Sandhya Subramanian

Portland VA Medical Center, Portland, Oregon, United States

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Publications (35)153.89 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies have demonstrated that vitamin D3-mediated protection in EAE occurs only in females and is dependent on the presence of diestrus levels of 17β-estradiol (E2). To evaluate the role of estrogen receptors in vitamin D3 treatment of EAE, we compared disease severity, CNS histopathology and immunological responses in vehicle and calcitrol (1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D₃) treated WT C57BL/6 mice vs. GPR30 membrane estrogen receptor (MER) knockout mice with MOG-35-55 peptide-induced EAE. Our results demonstrated that vitamin D₃-mediated prevention of clinical signs, CNS cellular lesions and demyelination observed in WT mice was abrogated in GPR30-KO mice with EAE. Regulatory effects of vitamin D₃ treatment that were MER dependent included increased levels of IL-10 and IL-6 secreted by MOG peptide-reactive splenocytes and increased expression of CCL5, CCR1 & CCR3 in spleen tissue. These results demonstrate for the first time that the MER is a key contributor to the E2-dependent effects of vitamin D₃-mediated protection in EAE.
    Metabolic Brain Disease 03/2012; 27(1):29-35. · 2.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Oestrogen (17β-oestradiol, E₂) is a highly effective treatment for experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) that may potentiate Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells, which in turn limit the expansion of encephalitogenic T-cell specificities. To determine if Treg cells constitute the major non-redundant protective pathway for E₂, we evaluated E₂ protection of EAE after targeted deletion of Foxp3 expression in Foxp3-DTR mice. Unexpectedly, E₂-treated Foxp3-deficient mice were completely protected against clinical and histological myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-35-55 peptide-induced EAE before succumbing to diphtheria toxin-induced mortality. This finding indicated the presence of alternative E₂-dependent EAE-protective pathways that could compensate for the lack of Treg cells. Further investigation revealed that E₂ treatment inhibited proliferation and expression of CCL2 and CXCL2, but enhanced secretion of interleukin-10 (IL-10) and IL-13 by MOG-35-55-specific spleen cells. These changes occurred concomitantly with increased expression of several chemokines and receptors, including CXCL13 and CXCR5, and the negative co-activation molecules, PD-L1 and B7.2, by B cells and dendritic cells. Furthermore, E₂ treatment resulted in higher percentages of spleen and lymph node T cells expressing IL-17, interferon-γ and tumour necrosis factor-α, but with lower expression of CCR6, suggesting sequestration of MOG-35-55 peptide-specific T cells in peripheral immune organs. Taken together, these data suggest that E₂-induced mechanisms that provide protection against EAE in the absence of Foxp3+ Treg cells include induction of regulatory B cells and peripheral sequestration of encephalitogenic T cells.
    Immunology 03/2011; 132(3):340-7. · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) is the primary circulating serine protease inhibitor, and is known to exert potent anti-inflammatory effects and to inhibit the progression of several autoimmune diseases. In this study, transgenic mice that over-express surfactant-driven human (h)AAT on the C57BL/6 background were evaluated for resistance to MOG-35-55 peptide-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), compared to WT C57BL/6 control mice. According to the results, sustained levels of circulating hAAT profoundly inhibited induction of clinical signs, inflammatory lesions and demyelination observed in WT mice with EAE, concomitant with enhanced levels of CD4+FoxP3+ Treg cells, reduced secretion of MOG peptide-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-17, IL-1β & IL-6, diminished expression of caspase-1 and enhanced expression of CCR6. These results implicate hAAT as a potent immunoregulatory agent worthy of further investigation as a potential therapy in human autoimmune diseases including multiple sclerosis.
