Yoshimi Iwayama

Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka-ken, Japan

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Publications (64)306.02 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Myo-inositol is an essential biomolecule that is synthesized by myo-inositol monophosphatase (IMPase) from inositol monophosphate species. The enzymatic activity of IMPase is inhibited by lithium, a drug used for the treatment of mood swings seen in bipolar disorder. Therefore, myo-inositol is thought to have an important role in the mechanism of bipolar disorder though the details remain elusive. We screened an ethyl-nitrosourea (ENU) mutant mouse library for IMPase gene (Impa1) mutations and identified an Impa1 Thr95Lys missense mutation. The mutant protein possessed undetectable enzymatic activity. Homozygotes died perinatally, and E18.5 embryos exhibited striking developmental defects, including hypoplasia of the mandible and asymmetric fusion of ribs to the sternum. Perinatal lethality and morphological defects in homozygotes were rescued by dietary myo-inositol. Rescued homozygotes raised on normal drinking water after weaning exhibited a hyper-locomotive trait and prolonged circadian periods, as reported in rodents treated with lithium. Our mice should be advantageous, compared to those generated by the conventional gene knockout strategy, because they carry minimal genomic damage, e.g. a point mutation. Our results reveal critical roles for intracellular myo-inositol synthesis in craniofacial development and the maintenance of proper brain function. Furthermore, this mouse model for cellular inositol depletion could be beneficial for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the clinical effect of lithium and myo-inositol-mediated skeletal development.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 02/2014; · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The penetrance of schizophrenia risk in carriers of the 22q11.2 deletion is high but incomplete, suggesting the possibility of additional genetic defects. We performed whole exome sequencing on two individuals with 22q11.2 deletion, one with schizophrenia and the other who was psychosis-free. The results revealed novel genetic variants related to neuronal function exclusively in the person with schizophrenia (frameshift: KAT8, APOH and SNX31; nonsense: EFCAB11 and CLVS2). This study paves the way towards a more complete understanding of variant dose and genetic architecture in schizophrenia.
    The British journal of psychiatry: the journal of mental science 01/2014; · 6.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Several epidemiological and genetic studies have suggested that the risk of type II diabetes (T2D) is likely to overlap with the susceptibility to psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorder (BD). In this study, we aimed to examine the association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) detected in previous T2D genome-wide association studies (GWAS) with SCZ, BD and psychosis (SCZ plus BD). A total of 37 SNPs were selected from the literature. A two-stage analysis was conducted using a first set of screening samples (total N=3037) and a second set of replication samples (N=4950). None of the SNPs showed a significant association to the screening samples after correction for multiple testing. To avoid type II error, we genotyped the top three SNPs in BCL11A, HMG20A and HNF4A showing associations with any of the phenotypes (Puncorrected <0.01) using independent samples to replicate the nominal associations. However, we were unable to find any significant associations based on the screening results (Puncorrected>0.05). Our findings did not support the shared genetic risk between T2D and psychotic disorders in the Japanese population. However, further replication using a larger sample size is required.Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 7 November 2013; doi:10.1038/jhg.2013.116.
    Journal of Human Genetics 11/2013; · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The early growth response 3 (EGR3) gene is an immediate early gene that is expressed throughout the brain and has been suggested as a potential susceptibility gene for schizophrenia (SZ). EGR3 impairment is associated with various neurodevelopmental dysfunctions, and some animal studies have reported a role for EGR3 function in the prefrontal cortex. Therefore, EGR3 genotype variation may be reflected in prefrontal function. By using multi-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in an imaging genetics approach, we tested for an association between the EGR3 gene polymorphism and prefrontal hemodynamic response during a cognitive task in patients with SZ. We assessed 73 chronic patients with SZ and 73 age-, gender-, and genotype-matched healthy controls (HC) who provided written informed consent. We used NIRS to measure changes in prefrontal oxygenated hemoglobin concentration (oxyHb) during the letter version of a verbal fluency task (VFT). Statistical comparisons were performed among EGR3 genotype subgroups (rs35201266, GG/GA/AA). The AA genotype group showed significantly smaller oxyHb increases in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during the VFT than the GG and GA genotype groups; this was true for both patients with SZ and HC. Our findings provide in vivo human evidence of a significant influence of EGR3 polymorphisms on prefrontal hemodynamic activation level in healthy adults and in patients with SZ. Genetic variation in EGR3 may affect prefrontal function through neurodevelopment. This study illustrates the usefulness of NIRS in imaging genetics investigations on psychiatric disorders.
