Yoshimi Iwayama

Fujita Health University, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan

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Publications (75)359.12 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: It is widely accepted that malfunction of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptor may be involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Several recent microRNA (miRNA) studies have demonstrated that the expression of the glutamate system-related miR-132 and miR-212 is changed in postmortem schizophrenic brains. Here we attempted to obtain further insight into the relationships among schizophrenia, the NMDA receptor, the molecular cascades controlled by these miRNAs and commonly predicted target genes of the two miRNAs. We focused on the H2AFZ (encoding H2A histone family, member Z) gene, whose expression was shown in our screening study to be modified by a schizophrenomimetic NMDA antagonist, phencyclidine. By performing polymerase chain reaction with fluorescent signal detention using the TaqMan system, we examined four tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; SNP01-04) located around and within the H2AFZ gene for their genetic association with schizophrenia. The subjects were a Japanese cohort (2,012 patients with schizophrenia and 2,170 control subjects). We did not detect any significant genetic association of these SNPs with schizophrenia in this cohort. However, we observed a significant association of SNP02 (rs2276939) in the male patients with schizophrenia (allelic P = 0.003, genotypic P = 0.008). A haplotype analysis revealed that haplotypes consisting of SNP02-SNP03 (rs10014424)-SNP04 (rs6854536) also showed a significant association in the male patients with schizophrenia (P = 0.018). These associations remained significant even after correction for multiple testing. The present findings suggest that the H2AFZ gene may be a susceptibility factor in male subjects with schizophrenia, and that modification of the H2AFZ signaling pathway warrants further study in terms of the pathophysiology of schizophrenia.
    Journal of neural transmission (Vienna, Austria : 1996). 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Nuclear distribution E homolog 1 (NDE1), located within chromosome 16p13.11, plays an essential role in microtubule organization, mitosis, and neuronal migration and has been suggested by several studies of rare copy number variants to be a promising schizophrenia (SCZ) candidate gene. Recently, increasing attention has been paid to rare single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) discovered by deep sequencing of candidate genes, because such SNVs may have large effect sizes and their functional analysis may clarify etiopathology. Methods and Results: We conducted mutation screening of NDE1 coding exons using 433 SCZ and 145 pervasive developmental disorders samples in order to identify rare single nucleotide variants with a minor allele frequency ≤5%. We then performed genetic association analysis using a large number of unrelated individuals (3554 SCZ, 1041 bipolar disorder [BD], and 4746 controls). Among the discovered novel rare variants, we detected significant associations between SCZ and S214F (P = .039), and between BD and R234C (P = .032). Furthermore, functional assays showed that S214F affected axonal outgrowth and the interaction between NDE1 and YWHAE (14-3-3 epsilon; a neurodevelopmental regulator). Conclusions: This study strengthens the evidence for association between rare variants within NDE1 and SCZ, and may shed light into the molecular mechanisms underlying this severe psychiatric disorder.
    Schizophrenia bulletin. 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background Histone H3 methylation at lysine 9 (H3K9) is a conserved epigenetic signal, mediating heterochromatin formation by trimethylation, and transcriptional silencing by dimethylation. Defective GLP (Ehmt1) and G9a (Ehmt2) histone lysine methyltransferases, involved in mono and dimethylation of H3K9, confer autistic phenotypes and behavioral abnormalities in animal models. Moreover, EHMT1 loss of function results in Kleefstra syndrome, characterized by severe intellectual disability, developmental delays and psychiatric disorders. We examined the possible role of histone methyltransferases in the etiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and suggest that rare functional variants in these genes that regulate H3K9 methylation may be associated with ASD. Methods Since G9a-GLP-Wiz forms a heteromeric methyltransferase complex, all the protein-coding regions and exon/intron boundaries of EHMT1, EHMT2 and WIZ were sequenced in Japanese ASD subjects. The detected variants were prioritized based on novelty and functionality. The expression levels of these genes were tested in blood cells and postmortem brain samples from ASD and control subjects. Expression of EHMT1 and EHMT2 isoforms were determined by digital PCR. Results We identified six nonsynonymous variants: three in EHMT1, two in EHMT2 and one in WIZ. Two variants, the EHMT1 ankyrin repeat domain (Lys968Arg) and EHMT2 SET domain (Thr961Ile) variants were present exclusively in cases, but showed no statistically significant association with ASD. The EHMT2 transcript expression was significantly elevated in the peripheral blood cells of ASD when compared with control samples; but not for EHMT1 and WIZ. Gene expression levels of EHMT1, EHMT2 and WIZ in Brodmann area (BA) 9, BA21, BA40 and the dorsal raphe nucleus (DoRN) regions from postmortem brain samples showed no significant changes between ASD and control subjects. Nor did expression levels of EHMT1 and EHMT2 isoforms in the prefrontal cortex differ significantly between ASD and control groups. Conclusions We identified two novel rare missense variants in the EHMT1 and EHMT2 genes of ASD patients. We surmise that these variants alone may not be sufficient to exert a significant effect on ASD pathogenesis. The elevated expression of EHMT2 in the peripheral blood cells may support the notion of a restrictive chromatin state in ASD, similar to schizophrenia.
