Deborah J Schofield

University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

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Publications (94)231.42 Total impact

  • Emily J Callander, Deborah J Schofield
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    ABSTRACT: To identify whether psychological distress is associated with an increased risk of falling into poverty, giving a more complete picture of how psychological distress affects living standards. Longitudinal analysis of the nationally representative Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australian (HILDA) survey using Poisson regression models to estimate relative risk of falling into income poverty and multidimensional poverty between 2007 and 2012. The sample was limited to those who were not already in income poverty in 2007. Psychological distress was identified using the Kessler-10 (K10) scale. After adjusting for confounding factors, having moderate psychological distress increased the risk of falling into income poverty by 1.62 (95 % CI 1.31-2.01, p < 0.0001) and the risk of falling into multidimensional poverty by 1.85 (95 % CI 1.37-2.48, p < 0.0001); having very high psychological distress increased the risk of falling into income poverty by 2.40 (95 % CI 1.80-3.20, p < 0.0001) and the risk of falling into multidimensional poverty by 3.68 (95 % CI 2.63-5.15, p < 0.0001), compared to those with low psychological distress. Those who did experience income poverty (RR: 1.29, 95 % CI 1.04-1.61, p = 0.0210) and those who experienced multidimensional poverty (RR: 1.69, 95 % CI 1.32-2.17, p < 0.0001) had an increased risk of having their level of psychological distress increase further compared to those who did not experience poverty. To date, the increased risk of falling into poverty that is associated with elevated levels of psychological distress has been an overlooked burden of the condition.
    Social Psychiatry 05/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00127-015-1074-6 · 2.58 Impact Factor
  • Emily J Callander, Deborah J Schofield
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    ABSTRACT: Studies on the indirect costs of asthma have taken a narrow view of how the condition affects the living standards of patients by examining only the association with employment and income. To build on the current cost-of-illness literature and identify whether having asthma is associated with an increased risk of poverty, thus giving a more complete picture of the costs of asthma to individuals and society. Longitudinal analysis of the nationally representative Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australian survey to estimate the relative risk of income poverty, multidimensional poverty, and long-term multidimensional poverty between 2007 and 2012 and population attributable risk method to estimate the proportion of poverty between 2007 and 2012 directly attributable to asthma. No significant difference was found in the risk of falling into income poverty between those with and without asthma (P = .07). Having asthma increased the risk of falling into multidimensional poverty by 1.35 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-1.83) and the risk of falling into chronic multidimensional poverty by 2.22 (95% CI, 1.20-4.10). Between 2007 and 2012, a total of 5.2% of income poverty cases (95% CI, 5.1%-5.4%), 7.8% of multidimensional poverty cases (95% CI, 7.7%-8.0%), and 19.6% of chronic multidimensional poverty cases (95% CI, 19.2%-20.0%) can be attributed to asthma. Asthma is associated with an increased risk of falling into poverty. This should be taken into consideration when considering the suitability of different treatment options for patients with asthma. Copyright © 2015 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Annals of allergy, asthma & immunology: official publication of the American College of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology 03/2015; 114(5). DOI:10.1016/j.anai.2015.02.017 · 2.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Diabetes is a debilitating and costly condition. The costs of reduced labour force participation due to diabetes can have severe economic impacts on individuals by reducing their living standards during working and retirement years. A purpose-built microsimulation model of Australians aged 45-64 years in 2010, Health&WealthMOD2030, was used to estimate the lost savings at age 65 due to premature exit from the labour force because of diabetes. Regression models were used to examine the differences between the projected savings and retirement incomes of people at age 65 for those currently working full or part time with no chronic health condition, full or part time with diabetes, and people not in the labour force due to diabetes. All Australians aged 45-65 years who are employed full time in 2010 will have accumulated some savings at age 65; whereas only 90.5% of those who are out of the labour force due to diabetes will have done so. By the time they reach age 65, those who retire from the labour force early due to diabetes have a median projected savings of less than $35,000. This is far lower than the median value of total savings for those who remained in the labour force full time with no chronic condition, projected to have $638,000 at age 65. Not only does premature retirement due to diabetes limit the immediate income available to individuals with this condition, but it also reduces their long-term financial capacity by reducing their accumulated savings and the income these savings could generate in retirement. Policies designed to support the labour force participation of those with diabetes, or interventions to prevent the onset of the disease itself, should be a priority to preserve living standards comparable with others who do not suffer from this condition.