    NeuroImage 08/2013; · 6.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The post-synaptic density (PSD) of glutamatergic synapses harbors a multitude of proteins critical for maintaining synaptic dynamics. Alteration of protein expression levels in this matrix is a marked phenomenon of neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, where cognitive functions are impaired. To investigate the genetic relationship of genes expressed in the PSD with schizophrenia, a family-based association analysis of genetic variants in PSD genes such as DLG4, DLG1, PICK1 and MDM2, was performed, using Japanese samples (124 pedigrees, n = 376 subjects). Results showed a significant association of the rs17203281 variant from the DLG4 gene, with preferential transmission of the C allele (p = 0.02), although significance disappeared after correction for multiple testing. Replication analysis of this variant, found no association in a Chinese schizophrenia cohort (293 pedigrees, n = 1163 subjects) or in a Japanese case-control sample (n = 4182 subjects). The DLG4 expression levels between postmortem brain samples from schizophrenia patients showed no significant changes from controls. Interestingly, a five marker haplotype in DLG4, involving rs2242449, rs17203281, rs390200, rs222853 and rs222837, was enriched in a population specific manner, where the sequences A-C-C-C-A and G-C-C-C-A accumulated in Japanese (p = 0.0009) and Chinese (p = 0.0007) schizophrenia pedigree samples, respectively. However, this could not be replicated in case-control samples. None of the variants in other examined candidate genes showed any significant association in these samples. The current study highlights a putative role for DLG4 in schizophrenia pathogenesis, evidenced by haplotype association, and warrants further dense screening for variants within these haplotypes. Copyright: ß 2013 Balan et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
    PLoS ONE 07/2013; 8(7). · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The early growth response gene 2 (EGR2) has been recently reported to be associated with bipolar disorder in Korean population. However replication studies in independent cohorts of same and different ethnicities are essential for establishing the credibility of a genotype-phenotype association. With this notion, in the present study we have performed a replication study of the reported association of SNPs in EGR2 in a case-control study comprising of 867 unrelated Japanese bipolar disorder patients and 895 age-, sex- and ethnicity-matched controls. Results showed no significant differences in allele and genotype frequencies of EGR2 SNPs between bipolar disorder patients and controls and also in a sex-stratified genetic analysis. The haplotype and meta-analyses also showed no significant association with bipolar disorder. In conclusion, this is the first replication study of the previously reported association of EGR2 with bipolar disorder in a larger sample set and the results showed that the EGR2 gene is unlikely to contribute to the susceptibility of bipolar disorder in Japanese cohort.
    Gene 06/2013; · 2.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent genome-wide association studies (GWASs) investigating bipolar disorder (BD) have detected a number of susceptibility genes. These studies have also provided novel insight into shared genetic components between BD and schizophrenia (SCZ), two major psychotic disorders. To examine the replication of the risk variants for BD and the pleiotropic effect of the variants associated with BD, we conducted a genetic association study of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that were selected based upon previous BD GWASs, which targeted psychotic disorders (BD and SCZ) in the Japanese population. Forty-eight SNPs were selected based upon previous GWASs. A two-stage analysis was conducted using first-set screening (for all SNPs: BD = 1,012, SCZ = 1,032 and control = 993) and second-set replication samples (for significant SNPs in the screening analysis: BD = 821, SCZ = 1,808 and control = 2,149). We assessed allelic association between BD, SCZ, psychosis (BD+SCZ) and the SNPs selected for the analysis. Eight SNPs revealed nominal association signals for all comparisons (Puncorrected<0.05). Among these SNPs, the top two SNPs (associated with psychosis: Pcorrected = 0.048 and 0.037 for rs2251219 and rs2709722, respectively) were further assessed in the second-set samples, and we replicated the signals from the initial screening analysis (associated with psychosis: Pcorrected = 0.0070 and 0.033 for rs2251219 and rs2709722, respectively). The meta-analysis between the current and previous GWAS results showed that rs2251219 in Polybromo1 (PBRM1) was significant on genome-wide association level (P = 5×10(-8)) only for BD (P = 9.4×10(-9)) and psychosis (P = 2.0×10(-10)). Although the association of rs2709722 in Sp8 transcription factor (SP8) was suggestive in the Asian population (P = 2.1×10(-7) for psychosis), this signal weakened when the samples size was increased by including data from a Caucasian population (P = 4.3×10(-3)). We found 3p21.1 (including PBRM1, strong linkage disequilibrium made it difficult to pinpoint the risk genes) and SP8 as risk loci for BD, SCZ and psychosis. Further replication studies will be required for conclusive results.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(8):e70964. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies have successfully identified several common variants showing robust association with schizophrenia. However, individually, these variants only produce a weak effect. To identify genetic variants with larger effect sizes, increasing attention is now being paid to uncommon and rare variants. METHODS: From the 1000 Genomes Project data, we selected 47 candidate single nucleotide variants (SNVs), which were: 1) uncommon (minor allele frequency<5%); 2) Asian-specific; 3) missense, nonsense, or splice site variants predicted to be damaging; and 4) located in candidate genes for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. We examined their association with schizophrenia, using a Japanese case-control cohort (2012 cases and 2781 control subjects). Additional meta-analysis was performed using genotyping data from independent Han-Chinese case-control (333 cases and 369 control subjects) and family samples (9 trios and 284 quads). RESULTS: We identified disease association of a missense variant in GRIN3A (p.R480G, rs149729514, p = .00042, odds ratio [OR] = 1.58), encoding a subunit of the N-methyl-D-aspartate type glutamate receptor, with study-wide significance (threshold p = .0012). This association was supported by meta-analysis (combined p = 3.3×10(-5), OR = 1.61). Nominally significant association was observed in missense variants from FAAH, DNMT1, MYO18B, and CFB, with ORs of risk alleles ranging from 1.41 to 2.35. CONCLUSIONS: The identified SNVs, particularly the GRIN3A R480G variant, are good candidates for further replication studies and functional evaluation. The results of this study indicate that association analyses focusing on uncommon and rare SNVs are a promising way to discover risk variants with larger effects.
    Biological psychiatry 12/2012; · 8.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mammals express two myo-inositol monophosphatase (IMPase) genes, IMPA1/Impa1 and IMPA2/Impa2. In this study, we compared the spatial expression patterns of the two IMPase gene transcripts and proteins in mouse tissues. Results indicated discrete expression of the two IMPase genes and their protein products in various organs, including the brain. In Caenorhabditis elegans, loss of the IMPase gene, ttx-7, disrupts cellular polarity in RIA neurons, eliciting abnormal thermotaxis behavior. We performed a rescue experiment in mutant nematodes using mammalian IMPases. Human IMPA2 rescued the abnormal behavioral phenotype in the ttx-7 mutants more efficiently than IMPA1. These results raise a question about the phylogenetic origin of IMPases and the biological roles of mammalian IMPase 2 in mammals. Impa2 knockout mice generated in our laboratory, exhibited neither behavioral abnormalities nor a significant reduction in myo-inositol content in the brain and other examined tissues. Given the ability of human IMPA2 to rescue the ttx-7 mutant, and its genetic association with multiple neuropsychiatric disorders, close scrutiny of IMPA2 function and the evolutionary origin of IMPase genes is warranted. © 2012 International Society for Neurochemistry, J. Neurochem. (2012) 10.1111/jnc.12112.
    Journal of Neurochemistry 12/2012; · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial dysfunction (MtD) has been observed in approximately five percent of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). MtD could impair highly energy-dependent processes such as neurodevelopment, thereby contributing to autism. Most of the previous studies of MtD in autism have been restricted to the biomarkers of energy metabolism, while most of the genetic studies have been based on mutations in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Despite the mtDNA, most of the proteins essential for mitochondrial replication and function are encoded by the genomic DNA; so far, there have been very few studies of those genes. Therefore, we carried out a detailed study involving gene expression and genetic association studies of genes related to diverse mitochondrial functions. METHODS: For gene expression analysis, postmortem brain tissues (anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG), motor cortex (MC) and thalamus (THL)) from autism patients (n=8) and controls (n=10) were obtained from the Autism Tissue Program (Princeton, NJ, USA). Quantitative real-time PCR arrays were used to quantify the expression of 84 genes related to diverse functions of mitochondria, including biogenesis, transport, translocation and apoptosis. We used the delta delta Ct ([increment][increment]Ct) method for quantification of gene expression. DNA samples from 841 Caucasian and 188 Japanese families were used in the association study of genes selected from the gene expression analysis. FBAT was used to examine genetic association with autism. RESULTS: Several genes showed brain region-specific expression alterations in autism patients compared to controls. Metaxin 2 (MTX2), neurofilament, light polypeptide (NEFL) and solute carrier family 25, member 27 (SLC25A27) showed consistently reduced expression in the ACG, MC and THL of autism patients. NEFL (P = 0.038; Z-score 2.066) and SLC25A27 (P = 0.046; Z-score 1.990) showed genetic association with autism in Caucasian and Japanese samples, respectively. The expression of DNAJC19, DNM1L, LRPPRC, SLC25A12, SLC25A14, SLC25A24 and TOMM20 were reduced in at least two of the brain regions of autism patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our study, though preliminary, brings to light some new genes associated with MtD in autism. If MtD is detected in early stages, treatment strategies aimed at reducing its impact may be adopted.