    Molecular Autism 10/2014; 5:49. · 5.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Identifying beneficial surrogate genetic markers in psychiatric disorders is crucial but challenging, partly because brain tissue from living individuals is not accessible. Methods Given that scalp hair follicles are easily accessible and, like the brain, are derived from the ectoderm during embryogenesis, expressions of mRNA and miRNA in the organ were examined between schizophrenia (n for first/second = 52/42) and controls (n = 62/55) in two sets of cohort. Genes of significance were also analyzed using postmortem brains (n for case/control = 35/35 in BA46, 20/20 in CA1) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) (n = 4/4) and iPSC-derived neurospheres (n = 12/12) to see their role in central nervous system and in developmental process. Expression levels of mRNA for autism (n for case/control = 18/24) were also examined using scalp hair follicles. Results Among mRNA examined, FABP4 was down-regulated in schizophrenics by two independent sample sets. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis determined that the sensitivity and specificity were 71.8% and 66.7%, respectively. FABP4 was expressed from the stage of neurosphere. Additionally, microarray-based miRNA analysis showed a trend of increased expression of hsa-miR-4449 (p = 0.0634) in hair follicles from schizophrenia. hsa-miR-4449 expression was increased in BA46 from schizophrenia (p = 0.0007). Finally, we tested the expression of 9 putative autism candidate genes in hair follicles and found decreased CNTNAP2 expression in autism cohort. Conclusion Scalp hair follicles could be a beneficial genetic biomarker resource for brain diseases, and further studies of FABP4 are merited in schizophrenia pathogenesis.
    Biological Psychiatry 09/2014; · 9.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Disturbances of lipid metabolism have been implicated in psychiatric illnesses. We previously reported an association between the gene for fatty acid binding protein 7 (FABP7) and schizophrenia. Furthermore, we identified and reported several rare nonsynonymous polymorphisms of the brain-expressed genes FABP3, FABP5 and FABP7 from schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), diseases known to part share genetic architecture. Here, we conducted further studies to better understand the contribution these genes make to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and ASD. In postmortem brains, we detected altered mRNA expression levels of FABP5 in schizophrenia, and of FABP7 in ASD, and altered FABP5 in peripheral lymphocytes. Using a patient cohort, comprehensive mutation screening identified six missense and two frameshift variants from the three FABP genes. The two frameshift proteins, FABP3 E132fs and FABP7 N89fs, formed cellular aggregates and were unstable when expressed in cultured cells. The four missense mutants with predicted possible damaging outcomes showed no changes in intracellular localization. Examining ligand binding properties, FABP7 S86G and FABP7 V126 L lost their preference for docosahexaenoic acid to linoleic acid. Finally, mice deficient in Fabp3, Fabp5 and Fabp7 were evaluated in a systematic behavioral test battery. The Fabp3 knockout (KO) mice showed decreased social memory and novelty seeking, and Fabp7 KO mice displayed hyperactive and anxiety-related phenotypes, while Fabp5 KO mice showed no apparent phenotypes. In conclusion, disturbances in brain-expressed FABPs could represent an underlying disease mechanism in a proportion of schizophrenia and ASD sufferers.
    Human Molecular Genetics 07/2014; · 7.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Disruption of synaptic networks has been advocated in the pathogenesis of psychiatric diseases like schizophrenia. The majority of synaptic proteins involved in neuronal communications are localized in lipid rafts. These rafts form the platform for coordinating neuronal signal transduction, by clustering interacting partners. The PAG1 protein is a transmembrane adaptor protein in the lipid raft signaling cluster that regulates Src family kinases (SFKs), a convergent point for multiple pathways regulating N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Reports of de novo missense mutations in PAG1 and SFK mediated reductions in tyrosine phosphorylation of NMDA receptor subunit proteins in schizophrenia patients, point to a putative role in schizophrenia pathogenesis. To evaluate this, we resequenced the entire coding region of PAG1 in Japanese schizophrenia patients (n = 1,140) and controls (n = 1,140). We identified eight missense variants, of which four were previously unreported. Case-control genetic association analysis of these variants in a larger cohort (n = 4,182) showed neither a statistically significant association of the individual variants with schizophrenia, nor any increased burden of the rare alleles in the patient group. Expression levels of PAG1 in post-mortem brain samples from schizophrenia patients and controls also showed no significant differences. To assess the precise role of PAG1 in schizophrenia, future studies with larger sample sizes are needed.
    Journal of Neural Transmission 07/2014; · 3.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In a genome-wide association study of autism, zinc finger protein 804A (ZNF804A) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were found to be nominally associated in verbally deficient individuals with autism. Zinc finger protein 804A copy number variations (CNVs) have also been observed in individuals with autism. In addition, ZNF804A is known to be involved in theory of mind (ToM) tasks, and ToM deficits are deemed responsible for the communication and social challenges faced by individuals with autism. We hypothesized that ZNF804A could be a risk gene for autism.
    Journal of psychiatry & neuroscience: JPN 07/2014; 39(4):130126. · 6.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of schizophrenia (SCZ) identified several susceptibility genes and suggested shared genetic components between SCZ and bipolar disorder (BD). We conducted a genetic association study of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) selected according to previous SCZ GWAS targeting psychotic disorders (SCZ and BD) in the Japanese population. Fifty-one SNPs were analyzed in a two-stage design using first-set screening samples (all SNPs: 1,032 SCZ, 1,012 BD, and 993 controls) and second-set replication samples (“significant” SNPs in the first-set screening analysis: 1,808 SCZ, 821 BD, and 2,321 controls). We assessed allelic associations between the selected SNPs and the three phenotypes (SCZ, BD, and “psychosis” [SCZ + BD]). Nine SNPs revealed nominal association signals for all comparisons (Puncorrected < 0.05), of which two SNPs located in the major histocompatibility complex region (rs7759855 in zinc finger and SCAN domain containing 31 [ZSCAN31] and rs1736913 in HLA-F antisense RNA1 [HLA-F-AS1]) were further assessed in the second-set replication samples. The associations were confirmed for rs7759855 (Pcorrected = 0.026 for psychosis; Pcorrected = 0.032 for SCZ), although the direction of effect was opposite to that in the original GWAS of the Chinese population. Finally, a meta-analysis was conducted using our two samples and using our data and data from Psychiatric GWAS Consortium (PGC), which have shown the same direction of effect. SNP in ZSCAN31 (rs7759855) had the strongest association with the phenotypes (best P = 6.8 × 10−5 for psychosis: present plus PGC results). These data support shared risk SNPs between SCZ and BD in the Japanese population and association between MHC and psychosis. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B Neuropsychiatric Genetics 05/2014; · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Myo-inositol is an essential biomolecule that is synthesized by myo-inositol monophosphatase (IMPase) from inositol monophosphate species. The enzymatic activity of IMPase is inhibited by lithium, a drug used for the treatment of mood swings seen in bipolar disorder. Therefore, myo-inositol is thought to have an important role in the mechanism of bipolar disorder though the details remain elusive. We screened an ethyl-nitrosourea (ENU) mutant mouse library for IMPase gene (Impa1) mutations and identified an Impa1 Thr95Lys missense mutation. The mutant protein possessed undetectable enzymatic activity. Homozygotes died perinatally, and E18.5 embryos exhibited striking developmental defects, including hypoplasia of the mandible and asymmetric fusion of ribs to the sternum. Perinatal lethality and morphological defects in homozygotes were rescued by dietary myo-inositol. Rescued homozygotes raised on normal drinking water after weaning exhibited a hyper-locomotive trait and prolonged circadian periods, as reported in rodents treated with lithium. Our mice should be advantageous, compared to those generated by the conventional gene knockout strategy, because they carry minimal genomic damage, e.g. a point mutation. Our results reveal critical roles for intracellular myo-inositol synthesis in craniofacial development and the maintenance of proper brain function. Furthermore, this mouse model for cellular inositol depletion could be beneficial for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the clinical effect of lithium and myo-inositol-mediated skeletal development.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 02/2014; · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The penetrance of schizophrenia risk in carriers of the 22q11.2 deletion is high but incomplete, suggesting the possibility of additional genetic defects. We performed whole exome sequencing on two individuals with 22q11.2 deletion, one with schizophrenia and the other who was psychosis-free. The results revealed novel genetic variants related to neuronal function exclusively in the person with schizophrenia (frameshift: KAT8, APOH and SNX31; nonsense: EFCAB11 and CLVS2). This study paves the way towards a more complete understanding of variant dose and genetic architecture in schizophrenia.
    The British journal of psychiatry: the journal of mental science 01/2014; · 6.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: GABAergic interneurons are highly heterogeneous, and much is unknown about the specification and functional roles of their neural circuits. Here we show that a transinteraction of Elfn1 and mGluR7 controls targeted interneuron synapse development and that loss of Elfn1 results in hyperactivity and sensory-triggered epileptic seizures in mice. Elfn1 protein increases during postnatal development and localizes to postsynaptic sites of somatostatin-containing interneurons (SOM-INs) in the hippocampal CA1 stratum oriens and dentate gyrus (DG) hilus. Elfn1 knockout (KO) mice have deficits in mGluR7 recruitment to synaptic sites on SOM-INs, and presynaptic plasticity is impaired at these synapses. In patients with epilepsy and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), we find damaging missense mutations of ELFN1 that are clustered in the carboxy-terminal region required for mGluR7 recruitment. These results reveal a novel mechanism for interneuron subtype-specific neural circuit establishment and define a common basis bridging neurological disorders.
    Nature Communications 01/2014; 5:4501. · 10.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Several epidemiological and genetic studies have suggested that the risk of type II diabetes (T2D) is likely to overlap with the susceptibility to psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorder (BD). In this study, we aimed to examine the association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) detected in previous T2D genome-wide association studies (GWAS) with SCZ, BD and psychosis (SCZ plus BD). A total of 37 SNPs were selected from the literature. A two-stage analysis was conducted using a first set of screening samples (total N=3037) and a second set of replication samples (N=4950). None of the SNPs showed a significant association to the screening samples after correction for multiple testing. To avoid type II error, we genotyped the top three SNPs in BCL11A, HMG20A and HNF4A showing associations with any of the phenotypes (Puncorrected <0.01) using independent samples to replicate the nominal associations. However, we were unable to find any significant associations based on the screening results (Puncorrected>0.05). Our findings did not support the shared genetic risk between T2D and psychotic disorders in the Japanese population. However, further replication using a larger sample size is required.Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 7 November 2013; doi:10.1038/jhg.2013.116.