    Metabolic Brain Disease 03/2011; 26(2):107-13. · 2.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Stroke is a sexually dimorphic disease with male gender considered a disadvantage in terms of risk and disease outcome. In intact males, stroke induces peripheral immunosuppression, characterized by decreased splenocyte numbers and proliferation and altered percentages of viable T, B, and CD11b+ cells. To investigate whether the potent androgen and known immunomodulator, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), exacerbates post-stroke immunosuppression in castrated male mice after focal stroke, we evaluated the effect of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) on peripheral and central nervous system (CNS) immune responses in castrated mice with or without controlled levels of DHT. MCAO reduced spleen cell numbers in both groups, but altered T cell and B cell percentages in remaining splenocytes and concomitantly increased the percentage of CD11b+ blood cells solely in DHT-replaced animals at 24 h. Furthermore, DHT-replacement reduced splenocyte proliferation which was accompanied by an increased percentage of immunosuppressive regulatory T cells relative to castrates 96 h post-MCAO. In brain, the percentages of immune cell populations in the ischemic hemisphere relative to the non-ischemic hemisphere were similar between castrated and DHT-replaced mice after MCAO. These data suggest DHT modulates peripheral immunosuppression after MCAO but with relatively little effect on early immune response of the recovering CNS.
    Brain Behavior and Immunity 01/2011; 25(4):685-95. · 5.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recombinant T cell receptor ligands (RTLs) that target encephalitogenic T-cells can reverse clinical and histological signs of EAE, and are currently in clinical trials for treatment of multiple sclerosis. To evaluate possible regulatory mechanisms, we tested effects of RTL therapy on expression of pathogenic and effector T-cell maturation markers, CD226, T-bet and CD44, by CD4+ Th1 cells early after treatment of MOG-35-55 peptide-induced EAE in C57BL/6 mice. We showed that 1-5 daily injections of RTL551 (two-domain I-A(b) covalently linked to MOG-35-55 peptide), but not the control RTL550 ("empty" two-domain I-A(b) without a bound peptide) or Vehicle, reduced clinical signs of EAE, prevented trafficking of cells outside the spleen, significantly reduced the frequency of CD226 and T-bet expressing CD4+ T-cells in blood and inhibited expansion of CD44 expressing CD4+ T-cells in blood and spleen. Concomitantly, RTL551 selectively reduced CNS inflammatory lesions, absolute numbers of CNS infiltrating T-bet expressing CD4+ T-cells and IL-17 and IFN-γ secretion by CNS derived MOG-35-55 reactive cells cultured ex vivo. These novel results demonstrate that a major effect of RTL therapy is to attenuate Th1 specific changes in CD4+ T-cells during EAE and prevent expansion of effector T-cells that mediate clinical signs and CNS inflammation in EAE.
    PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(7):e21868. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recombinant T cell ligands (RTLs) ameliorate experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in an antigen-specific manner. We evaluated effects of RTL401 (I-A(s) alpha1beta1+PLP-139-151) on splenocytes from SJL/J mice with EAE to study RTL-T cell tolerance-inducing mechanisms. RTLs bound to B, macrophages and DCs, through RTL-MHC-alpha1beta1 moiety. RTL binding reduced CD11b expression on splenic macrophages/DC, and RTL401-conditioned macrophages/DC, not B cells, inhibited T cell activation. Reduced ability of RTL- incubated splenocytes to transfer EAE was likely mediated through macrophages/DC, since B cells were unnecessary for RTL treatment of EAE. These results demonstrate a novel pathway of T cell regulation by RTL-bound APCs.