    Molecular autism. 11/2012; 3(1):12.
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Synaptic dysfunction has been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of autism. We hypothesized that the protocadherin α gene cluster (PCDHA), which is involved in synaptic specificity and in serotonergic innervation of the brain, could be a suitable candidate gene for autism. Methods: We examined 14 PCDHA single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for genetic association with autism in DNA samples of 3211 individuals (841 families, including 574 multiplex families) obtained from the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange. Results: Five SNPs (rs251379, rs1119032, rs17119271, rs155806 and rs17119346) showed significant associations with autism. The strongest association (p < 0.001) was observed for rs1119032 (z score of risk allele G = 3.415) in multiplex families; SNP associations withstand multiple testing correction in multiplex families (p = 0.041). Haplotypes involving rs1119032 showed very strong associations with autism, withstanding multiple testing corrections. In quantitative transmission disequilibrium testing of multiplex fam - ilies, the G allele of rs1119032 showed a significant association (p = 0.033) with scores on the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R)_D (early developmental abnormalities). We also found a significant difference in the distribution of ADI-R_A (social interaction) scores between the A/A, A/G and G/G genotypes of rs17119346 (p = 0.002). Limitations: Our results should be replicated in an in - dependent population and/or in samples of different racial backgrounds. Conclusion: Our study provides strong genetic evidence of PCDHA as a potential candidate gene for autism.
    Journal of psychiatry & neuroscience: JPN 10/2012; 37(6):120058. · 6.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We recently reported the results of a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of schizophrenia in the Japanese population. In that study, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (rs3106653) in the KCNJ3 (potassium inwardly rectifying channel, subfamily J, member 3) gene located at 2q24.1 showed association with schizophrenia in two independent sample sets. KCNJ3, also termed GIRK1 or Kir3.1, is a member of the G protein-activated inwardly rectifying K(+) channel (GIRK) group. GIRKs are widely distributed in the brain and play an important role in regulating neural excitability through the activation of various G protein-coupled receptors. In this study, we set out to examine this association using a different population. We first performed a gene-centric association study of the KCNJ3 gene, by genotyping 38 tagSNPs in the Chinese population. We detected nine SNPs that displayed significant association with schizophrenia (lowest P = 0.0016 for rs3106658, Global significance = 0.036). The initial marker SNP (rs3106653) examined in our prior GWAS in the Japanese population also showed nominally significant association in the Chinese population (P = 0.028). Next, we analyzed transcript levels in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of postmortem brains from patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder and from healthy controls, using real-time quantitative RT-PCR. We found significantly lower KCNJ3 expression in postmortem brains from schizophrenic and bipolar patients compared with controls. These data suggest that the KCNJ3 gene is genetically associated with schizophrenia in Asian populations and add further evidence to the "channelopathy theory of psychiatric illnesses".
    Human Genetics 09/2011; 131(3):443-51. · 4.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The 22q11.2 deletion is the most prominent known genetic risk factor for schizophrenia, but its penetrance is at most approximately 50% suggesting that additional risk factors are required for disease progression. We examined a woman with schizophrenia with this deletion for such risk factors. She had high plasma pentosidine levels ('carbonyl stress') and a frameshift mutation in the responsible gene, GLO1. She also had a constant exotropia, so we examined the PHOX2B gene associated with both schizophrenia and strabismus, and detected a 5-alanine deletion. We propose that the combination of these genetic defects may have exceeded the threshold for the manifestation of schizophrenia.