    PLoS ONE 02/2015; 10(2):e0116860. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0116860 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to quantify the impact that having arthritis has on income poverty status and accumulated wealth in Australia. Cross-sectional analysis of Health&WealthMOD, a microsimulation model built on data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics' Survey of Disability, Ageing and Carers and STINMOD, an income and savings microsimulation model. Across all categories of labour force participation status (employed full time, part time or not in the labour force at all), those with arthritis were significantly more likely to be in poverty. Those employed full time with no health condition had 0.82 times the odds of being in income poverty (95 % CI 0.80-0.84) compared with those employed full time with arthritis. Those not in the labour force with no chronic health conditions had 0.36 times the odds of being in income poverty compared with those not in the labour force due to arthritis (95 % CI 0.36-0.37). For people not in the labour force with no long-term health condition, the total value of their wealth was 211 % higher (95 % CI 38-618 %) than the amount of wealth accumulated by those not in the labour force due to arthritis. Similarly, those employed part time with no chronic health condition had 50 % more wealth than those employed part time with arthritis (95 % CI 3-116 %). Arthritis has a profound impact upon the economic circumstances of individuals, which adds a further dimension to the detrimental living standards of older individuals suffering from the condition.
    Rheumatology International 01/2015; 35(7). DOI:10.1007/s00296-015-3224-2 · 1.63 Impact Factor
  • Health Sociology Review 12/2014; 21(3):322-331. DOI:10.5172/hesr.2012.21.3.322 · 0.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Depression has economic consequences not only for the health system, but also for individuals and society. This study aims to quantify the potential economic impact of five-yearly screening for sub-syndromal depression in general practice among Australians aged 45-64 years, followed by a group-based psychological intervention to prevent progression to depression. We used an epidemiological simulation model to estimate reductions in prevalence of depression, and a microsimulation model, Health&WealthMOD2030, to estimate the impact on labour force participation, personal income, savings, taxation revenue and welfare expenditure. Group therapy is estimated to prevent around 5,200 prevalent cases of depression (2.2%) and add about 520 people to the labour force. Private incomes are projected to increase by $19 million per year, tax revenues by $2.4 million, and transfer payments are reduced by $2.6 million. Group-based psychological intervention to prevent depression could result in considerable economic benefits in addition to its clinical effects. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2014.
    Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 11/2014; 49(5). DOI:10.1177/0004867414561528 · 3.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: IntroductionThe study aim was to develop a generic framework to derive the parameters to populate health-economic models for the rapid evaluation of new techniques and technologies in radiation oncology.MethodsA draft framework was developed through horizon scanning for relevant technologies, literature review to identify framework models, and a workshop program with radiation oncology professionals, biostatisticians, health economists and consumers to establish the Framework's structure. It was tested using four clinical protocols, comparing intensity modulated with 3D conformal therapy (post-prostatectomy, anal canal and nasopharynx) and image-guided radiation therapy techniques with off-line review of portal imaging (in the intact prostate).ResultsThe draft generic research framework consisted of five sequential stages, each with a number of components, and was assessed as to its suitability for deriving the evidence needed to populate the decision-analytic models required for the health-economic evaluations. A final Framework was established from this experience for use by future researchers to provide evidence of clinical efficacy and cost-utility for other novel techniques. The four clinical treatment sites tested during the project were considered suitable to use in future evaluations.Conclusions Development of a generic research framework to predict early and long-term clinical outcomes, combined with health-economic data, produced a generally applicable method for the rapid evaluation of new techniques and technologies in radiation oncology. Its application to further health technology assessments in the radiation oncology sector will allow further refinement and support its generalisability.
    Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology 11/2014; 59(3). DOI:10.1111/1754-9485.12255 · 0.95 Impact Factor
  • Emily J. Callander, Deborah J. Schofield
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    ABSTRACT: Longitudinal analysis of Wave 5 to 10 of the nationally representative Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia dataset was undertaken to assess whether multidimensional poverty status can predict chronic income poverty. Of those who were multidimensionally poor (low income plus poor health or poor health and insufficient education attainment) in 2007, and those who were in income poverty only (no other forms of disadvantage) in 2007, a greater proportion of those in multidimensional poverty continued to be in income poverty for the subsequent 5 years through to 2012. People who were multidimensionally poor in 2007 had 2.17 times the odds of being in income poverty each year through to 2012 than those who were in income poverty only in 2005 (95% CI: 1.23–3.83). Multidimensional poverty measures are a useful tool for policymakers to identify target populations for policies aiming to improve equity and reduce chronic disadvantage. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Health Economics 10/2014; DOI:10.1002/hec.3112 · 2.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There has been little research on the economic status of those with multiple health conditions, particularly on the relationship between multiple health conditions and wealth. This paper will assess the difference in the value and type of wealth assets held by Australians who have multiple chronic health conditions.
