2007; 31(1):25-31. · 2.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lyophilised wafers are being developed as drug delivery systems that can be applied directly to the surface of suppurating wounds. They are produced by the freeze-drying of polymer solutions and gels. This study investigates the possibility of sterilising these glassy, solid dosage forms with gamma-irradiation and determining the rheological properties of rehydrated wafers post-irradiation. One series of wafers was formulated using sodium alginate (SA) modified with increasing amounts of methylcellulose (MC), the other being composed of xanthan gum (XG) and MC. Batches were divided into three lots, two of which were exposed to 25 and 40 kGrays (kGy) of Cobalt-60 gamma-irradiation, respectively, the third being retained as a non-irradiated control. Apparent viscosities of solutions/gels resulting from the volumetric addition of distilled water to individual wafers were determined using continuous shear, flow-rheometry. Flow behaviour on proprietary suppurating surfaces was also determined. Large reductions in viscosity were apparent for irradiated SA samples while those of XG appeared to be largely unaffected. In addition, an increase in the yield stress of xanthan formulations was observed. Xanthan wafers appeared to withstand large doses of irradiation with no detrimental effect on the rheology of reconstituted gels. This offers the possibility of manufacturing sterilisable delivery systems for wounds.
    International Journal of Pharmaceutics 05/2006; 313(1-2):78-86. · 3.99 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

551 Citations
123.52 Total Impact Points


  • 2011
    • University of Greenwich
      • Department of Pharmaceutical, Chemical & Environmental Sciences
      London, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2000–2010
    • University of Strathclyde
      • Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences
      Glasgow, SCT, United Kingdom
  • 2005
    • University of Texas at Austin
      • College of Pharmacy
      Texas City, TX, United States