    The British journal of psychiatry: the journal of mental science 09/2011; 199(3):245-6. · 6.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Many studies have suggested that myelin dysfunction may be causally involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Nogo (RTN4), myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) and oligodendrocyte myelin glycoprotein (OMG) all bind to the common receptor, Nogo-66 receptor 1 (RTN4R). We examined 68 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (51 with genotyping and 17 with imputation analysis) from these four genes for genetic association with schizophrenia, using a 2,120 case-control sample from the Japanese population. Allelic tests showed nominally significant association of two RTN4 SNPs (P = 0.047 and 0.037 for rs11894868 and rs2968804, respectively) and two MAG SNPs (P = 0.034 and 0.029 for rs7249617 and rs16970218, respectively) with schizophrenia. The MAG SNP rs7249617 also showed nominal significance in a genotypic test (P = 0.017). In haplotype analysis, the MAG haplotype block including rs7249617 and rs16970218 showed nominal significance (P = 0.008). These associations did not remain significant after correction for multiple testing, possibly due to their small genetic effect. In the imputation analysis of RTN4, the untyped SNP rs2972090 showed nominally significant association (P = 0.032) and several imputed SNPs showed marginal associations. Moreover, in silico analysis (PolyPhen) of a missense variant (rs11677099: Asp357Val), which is in strong linkage disequilibrium with rs11894868, predicted a deleterious effect on Nogo protein function. Despite a failure to detect robust associations in this Japanese cohort, our nominally positive signals, taken together with previously reported biological and genetic findings, add further support to the "disturbed myelin system theory of schizophrenia" across different populations.
    American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B Neuropsychiatric Genetics 07/2011; 156B(5):581-92. · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of bipolar disorder (BD) have detected new candidate genes, including DGKH, DFNB31 and SORCS2. However, the results of these GWAS were not necessarily consistent, indicating the importance of replication studies. In this study, we tested the genetic association of DGKH, DFNB31 and SORCS2 with BD. We genotyped 18 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in DGKH, DFNB31 and SORCS2 using Japanese samples (366 cases and 370 controls). We also performed a meta-analysis of four SNP in DGKH, using the previously published allele frequency data of Han-Chinese case-control samples (1139 cases and 1138 controls). IN the association analysis using Japanese samples, a SNP in SORCS2 (rs10937823) showed nominal genotypic association. However, we could not find any association in an additional analysis of tag SNP around rs10937823. In the meta-analysis of SNP in DGKH, rs9315897, which was not significantly associated with BD in the previous Chinese study, showed nominal association. Although the association was not strong, the result of this study would support the association between DGKH and BD.
    Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 04/2011; 65(3):280-5. · 2.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mutations in the Opo gene result in eye malformation in medaka fish. The human ortholog of this gene, MRDS1/OFCC1, is a potentially causal gene for orofacial cleft, as well as a susceptibility gene for schizophrenia, a devastating mental illness. Based on this evidence, we hypothesized that this gene could perform crucial functions in the development of head and brain structures in vertebrates. To test this hypothesis, we created Mrds1/Ofcc1-null mice. Mice were examined thoroughly using an abnormality screening system referred to as "the Japan Mouse Clinic". No malformations of the head structure, eye or other parts of the body were apparent in these knockout mice. However, the mutant mice showed a marked increase in serum γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), a marker for liver damage, but no abnormalities in other liver-related measurements. We also performed a family-based association study on the gene in schizophrenia samples of Japanese origin. We found five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located across the gene that showed significant transmission distortion, supporting a prior report of association in a Caucasian cohort. However, the knockout mice showed no behavioral phenotypes relevant to schizophrenia. In conclusion, disruption of the Mrds1/Ofcc1 gene elicits asymptomatic hyper-γ-glutamyl-transpeptidasemia in mice. However, there were no phenotypes to support a role for the gene in the development of eye and craniofacial structures in vertebrates. These results prompt further examination of the gene, including its putative contribution to hyper-γ-glutamyl transpeptidasemia and schizophrenia.
    PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(12):e29499. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ZIC2 is a causal gene for holoprosencephaly and encodes a zinc-finger-type transcriptional regulator. We characterized Zic2(kd/+) mice with a moderate (40%) reduction in Zic2 expression. Zic2(kd/+) mice showed increased locomotor activity in novel environments, cognitive and sensorimotor gating dysfunctions, and social behavioral abnormalities. Zic2(kd/+) brain involved enlargement of the lateral ventricle, thinning of the cerebral cortex and corpus callosum, and decreased number of cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain. Because these features are reminiscent of schizophrenia, we examined ZIC2 variant-carrying allele frequencies in schizophrenia patients and in controls in the Japanese population. Among three novel missense mutations in ZIC2, R409P was only found in schizophrenia patients, and was located in a strongly conserved position of the zinc finger domain. Mouse Zic2 with the corresponding mutation showed lowered transcription-activating capacity and had impaired target DNA-binding and co-factor-binding capacities. These results warrant further study of ZIC2 in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia.
    Scientific Reports 01/2011; 1:16. · 2.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Multiple lines of evidence suggest a serotoninergic dysfunction in autism. The role of LMX1B in the development and maintenance of serotoninergic neurons is well known. In order to examine the role, if any, of LMX1B with autism pathophysiology, a trio-based SNP association study using 252 family samples from the AGRE was performed. Using pair-wise tagging method, 24 SNPs were selected from the HapMap data, based on their location and minor allele frequency. Two SNPs (rs10732392 and rs12336217) showed moderate association with autism with p values 0.018 and 0.022 respectively in transmission disequilibrium test. The haplotype AGCGTG also showed significant association (p = 0.008). Further, LMX1B mRNA expressions were studied in the postmortem brain tissues of autism subjects and healthy controls samples. LMX1B transcripts was found to be significantly lower in the anterior cingulate gyrus region of autism patients compared with controls (p = 0.049). Our study suggests a possible role of LMX1B in the pathophysiology of autism. Based on previous reports, it is likely to be mediated through a seretoninergic mechanism. This is the first report on the association of LMX1B with autism, though it should be viewed with some caution considering the modest associations we report.
    PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(8):e23738. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Schizophrenia is a devastating neuropsychiatric disorder with genetically complex traits. Genetic variants should explain a considerable portion of the risk for schizophrenia, and genome-wide association study (GWAS) is a potentially powerful tool for identifying the risk variants that underlie the disease. Here, we report the results of a three-stage analysis of three independent cohorts consisting of a total of 2,535 samples from Japanese and Chinese populations for searching schizophrenia susceptibility genes using a GWAS approach. Firstly, we examined 115,770 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 120 patient-parents trio samples from Japanese schizophrenia pedigrees. In stage II, we evaluated 1,632 SNPs (1,159 SNPs of p<0.01 and 473 SNPs of p<0.05 that located in previously reported linkage regions). The second sample consisted of 1,012 case-control samples of Japanese origin. The most significant p value was obtained for the SNP in the ELAVL2 [(embryonic lethal, abnormal vision, Drosophila)-like 2] gene located on 9p21.3 (p = 0.00087). In stage III, we scrutinized the ELAVL2 gene by genotyping gene-centric tagSNPs in the third sample set of 293 family samples (1,163 individuals) of Chinese descent and the SNP in the gene showed a nominal association with schizophrenia in Chinese population (p = 0.026). The current data in Asian population would be helpful for deciphering ethnic diversity of schizophrenia etiology.
    PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(6):e20468. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We observed an unusually large subependymoma in a female patient with congenital aniridia. To analyze the genetic mechanisms of tumorigenesis, we first examined the paired box 6 (PAX6) gene using both tumor tissue and peripheral lymphocytes. Tumor suppressor activity has been proposed for PAX6 in gliomas, in addition to its well-known role in the eye development. Using genomic quantitative PCR and loss of heterozygosity analysis, we identified hemizygous deletions in the 5'-region of PAX6. In lymphocytes, the deletion within PAX6 spanned from between exons 6 and 7 to the 5'-upstream region of the gene, but did not reach the upstream gene, RNC1, which is reported to be associated with tumors. The subependymoma had an additional de novo deletion spanning from the intron 4 to intron 6 of PAX6, although we could not completely determine whether these two deletions are on the same chromosome or not. We also examined other potentially relevant tumor suppressor genes: PTEN, TP53 and SOX2. However, we detected no exonic mutations or deletions in these genes. Collectively, we speculate that the defect in PAX6 may have contributed to the extremely large size of the subependymoma, due to a loss of tumor suppressor activity in glial cell lineage.
    Brain Pathology 11/2010; 20(6):1033-41. · 4.74 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

738 Citations
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306.02 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2006–2012
    • Hamamatsu University School of Medicine
      • Research Center for Child Mental Development
      Hamamatsu, Shizuoka-ken, Japan
  • 2005–2011
    • RIKEN
      • • Laboratory for Molecular Psychiatry
      • • Laboratory for Molecular Dynamics of Mental Disorders
      Wako, Saitama-ken, Japan