    Journal of Human Genetics 11/2013; · 2.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The early growth response 3 (EGR3) gene is an immediate early gene that is expressed throughout the brain and has been suggested as a potential susceptibility gene for schizophrenia (SZ). EGR3 impairment is associated with various neurodevelopmental dysfunctions, and some animal studies have reported a role for EGR3 function in the prefrontal cortex. Therefore, EGR3 genotype variation may be reflected in prefrontal function. By using multi-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in an imaging genetics approach, we tested for an association between the EGR3 gene polymorphism and prefrontal hemodynamic response during a cognitive task in patients with SZ. We assessed 73 chronic patients with SZ and 73 age-, gender-, and genotype-matched healthy controls (HC) who provided written informed consent. We used NIRS to measure changes in prefrontal oxygenated hemoglobin concentration (oxyHb) during the letter version of a verbal fluency task (VFT). Statistical comparisons were performed among EGR3 genotype subgroups (rs35201266, GG/GA/AA). The AA genotype group showed significantly smaller oxyHb increases in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during the VFT than the GG and GA genotype groups; this was true for both patients with SZ and HC. Our findings provide in vivo human evidence of a significant influence of EGR3 polymorphisms on prefrontal hemodynamic activation level in healthy adults and in patients with SZ. Genetic variation in EGR3 may affect prefrontal function through neurodevelopment. This study illustrates the usefulness of NIRS in imaging genetics investigations on psychiatric disorders.
    NeuroImage 08/2013; · 6.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The post-synaptic density (PSD) of glutamatergic synapses harbors a multitude of proteins critical for maintaining synaptic dynamics. Alteration of protein expression levels in this matrix is a marked phenomenon of neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, where cognitive functions are impaired. To investigate the genetic relationship of genes expressed in the PSD with schizophrenia, a family-based association analysis of genetic variants in PSD genes such as DLG4, DLG1, PICK1 and MDM2, was performed, using Japanese samples (124 pedigrees, n = 376 subjects). Results showed a significant association of the rs17203281 variant from the DLG4 gene, with preferential transmission of the C allele (p = 0.02), although significance disappeared after correction for multiple testing. Replication analysis of this variant, found no association in a Chinese schizophrenia cohort (293 pedigrees, n = 1163 subjects) or in a Japanese case-control sample (n = 4182 subjects). The DLG4 expression levels between postmortem brain samples from schizophrenia patients showed no significant changes from controls. Interestingly, a five marker haplotype in DLG4, involving rs2242449, rs17203281, rs390200, rs222853 and rs222837, was enriched in a population specific manner, where the sequences A-C-C-C-A and G-C-C-C-A accumulated in Japanese (p = 0.0009) and Chinese (p = 0.0007) schizophrenia pedigree samples, respectively. However, this could not be replicated in case-control samples. None of the variants in other examined candidate genes showed any significant association in these samples. The current study highlights a putative role for DLG4 in schizophrenia pathogenesis, evidenced by haplotype association, and warrants further dense screening for variants within these haplotypes. Copyright: ß 2013 Balan et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
    PLoS ONE 07/2013; 8(7). · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The early growth response gene 2 (EGR2) has been recently reported to be associated with bipolar disorder in Korean population. However replication studies in independent cohorts of same and different ethnicities are essential for establishing the credibility of a genotype-phenotype association. With this notion, in the present study we have performed a replication study of the reported association of SNPs in EGR2 in a case-control study comprising of 867 unrelated Japanese bipolar disorder patients and 895 age-, sex- and ethnicity-matched controls. Results showed no significant differences in allele and genotype frequencies of EGR2 SNPs between bipolar disorder patients and controls and also in a sex-stratified genetic analysis. The haplotype and meta-analyses also showed no significant association with bipolar disorder. In conclusion, this is the first replication study of the previously reported association of EGR2 with bipolar disorder in a larger sample set and the results showed that the EGR2 gene is unlikely to contribute to the susceptibility of bipolar disorder in Japanese cohort.
    Gene 06/2013; · 2.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent genome-wide association studies (GWASs) investigating bipolar disorder (BD) have detected a number of susceptibility genes. These studies have also provided novel insight into shared genetic components between BD and schizophrenia (SCZ), two major psychotic disorders. To examine the replication of the risk variants for BD and the pleiotropic effect of the variants associated with BD, we conducted a genetic association study of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that were selected based upon previous BD GWASs, which targeted psychotic disorders (BD and SCZ) in the Japanese population. Forty-eight SNPs were selected based upon previous GWASs. A two-stage analysis was conducted using first-set screening (for all SNPs: BD = 1,012, SCZ = 1,032 and control = 993) and second-set replication samples (for significant SNPs in the screening analysis: BD = 821, SCZ = 1,808 and control = 2,149). We assessed allelic association between BD, SCZ, psychosis (BD+SCZ) and the SNPs selected for the analysis. Eight SNPs revealed nominal association signals for all comparisons (Puncorrected<0.05). Among these SNPs, the top two SNPs (associated with psychosis: Pcorrected = 0.048 and 0.037 for rs2251219 and rs2709722, respectively) were further assessed in the second-set samples, and we replicated the signals from the initial screening analysis (associated with psychosis: Pcorrected = 0.0070 and 0.033 for rs2251219 and rs2709722, respectively). The meta-analysis between the current and previous GWAS results showed that rs2251219 in Polybromo1 (PBRM1) was significant on genome-wide association level (P = 5×10(-8)) only for BD (P = 9.4×10(-9)) and psychosis (P = 2.0×10(-10)). Although the association of rs2709722 in Sp8 transcription factor (SP8) was suggestive in the Asian population (P = 2.1×10(-7) for psychosis), this signal weakened when the samples size was increased by including data from a Caucasian population (P = 4.3×10(-3)). We found 3p21.1 (including PBRM1, strong linkage disequilibrium made it difficult to pinpoint the risk genes) and SP8 as risk loci for BD, SCZ and psychosis. Further replication studies will be required for conclusive results.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(8):e70964. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies have successfully identified several common variants showing robust association with schizophrenia. However, individually, these variants only produce a weak effect. To identify genetic variants with larger effect sizes, increasing attention is now being paid to uncommon and rare variants. METHODS: From the 1000 Genomes Project data, we selected 47 candidate single nucleotide variants (SNVs), which were: 1) uncommon (minor allele frequency<5%); 2) Asian-specific; 3) missense, nonsense, or splice site variants predicted to be damaging; and 4) located in candidate genes for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. We examined their association with schizophrenia, using a Japanese case-control cohort (2012 cases and 2781 control subjects). Additional meta-analysis was performed using genotyping data from independent Han-Chinese case-control (333 cases and 369 control subjects) and family samples (9 trios and 284 quads). RESULTS: We identified disease association of a missense variant in GRIN3A (p.R480G, rs149729514, p = .00042, odds ratio [OR] = 1.58), encoding a subunit of the N-methyl-D-aspartate type glutamate receptor, with study-wide significance (threshold p = .0012). This association was supported by meta-analysis (combined p = 3.3×10(-5), OR = 1.61). Nominally significant association was observed in missense variants from FAAH, DNMT1, MYO18B, and CFB, with ORs of risk alleles ranging from 1.41 to 2.35. CONCLUSIONS: The identified SNVs, particularly the GRIN3A R480G variant, are good candidates for further replication studies and functional evaluation. The results of this study indicate that association analyses focusing on uncommon and rare SNVs are a promising way to discover risk variants with larger effects.
    Biological psychiatry 12/2012; · 8.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mammals express two myo-inositol monophosphatase (IMPase) genes, IMPA1/Impa1 and IMPA2/Impa2. In this study, we compared the spatial expression patterns of the two IMPase gene transcripts and proteins in mouse tissues. Results indicated discrete expression of the two IMPase genes and their protein products in various organs, including the brain. In Caenorhabditis elegans, loss of the IMPase gene, ttx-7, disrupts cellular polarity in RIA neurons, eliciting abnormal thermotaxis behavior. We performed a rescue experiment in mutant nematodes using mammalian IMPases. Human IMPA2 rescued the abnormal behavioral phenotype in the ttx-7 mutants more efficiently than IMPA1. These results raise a question about the phylogenetic origin of IMPases and the biological roles of mammalian IMPase 2 in mammals. Impa2 knockout mice generated in our laboratory, exhibited neither behavioral abnormalities nor a significant reduction in myo-inositol content in the brain and other examined tissues. Given the ability of human IMPA2 to rescue the ttx-7 mutant, and its genetic association with multiple neuropsychiatric disorders, close scrutiny of IMPA2 function and the evolutionary origin of IMPase genes is warranted. © 2012 International Society for Neurochemistry, J. Neurochem. (2012) 10.1111/jnc.12112.