    Journal of neuroimmunology 08/2010; 225(1-2):52-61. · 2.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Reduced risk and severity of stroke in adult females is thought to depend on normal endogenous levels of estrogen, a well-known neuroprotectant and immunomodulator. In male mice, experimental stroke induces immunosuppression of the peripheral immune system, characterized by a reduction in spleen size and cell numbers and decreased cytokine and chemokine expression. However, stroke-induced immunosuppression has not been evaluated in female mice. To test the hypothesis that estradiol (E2) deficiency exacerbates immunosuppression after focal stroke in females, we evaluated the effect of middle cerebral artery occlusion on infarct size and peripheral and CNS immune responses in ovariectomized mice with or without sustained, controlled levels of 17-beta-E2 administered by s.c. implant or the putative membrane estrogen receptor agonist, G1. Both E2- and G1-replacement decreased infarct volume and partially restored splenocyte numbers. Moreover, E2-replacement increased splenocyte proliferation in response to stimulation with anti-CD3/CD28 Abs and normalized aberrant mRNA expression for cytokines, chemokines, and chemokine receptors and percentage of CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) T regulatory cells observed in E2-deficient animals. These beneficial changes in peripheral immunity after E2 replacement were accompanied by a profound reduction in expression of the chemokine, MIP-2, and a 40-fold increased expression of CCR7 in the lesioned brain hemisphere. These results demonstrate for the first time that E2 replacement in ovariectomized female mice improves stroke-induced peripheral immunosuppression.
    The Journal of Immunology 03/2010; 184(8):4087-94. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The inflammatory status of the brain in patients as well as animal models of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been extensively studied. Accumulation of activated microglia producing tumor necrosis factor-α and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 contribute to the pathology of the disease. However, little is known about the changes in the spleen and associated peripheral immunity that might contribute to AD pathology. The goal of this study was to characterize phenotypic and functional changes in spleen, blood and brain cell populations that contribute to development of an AD-like disease in a triple transgenic (3xTg-AD) mouse model. The 3xTg-AD mice had increased percentages of brain Gr-1+ granulocytes, dendritic cells and macrophages, spleen and blood derived CD8+Ly6C+ memory T cells and CCR6+ B cells, as well as increased levels of secreted interleukin-6. Brain tissue from older 12 month old symptomatic 3xTg-AD female mice exhibited highly elevated mRNA expression of CCR6 compared to wild-type mice. Importantly, this pronounced increase in expression of CCR6 was also detected in brain and spleen tissue from pre-symptomatic 5--6 month old 3xTg-AD females and males. Our data demonstrate increased expression of CCR6 in the brain and peripheral immune organs of both pre-symptomatic and symptomatic 3xTg-AD mice, strongly suggesting an ongoing inflammatory process that precedes onset of clinical AD-like disease.
    Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD 01/2010; 22(2):619-29. · 4.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Increasing evidence suggests that in addition to T cell-dependent effector mechanisms, autoantibodies are also involved in the pathogenesis of MS, including demyelinating antibodies specific for myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG). Our previous studies have demonstrated that recombinant T cell receptor ligands (RTLs) are very effective for treating T cell-mediated experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In order to expand the scope of RTL therapy in MS patients, it was of interest to study RTL treatment of EAE involving a demyelinating antibody component. Therefore, we evaluated the therapeutic effects of RTL551, specific for T cells reactive to mouse (m)MOG-35-55 peptide, on EAE induced with recombinant human (rh)MOG in C57BL/6 mice. We report that RTL551 therapy can reverse disease progression and reduce demyelination and axonal damage induced by rhMOG without suppressing the anti-MOG antibody response. This result suggests that T cell-mediated inflammation and associated blood-brain barrier dysfunction are the central contributors to EAE pathogenesis and that successful regulation of these key players restricts potential damage by demyelinating antibodies. The results of our study lend support for the use of RTL therapy for treatment of MS subjects whose disease includes inflammatory T cells as well as those with an additional antibody component.
    Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology 09/2009; 5(2):231-9. · 3.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Experimental stroke induces a biphasic effect on the immune response that involves early activation of peripheral leukocytes followed by severe immunodepression and atrophy of the spleen and thymus. In tandem, the developing infarct is exacerbated by influx of numerous inflammatory cell types, including T and B lymphocytes. These features of stroke prompted our use of recombinant T cell receptor ligands (RTL), partial major histocompatibility complex Class II molecules covalently bound to myelin peptides. We tested the hypothesis that RTL would improve ischemic outcome in the brain without exacerbating defects in the peripheral immune system function. Four daily doses of RTL were administered subcutaneously to C57BL/6 mice after middle cerebral artery occlusion, and lesion size and cellular composition were assessed in the brain and cell numbers were assessed in the spleen and thymus. Treatment with RTL551 (I-A(b) molecule linked to MOG-35-55 peptide) reduced cortical and total stroke lesion size by approximately 50%, inhibited the accumulation of inflammatory cells, particularly macrophages/activated microglial cells and dendritic cells, and mitigated splenic atrophy. Treatment with RTL1000 (HLA-DR2 moiety linked to human MOG-35-55 peptide) similarly reduced the stroke lesion size in HLA-DR2 transgenic mice. In contrast, control RTL with a nonneuroantigen peptide or a mismatched major histocompatibility complex Class II moiety had no effect on stroke lesion size. These data are the first to demonstrate successful treatment of experimental stroke using a neuroantigen-specific immunomodulatory agent administered after ischemia, suggesting therapeutic potential in human stroke.
    Stroke 06/2009; 40(7):2539-45. · 6.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recombinant T-cell receptor ligands (RTLs) can reverse clinical and histological signs of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in an antigen-specific manner, and are currently in clinical trials for treatment of subjects with multiple sclerosis (MS). Antigen specificity of RTL raises the question as to whether this treatment would be successful in MS patients where target antigens are unknown. Using spinal cord homogenate or combinations of two different peptides to induce disease, we found that treatment with single RTL could reverse EAE as long as targeted T-cells were present. Therapy with three different RTLs each caused a significant reduction in IL-17 and increases in IL-10 and IL-13 in peptide-activated splenocytes, reduced proliferation of both cognate and bystander specificities of lymph node cells, and reduced inflammatory lesions and secreted IL-17 and IL-2 from peptide-activated spinal cord cells. These results show that treatment with single RTLs can induce a cytokine switch in cognate T-cells that inhibits both the target and bystander T-cells, providing new evidence for the potential applicability of RTL therapy in MS.
    Journal of Neuroscience 04/2009; 29(12):3816-23. · 6.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The mechanisms by which prolonged estrogen exposures, such as estrogen therapy and pregnancy, reduce thymus weight, cellularity, and CD4 and CD8 phenotype expression, have not been well defined. In this study, the roles played by the membrane estrogen receptor, G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30), and the intracellular estrogen receptors, estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) and beta (ERbeta), in 17beta-estradiol (E2)-induced thymic atrophy were distinguished by construction and the side-by-side comparison of GPR30-deficient mice with ERalpha and ERbeta gene-deficient mice. Our study shows that whereas ERalpha mediated exclusively the early developmental blockage of thymocytes, GPR30 was indispensable for thymocyte apoptosis that preferentially occurs in T cell receptor beta chain(-/low) double-positive thymocytes. Additionally, G1, a specific GPR30 agonist, induces thymic atrophy and thymocyte apoptosis, but not developmental blockage. Finally, E2 treatment attenuates the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B in CD25(-)CD4(-)CD8(-) double-negative thymocytes through an ERalpha-dependent yet ERbeta- and GPR30-independent pathway. Differential inhibition of nuclear factor-kappaB by ERalpha and GPR30 might underlie their disparate physiological effects on thymocytes. Our study distinguishes, for the first time, the respective contributions of nuclear and membrane E2 receptors in negative regulation of thymic development.
    Molecular Endocrinology 04/2008; 22(3):636-48. · 4.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We previously demonstrated the therapeutic effects of MHC class II derived recombinant T cell receptor ligands (RTL), single-chain two domain complexes of the alpha1 and beta1 domains of MHC class II molecules genetically linked with an immunodominant peptide, in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. In the current study, we produced a monomeric murine I-Aq-derived RTL construct covalently linked with bovine collagen type II peptide (bCII257-270) suitable for use in DBA/1LacJ mice that develop collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), an animal model of human rheumatoid arthritis, after immunization with bCII protein in CFA. In this study, we demonstrate that the I-Aq-derived RTLs reduced the incidence of the disease, suppressed the clinical and histological signs of CIA and induced long-term modulation of T cells specific for arthritogenic Ags. Our results showed that the I-Aq/bCII257-270 molecule could systemically reduce proinflammatory IL-17 and IFN-gamma production and significantly increase anti-inflammatory IL-10, IL-13, and FoxP3 gene expression in splenocytes. Moreover, I-Aq/bCII257-270 molecule could also selectively inhibit IL-1beta, IL-6, and IL-23 expression in local joint tissue. This is the first report demonstrating effective prevention of joint inflammation and clinical signs of CIA with an I-Aq-derived RTL, thus supporting the possible clinical use of this approach for treating rheumatoid arthritis in humans.
    The Journal of Immunology 02/2008; 180(2):1249-57. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recombinant T-cell receptor ligands (RTLs) can prevent and reverse clinical and histological signs of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in an antigen-specific manner and are currently in clinical trials for treatment of subjects with multiple sclerosis (MS). To evaluate regulatory mechanisms, we designed and tested RTL551, containing the alpha1 and beta1 domains of the I-A(b) class II molecule covalently linked to the encephalitogenic MOG-35-55 peptide in C57BL/6 mice. Treatment of active or passive EAE with RTL551 after disease onset significantly reduced clinical signs and spinal cord lesions. Moreover, RTL551 treatment strongly and selectively reduced secretion of interleukin-17 and tumor necrosis factor alpha by transferred green fluorescent protein-positive (GFP+) MOG-35-55-reactive T-cells and almost completely abrogated existent GFP+ cellular infiltrates in affected spinal cord sections. Reduced inflammation in spinal cords of RTL551-treated mice was accompanied by a highly significant downregulation of chemokines and their receptors and inhibition of VCAM-1 (vascular cell adhesion molecule-1) and ICAM-1 (intercellular adhesion molecule-1) expression by endothelial cells. Thus, RTL therapy cannot only inhibit systemic production of encephalitogenic cytokines by the targeted myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-reactive T-cells but also impedes downstream local recruitment and retention of inflammatory cells in the CNS. These findings indicate that targeted immunotherapy of antigen-specific T-cells can result in a reversal of CNS lesion formation and lend strong support to the application of the RTL approach for therapy in MS.
    Journal of Neuroscience 12/2007; 27(46):12531-9. · 6.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Stroke induction in immunologically competent mice not only produces local ischemia and brain damage, but also induces early inflammatory changes in brain and peripheral immune responses. Although immune elements clearly are activated after brain vascular occlusion, the relative contribution of T and B lymphocytes to the developing lesion has not been quantified. We evaluated effects 22 h after middle cerebral artery occlusion (90 mins) on histologic injury and peripheral immune activation in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice lacking T and B cells. Cortical and total infarct volumes were strikingly reduced in male SCID mice (n=14, 33+/-4% of contralateral cortex, n=10, 52+/-3% of contralateral hemisphere) versus immunologically intact C57BL/6 mice (wild type, n=9, 57+/-5% of contralateral cortex, 57+/-4% of contralateral hemisphere) (P<0.01). Striatal infarction was not altered (77+/-7% of contralateral striatum in SCID, 84+/-7% in wild type), suggesting that the core of the evolving ischemic lesion was not impacted by lack of T and B cells. As expected, inflammatory factors from immune cells in ischemic SCID brains were essentially absent, with the exception of interleukin-1beta increase in both SCID and wild type tissue. Spleen cell numbers were low in SCID mice, but were further reduced 22 h after stroke, with substantial reduction in most inflammatory factors except for increased expression of interferon-gamma and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2. These data quantify the damaging effect of T and B lymphocytes on early, evolving ischemic brain injury, and further implicate interleukin-1beta in brain and interferon-gamma and MIP-2 in spleen as inflammatory factors produced by cells other than T and B cells.
    Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism 11/2007; 27(11):1798-805. · 5.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) has attracted much interest because of its many antiaging, metabolic and immune-modulating effects in rodents. Synthetic derivatives, such as 5-androstene-16alpha-fluoro-17-one (HE2500) and certain natural metabolites also provide benefit in various animal models of autoimmune and metabolic diseases. But, like DHEA, low potency and low oral bioavailability suggested limited usefulness of these compounds in humans. We hypothesized that HE3286, a novel 17-ethynyl derivative would be orally bioavailable, more potent, and chemically more useful in man than its parent compound. We found that on a dose/mass basis, HE3286 demonstrated up to 25% oral bioavailability in mice. In the DBA mouse model of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), animals receiving oral treatment with HE3286 (50 mg/kg), beginning at onset of disease, significantly decreased CIA peak scores and daily severity of arthritis scores. Benefit was associated with decreases in: (1) production of TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IL-17; and (2) decreases in joint inflammation, erosion, and synovial proliferation as judged by histological analysis. HE3286 was not found to be immune suppressive in any of the classical models tested, including mitogen-induced proliferation, delayed-type hypersensitivity, or mixed lymphocyte reaction. Instead, benefit was associated with increases in numbers and function of CD4+CD25+FOXp3+CD127- regulatory T cells (T reg). To our knowledge, this is probably the first study to report that an orally bioavailable synthetic analogue of DHEA can ameliorate ongoing disease in a CIA mouse model with relevance to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to correlate that finding with decreases in proinflammatory cytokines and increases in T reg cells. Hormones targeting T reg cells hold the intriguing potential to treat autoimmune, infectious, and neoplastic diseases.
    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 10/2007; 1110:630-40. · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Induction of stroke not only produces local ischemia and brain damage, but also has profound effects on peripheral immune responses. In the current study, we evaluated effects on spleen and blood cells 4 days after stroke induction. Surprisingly, there was a less inflammatory cytokine profile in the middle cerebral artery occlusion-affected right brain hemisphere at 96 h compared with earlier time points. Moreover, our results demonstrate that stroke leads to splenic atrophy characterized by a reduction in organ size, a drastic loss of splenocyte numbers, and induction of annexin V+ and TUNEL+ cells within the spleen that are in the late stages of apoptosis. The consequence of this process was to reduce T cell proliferation responses and secretion of inflammatory cytokines, resulting in a state of profound immunosuppression. These changes produced a drastic reduction in B cell numbers in spleen and blood, and a novel increase in CD4+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells. Moreover, we detected a striking increase in the percentage of nonapoptotic CD11b+ VLA-4-negative macrophages/monocytes in blood. Immunosuppression in response to brain injury may account for the reduction of inflammatory factors in the stroke-affected brain, but also potentially could curtail protective immune responses in the periphery. These findings provide new evidence to support the contention that damage to the brain caused by cerebral ischemia provides a powerful negative signal to the peripheral immune system that ultimately induces a drastic state of immunosuppression caused by cell death as well as an increased presence of CD4+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells.
    The Journal of Immunology 07/2006; 176(11):6523-31. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Clinical experimental stroke induces injurious local brain inflammation. However, effects on the peripheral immune system have not been well characterized. We quantified mRNA and protein levels for cytokines, chemokines, and chemokine receptors (CCR) in brain, spinal cord, peripheral lymphoid organs (spleen, lymph node, blood, and cultured mononuclear cells from these sources), and blood plasma after reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) or sham treatment in male C57BL/6 mice. Middle cerebral artery occlusion induced a complex, but organ specific, pattern of inflammatory factors in the periphery. At both 6 and 22 h after MCAO, activated spleen cells from stroke-injured mice secreted significantly enhanced levels of TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, IL-6, MCP-1, and IL-2. Unstimulated splenocytes expressed increased chemokines and CCR, including MIP-2 and CCR2, CCR7 and CCR8 at 6 h; and MIP-2, IP-10, and CCR1 and CCR2 at 22 h. Also at 22 h, T cells from blood and lymph nodes secreted increased levels of inflammatory cytokines after activation. As expected, there were striking proinflammatory changes in postischemic brain. In contrast, spinal cord displayed suppression of all mediators, suggesting a compensatory response to intracranial events. These data show for the first time that focal cerebral ischemia results in dynamic and widespread activation of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and CCR in the peripheral immune system.
    Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism 06/2006; 26(5):654-65. · 5.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The major goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and mechanism of a rTCR ligand (RTL) construct (I-A(s)/proteolipid protein (PLP)-139-151 peptide = RTL401) for treatment of SJL/J mice developing passive experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) that did not involve coimmunization with the highly inflammatory CFA. Our results demonstrated clearly that RTL401 was highly effective in treating passive EAE, with kinetics of recovery from disease very similar to treatment of actively induced EAE. The potent RTL401 treatment effect was reflected by a partial reduction of infiltrating mononuclear cells into CNS, minimal inflammatory lesions in spinal cord, and preservation of axons injured in vehicle-treated mice during the progression of EAE. Interestingly, in the absence of CFA, RTL401 treatment strongly enhanced production of the Th2 cytokine, IL-13, in spleen, blood, and spinal cord tissue, with variable effects on other Th1 and Th2 cytokines, and no significant effect on the Th3 cytokine, TGF-beta1, or on FoxP3 that is expressed by regulatory T cells. Moreover, pretreatment of PLP-139-151-specific T cells with RTL401 in vitro induced high levels of secreted IL-13, with lesser induction of other pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Given the importance of IL-13 for protection against EAE, these data strongly implicate IL-13 as a dominant regulatory cytokine induced by RTL therapy. Pronounced IL-13 levels coupled with marked reduction in IL-6 levels secreted by PLP-specific T cells from blood after treatment of mice with RTL401 indicate that IL-13 and IL-6 may be useful markers for following effects of RTL therapy in future clinical trials in multiple sclerosis.
    The Journal of Immunology 10/2005; 175(6):4103-11. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We previously demonstrated the therapeutic effects of ethinyl estradiol (EE), an orally active estrogen and a component of birth control pills, in encephalitogenic autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In this study, we report the effectiveness of EE in treating collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) induced with bovine type II collagen (bCII) in DBA/1LacJ mice, a CIA susceptible strain. Both low and high doses of EE notably suppressed clinical and histological signs of CIA in a dose-dependent manner compared to vehicle-treated controls. Oral treatment with EE decreased proliferation and secretion of pro-inflammatory factors, TNF-alpha IFN-gamma, MCP-1 and IL-6 by bCII peptide-specific T cells, production of bCII-specific IgG2a antibodies, and mRNA for cytokines, chemokines and chemokine receptors in joint tissue. This is the first report demonstrating effective treatment of joint inflammation and clinical signs of CIA with orally administered ethinyl estradiol, thus supporting its possible clinical use for treating rheumatoid arthritis in humans.
    Clinical Immunology 06/2005; 115(2):162-72. · 3.77 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
153.89 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2009–2011
    • Portland VA Medical Center
      Portland, Oregon, United States
  • 2003–2011
    • Oregon Health and Science University
      • • Department of Anesthesiology & Perioperative Medicine
      • • Department of Molecular Microbiology & Immunology
      • • Department of Neurology
      Portland, OR, United States
    • Kyoto University
      • Institute for Frontier Medical Sciences
      Kyoto, Kyoto-fu, Japan