    The European Journal of Public Health 09/2014; 25(2). DOI:10.1093/eurpub/cku134 · 2.46 Impact Factor
  • Deborah Schofield, Michelle M Cunich, Lucio Naccarella
    Australian health review: a publication of the Australian Hospital Association 08/2014; DOI:10.1071/AH14018 · 1.00 Impact Factor
  • Deborah J Schofield
    Pain 07/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.pain.2014.07.020 · 5.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Studies assessing the economic burden of back problems have given little consideration to the presence of co-morbidities.
    The spine journal: official journal of the North American Spine Society 07/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.spinee.2014.06.018 · 2.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is a radiation therapy technology that facilitates the delivery of an improved dose distribution with less dose to surrounding critical structures. This study estimates the longer term effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of IMRT in patients post radical prostatectomy.
    Radiotherapy and Oncology 06/2014; 112(2). DOI:10.1016/j.radonc.2014.03.020 · 4.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Little is known about the effects of personal and other characteristics of care recipients on the behaviour of carers. The aim of this study is to examine the association between the main chronic (disabling) condition of care recipients and the likelihood of their (matched) primary carers aged 15–64 years being out of the labour force. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of cross-sectional data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics 2009 Survey of Disability, Ageing and Carers (SDAC) for people aged 15–64 years. We estimated the rates of exit from the labour force for primary carers and non-carers; rates of chronic disease occurrence for care recipients living with their main carers; odds ratios of primary carers being out of the labour force associated with the main chronic condition of their care recipient who lives with them. Results From the 2009 SDAC, we identified 1,268 out of 37,186 eligible participants who were primary carers of a care recipient who lived with them. Of these, 628 (49.5%) were out of the labour force. Most common diseases of care recipients were: back problems (12%); arthritis and related disorders (10%); diseases of the nervous system (such as multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, cerebral palsy) (7.4%); and conditions originating in the perinatal period or congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities (5.1%). When adjusted for age, sex, education and whether have a long term chronic condition of informal carers, the five conditions of care recipients associated with the highest odds of their carers being out of the labour force were: head injury/acquired brain damage; neoplasms, blood diseases, disorders of the immune system; leg/knee/foot/hip damage from injury/accident; dementia, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease; and diseases of the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue (osteoporosis). Conclusions This study identifies the type of conditions that have the greatest impact on the labour force participation of informal carers – previously unavailable information for Australia. Australia, like most developed countries, is facing several skills shortages and an ageing population. These governments will need to adopt novel and more wholistic approaches to increase the labour force participation of diverse groups. Informal carers are one such group.
    BMC Public Health 06/2014; 14(1):561. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-14-561 · 2.32 Impact Factor
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    David J Hunter, Deborah Schofield, Emily Callander
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    ABSTRACT: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a highly prevalent, disabling disease, with a commensurate tremendous individual and socioeconomic burden. This Perspectives article focuses on the burden of OA for the individual, the health-care system and society, to draw attention to the magnitude of the current problem with some reference to projected figures. We have an urgent opportunity to make fundamental changes to the way we care for individuals with OA that will have an effect upon the direct and indirect costs of this disease. By focusing on the burden of this prevalent, disabling, and costly disease, we hope to highlight the opportunity for shifts in health-care policy towards prevention and chronic-disease management.
    Nature Reviews Rheumatology 03/2014; 10(7). DOI:10.1038/nrrheum.2014.44 · 10.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Diabetes is a costly and debilitating disease. The aim of the study is to quantify the individual and national costs of diabetes resulting from people retiring early because of this disease, including lost income; lost income taxation, increased government welfare payments; and reductions in GDP. A purpose-built microsimulation model, Health&WealthMOD2030, was used to estimate the economic costs of early retirement due to diabetes. The study included all Australians aged 45-64 years in 2010 based on Australian Bureau of Statistics' Surveys of Disability, Ageing and Carers. A multiple regression model was used to identify significant differences in income, government welfare payments and taxation liabilities between people out of the labour force because of their diabetes and those employed full time with no chronic health condition. The median annual income of people who retired early because of their diabetes was significantly lower (AU$11 784) compared to those employed full time without a chronic health condition who received almost five times more income. At the national level, there was a loss of AU$384 million in individual earnings by those with diabetes, an extra AU$4 million spent in government welfare payments, a loss of AU$56 million in taxation revenue, and a loss of AU$1 324 million in GDP in 2010: all attributable to diabetes through its impact on labour force participation. Sensitivity analysis was used to assess the impact of different diabetes prevalence rates on estimates of lost income, lost income taxation, increased government welfare payments, and reduced GDP. Individuals bear the cost of lost income in addition to the burden of the disease. The Government endures the impacts of lost productivity and income taxation revenue, as well as spending more in welfare payments. These national costs are in addition to the Government's direct healthcare costs.