    Journal of Neurochemistry 12/2012; · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial dysfunction (MtD) has been observed in approximately five percent of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). MtD could impair highly energy-dependent processes such as neurodevelopment, thereby contributing to autism. Most of the previous studies of MtD in autism have been restricted to the biomarkers of energy metabolism, while most of the genetic studies have been based on mutations in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Despite the mtDNA, most of the proteins essential for mitochondrial replication and function are encoded by the genomic DNA; so far, there have been very few studies of those genes. Therefore, we carried out a detailed study involving gene expression and genetic association studies of genes related to diverse mitochondrial functions. METHODS: For gene expression analysis, postmortem brain tissues (anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG), motor cortex (MC) and thalamus (THL)) from autism patients (n=8) and controls (n=10) were obtained from the Autism Tissue Program (Princeton, NJ, USA). Quantitative real-time PCR arrays were used to quantify the expression of 84 genes related to diverse functions of mitochondria, including biogenesis, transport, translocation and apoptosis. We used the delta delta Ct ([increment][increment]Ct) method for quantification of gene expression. DNA samples from 841 Caucasian and 188 Japanese families were used in the association study of genes selected from the gene expression analysis. FBAT was used to examine genetic association with autism. RESULTS: Several genes showed brain region-specific expression alterations in autism patients compared to controls. Metaxin 2 (MTX2), neurofilament, light polypeptide (NEFL) and solute carrier family 25, member 27 (SLC25A27) showed consistently reduced expression in the ACG, MC and THL of autism patients. NEFL (P = 0.038; Z-score 2.066) and SLC25A27 (P = 0.046; Z-score 1.990) showed genetic association with autism in Caucasian and Japanese samples, respectively. The expression of DNAJC19, DNM1L, LRPPRC, SLC25A12, SLC25A14, SLC25A24 and TOMM20 were reduced in at least two of the brain regions of autism patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our study, though preliminary, brings to light some new genes associated with MtD in autism. If MtD is detected in early stages, treatment strategies aimed at reducing its impact may be adopted.
    Molecular Autism 11/2012; 3(1):12. · 5.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Synaptic dysfunction has been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of autism. We hypothesized that the protocadherin α gene cluster (PCDHA), which is involved in synaptic specificity and in serotonergic innervation of the brain, could be a suitable candidate gene for autism. Methods: We examined 14 PCDHA single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for genetic association with autism in DNA samples of 3211 individuals (841 families, including 574 multiplex families) obtained from the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange. Results: Five SNPs (rs251379, rs1119032, rs17119271, rs155806 and rs17119346) showed significant associations with autism. The strongest association (p < 0.001) was observed for rs1119032 (z score of risk allele G = 3.415) in multiplex families; SNP associations withstand multiple testing correction in multiplex families (p = 0.041). Haplotypes involving rs1119032 showed very strong associations with autism, withstanding multiple testing corrections. In quantitative transmission disequilibrium testing of multiplex fam - ilies, the G allele of rs1119032 showed a significant association (p = 0.033) with scores on the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R)_D (early developmental abnormalities). We also found a significant difference in the distribution of ADI-R_A (social interaction) scores between the A/A, A/G and G/G genotypes of rs17119346 (p = 0.002). Limitations: Our results should be replicated in an in - dependent population and/or in samples of different racial backgrounds. Conclusion: Our study provides strong genetic evidence of PCDHA as a potential candidate gene for autism.
    Journal of psychiatry & neuroscience: JPN 10/2012; 37(6):120058. · 6.24 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

933 Citations
359.12 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013
    • Fujita Health University
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Nagoya, Aichi, Japan
  • 2006–2012
    • Hamamatsu University School of Medicine
      • Research Center for Child Mental Development
      Hamamatsu, Shizuoka-ken, Japan
  • 2005–2011
    • RIKEN
      • • Laboratory for Molecular Psychiatry
      • • Laboratory for Molecular Dynamics of Mental Disorders
      Wako, Saitama-ken, Japan