    BMC Public Health 03/2014; 14(1):220. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-14-220 · 2.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Few studies have assessed the impact of co-morbid conditions amongst patients with arthritis. This study will quantify the impact co-morbid health conditions have on the labour force status and economic circumstances of people with arthritis. This study uses a microsimulation model, Health&WealthMOD, to quantify the impact of co-morbidities on the labour force participation and economic circumstances of 45- to 64-year-old Australians with arthritis. The results show that the probability of being out of the labour force increases with increasing number of co-morbidities. However, there was no statistically significant difference in the amount of weekly private income received by people with arthritis and no co-morbidities, and people with arthritis and one or two co-morbidities. However, those with arthritis and three or more co-morbidities received a weekly private income 72 % lower than people with arthritis alone (95 % CI -82, -57). People with arthritis and co-morbidities paid less in tax and received more in government transfer payments. As such, it is important to consider the co-morbid conditions an individual has when assessing the impact of arthritis on labour force participation and economic circumstances. People with arthritis that have multiple co-morbid conditions are likely to have their labour force participation and economic circumstances interrupted much more than those with arthritis only.
    Rheumatology International 02/2014; 34(4). DOI:10.1007/s00296-014-2967-5 · 1.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To quantify the poverty status and level of disadvantage experienced by Australians aged 45-64 years who have left the labour force due to diabetes in 2010. A purpose-built microsimulation model, Health&WealthMOD2030, was used to estimate the poverty status and level of disadvantage of those aged 45-64 years who prematurely retire from the workforce due to diabetes. A multiple regression model was used to identify significant differences in rates of income poverty and the degree of disadvantage between those out of the labour force due to diabetes and those employed full- or part-time with no diabetes. 63.9% of people aged 45-64 years who were out of the labour force due to diabetes were in poverty in 2010. The odds of being in poverty for those with no diabetes and employed full-time (OR of being in poverty 0.02 95%CI: 0.01-0.04) or part-time (OR of being in poverty 0.10 95%CI: 0.05-0.23) are significantly lower than those for persons not in the labour force due to diabetes. Amongst those with diabetes, those who were able to stay in either full- or part-time employment were as much as 97% less likely to be in poverty than those who had to retire early because of the condition. Sensitivity analysis was used to assess impacts of different poverty line thresholds and key socioeconomic predictors of poverty. This study has shown that having diabetes and not being in the labour force because of this condition significantly increases the chances of living in poverty. Intervening to prevent or delay the onset of diabetes is likely to improve their living standards.
    PLoS ONE 02/2014; 9(2):e89360. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0089360 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Few studies have assessed the effect of multiple health conditions among patients with heart disease, particularly the economic implications of having multiple conditions. Methods and Results: This study used a microsimulation model, Health&WealthMOD, to assess the effect of comorbidities on the labor force participation of 45-64-year-old Australians with heart disease, and the indirect economic costs to these individuals and government. For most comorbid conditions, there is a significant increase in the chance of an individual being out of the labor force, relative to those with heart disease alone. For example, individuals with heart disease and arthritis have more than 6-fold the odds of being out of the labor force relative to those with heart disease alone (OR 6.64, 95% CI: 2.46-17.95). People with heart disease and ≥1 comorbidities also receive a significantly lower income, pay less in taxation and receive more in government transfer payments than those with heart disease alone. Conclusions: It is important to consider whether an individual with heart disease also has other health conditions, as individuals with comorbidities have inferior financial situations and are a greater burden on government finances than those with only heart disease.
    Circulation Journal 01/2014; 78(3). DOI:10.1253/circj.CJ-13-0937 · 3.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is a radiation therapy technology that facilitates the delivery of an improved dose distribution with less dose to surrounding critical structures. This study estimates the longer term effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of IMRT in patients post radical prostatectomy. Methods A Markov decision model was developed to calculate the incremental quality adjusted life years (QALYs) and costs of IMRT compared with three dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT). Costs were estimated from the perspective of the Australian health care system. Results IMRT was both more effective and less costly than 3DCRT over 20 years, with an additional 20 QALYs gained and over $1.1 million saved per 1000 patients treated. This result was robust to plausible levels of uncertainty. Conclusions IMRT was estimated to have a modest long term advantage over 3DCRT in terms of both improved effectiveness and reduced cost. This result was reliant on clinical judgement and interpretation of the existing literature, but provides quantitative guidance on the cost effectiveness of IMRT whilst long term trial evidence is awaited.

Publication Stats

488 Citations
231.42 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2006–2015
    • University of Sydney
      • • NHMRC Clinical Trials Centre (CTC)
      • • School of Public Health
      Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  • 2013
    • Sydney Cancer Centre
      Camperdown, New South Wales, Australia
  • 2002–2012
    • University of Canberra
      • The National Centre for Social and Economic Modelling (NATSEM)
      Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia