[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM) is a recognized risk factor for elevated blood pressure (BP) and cardiovascular disease in adults, and this prospective cohort study was undertaken to evaluate whether gestational exposure to PM(2.5) has a prohypertensive effect. We measured personal exposure to fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) by personal air monitoring in the second trimester of pregnancy among 431 women, and BP values in the third trimester were obtained from medical records of prenatal care clinics. In the general estimating equation model, the effect of PM(2.5) on BP was adjusted for relevant covariates such as maternal age, education, parity, gestational weight gain (GWG), prepregnancy BMI, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), and blood lead level. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) increased in a linear fashion across a dosage of PM(2.5) and on average augmented by 6.1 mm Hg (95% CI, 0.6-11.6) with log unit of PM(2.5) concentration. Effects of age, maternal education, prepregnancy BMI, blood lead level, and ETS were insignificant. Women with excessive gestational weight gain (>18 kg) had higher mean SBP parameters by 5.5 mmHg (95% CI, 2.7-8.3). In contrast, multiparous women had significantly lower SBP values (coeff. = -4.2 mm Hg; 95% CI, -6.8 to -1.6). Similar analysis performed for diastolic blood pressure (DBP) has demonstrated that PM(2.5) also affected DBP parameters (coeff. = 4.1; 95% CI, -0.02 to 8.2), but at the border significance level. DBP values were positively associated with the excessive GWG (coeff. = 2.3; 95% CI, 0.3-4.4) but were inversely related to parity (coeff. = -2.7; 95% CI, -4.6 to -0.73). In the observed cohort, the exposure to fine particulate matter during pregnancy was associated with increased maternal blood pressure.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously reported an association between prenatal exposure to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and lower birth weight, birth length, and head circumference. The main goal of the present analysis was to assess the possible impact of coexposure to PAH-containing barbecued meat consumed during pregnancy on birth outcomes.
The birth cohort consisted of 432 pregnant women who gave birth at term (>36 wk of gestation). Only non-smoking women with singleton pregnancies, 18-35 y of age, and who were free from chronic diseases such as diabetes and hypertension, were included in the study. Detailed information on diet over pregnancy was collected through interviews and the measurement of exposure to airborne PAHs was carried out by personal air monitoring during the second trimester of pregnancy. The effect of barbecued meat consumption on birth outcomes (birth weight, length, and head circumference at birth) was adjusted in multiple linear regression models for potential confounding factors such as prenatal exposure to airborne PAHs, child's sex, gestational age, parity, size of mother (maternal prepregnancy weight, weight gain in pregnancy), and prenatal environmental tobacco smoke.
The multivariable regression model showed a significant deficit in birth weight associated with barbecued meat consumption in pregnancy (coeff = -106.0 g; 95%CI: -293.3, -35.8). The effect of exposure to airborne PAHs was about the same magnitude order (coeff. = -164.6 g; 95%CI: -172.3, -34.7). Combined effect of both sources of exposure amounted to birth weight deficit of 214.3 g (95%CI: -419.0, -9.6). Regression models performed for birth length and head circumference showed similar trends but the estimated effects were of borderline significance level. As the intake of barbecued meat did not affect the duration of pregnancy, the reduced birth weight could not have been mediated by a shortened gestation period.
In conclusion, the study results provided epidemiologic evidence that prenatal PAH exposure from diet including grilled meat might be hazardous for fetal development.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The goal of the study was to test the hypothesis that prenatal Paracetamol exposure increases the risk of developing eczema in early childhood and that this association may be stronger in children who are exposed in fetal period to higher concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5). The study sample consisted of 322 women recruited from January 2001 to February 2004 in the Krakow inner city area who gave birth to term babies and completed 5-year follow-up. Paracetamol use in pregnancy was collected by interviews and prenatal personal exposure to PM2.5 over 48 h was measured in recruited women in the second trimester of pregnancy. After delivery, every three months in the first 24 months of the newborn's life and every 6 months later, a detailed standardized face-to-face interview on the infant's health was administered to each mother by trained interviewers. During the interviews at each of the study periods after birth, a history of eczema was recorded. The incident rate ratio (IRR) for frequency of eczema events over the follow-up was estimated from the Poisson regression model and the overall effect of main exposure variables on eczema was assessed by odds ratios (ORs) by the logistic model. The estimated relative risk of eczema occurring whenever in the follow-up was related significantly neither with prenatal Paracetamol nor higher PM2.5 exposure, however, their joint effect was significant (OR interaction term=6.04; 95%CI: 1.04-35.16). Of potential confounders considered in the analysis only damp/moldy home significantly increased the risk of eczema (OR=1.53; 95%CI: 1.14-2.05). In contrast, there was an inverse significant association between the presence of older siblings and eczema (OR=0.55; 95%CI: 0.35-0.84). The joint effect of the main exposure variables significantly increased frequency of eczema events (IRR=1.78, 95%CI: 1.22-2.61). In conclusion, the findings of the study suggest that Paracetamol use by mothers in pregnancy is not an independent risk factor for eczema in children, however, even very small doses of Paracetamol taken in pregnancy may contribute to the occurrence of allergic symptoms in early childhood if there is prenatal co-exposure to higher airborne fine particulate matter.
Science of The Total Environment 09/2011; 409(24):5205-9. · 3.26 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The main goal of the study was to assess the effect of exclusive breastfeeding on the neurodevelopment of children over a 7-year follow-up period and to test the hypothesis that the observed cognitive gain in breastfed children in the first years of life is a strong predictor of their cognitive development trajectory, which may be continued in later life. The analysis is based on data from the 7-year follow-up of 468 term babies (>36 weeks of gestation) born to non-smoking mothers participating in an ongoing prospective cohort study. The cognitive function of children was assessed by psychometric tests performed five times at regular intervals from infancy through the preschool age. The study included valid neurodevelopmental assessment of the children-443 participants were evaluated least twice; 425, three times; and 307, five times in the follow-up period. The association between the cognitive achievements of preschool age children and exclusive breastfeeding of various durations was performed using the generalized estimating equation longitudinal model, adjusted for major confounders such as maternal education, gender, parity, and weight gain in pregnancy. Children breastfed exclusively for up to 3 months had intelligence quotients (IQs) that were on average 2.1 points higher compared to the others (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.24-3.9); children breastfed for 4-6 months scored higher by 2.6 points (95% CI, 0.87-4.27); and the benefit for children breastfed even longer (>6 months) increased by 3.8 points (95% CI, 2.11-5.45). Other predictors were maternal education, gender of the child, having an older sibling, and weight gain during pregnancy. The results of the study support the WHO expert recommendations on exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months; moreover, they provide evidence that even a shorter duration of exclusive breastfeeding in early infancy produces beneficial effects on the cognitive development of children. The breastfeeding-related IQ gain observed already at the age of 1 was sustained through preschool age, and the difference in terms of IQ score between breastfed children and the reference group (mixed breastfeeding) held constant over the whole preschool period.
European Journal of Pediatrics 06/2011; 171(1):151-8. · 1.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The number of pregnancies complicated by type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is growing; however, their clinical characteristics remain incomplete. We aimed to assess clinical characteristics, glycemic control, and selected pregnancy outcomes in pregestational T2DM from Poland and to compare them with those of T1DM. We analyzed 415 consecutive singleton pregnancies; among them, there were 70 women with T2DM and 345 with T1DM. As compared to T1DM patients, women with T2DM were older (mean age 33.1 years vs. 27.8, respectively), heavier before pregnancy (mean BMI 30.8 kg/m² vs. 23.9), and had a shorter duration of diabetes (mean 3.3 years vs. 11.4); ( P<0.0001 for all comparisons). The gestational age at the first visit was higher in T2DM (mean 11.4 weeks vs. 8.6; P=0.0004). Nevertheless, they had better glycemic control in the first trimester (mean HbA1c 6.2% vs. 7.0; P=0.003); in subsequent months, the differences in HbA1c were no longer significant. T2DM women gained less weight during pregnancy (mean 9.9 kgs vs. 14.1; P<0.0001). The proportion of miscarriages (10.0 vs. 7.3%; P=0.32), preterm deliveries (12.7 vs. 17.8%; P=0.32), combined infant deaths, and congenital malformations were similar in both groups (9.5 vs. 8.8%; P=0.4) as was the frequency of caesarean sections (58.7 vs. 64.1%; P=0.30). Macrosomic babies were more than twice less frequent in T2DM and the difference reached borderline significance (7.9 vs. 17.5%, P=0.07). Pregnancy planning in T2DM had a significant impact on HbA1c in the first trimester (5.7 vs. 6.4% in the planning vs. the not planning group, P=0.02); the difference was not significant in the second and third trimester. T2DM women had better glycemic control in the first trimester than T1DM subjects and gained less weight during pregnancy. This could have been the reason for the slightly lower number of macrosomic babies but did not affect other outcomes. In T2DM, pregnancy planning had a beneficial glycemic effect in the first trimester.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two regimens are used to achieve excellent glycemic control during pregnancy in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM): continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) and multiple daily injections (MDI). We assessed their efficacy and safety and the effect of pregnancy planning.
We examined 269 pregnant T1DM women: 157 treated with MDI (MDI group), 42 with CSII (CSII group), and 70 who switched from MDI to CSII in the first trimester (MDI/CSII group). There were 116 women who planned pregnancy: 58 in the MDI group, 38 in the CSII group, and 20 in the MDI/CSII group. The estimated differences in glycemic control and maternal and fetal outcomes were adjusted for baseline characteristics.
Mean glycated A1c (HbA1c) in the first trimester in the whole group was 6.9%, and the women differed depending on whether they planned pregnancy or not (P < 0.0001). A multiple regression model showed an average difference of about 0.9% in favor of pregnancy planning, with no interaction between the planning and treatments. In the second trimester, HbA1c decreased to a mean value of 5.8%, with improvement of HbA1c across all treatments: by 1.5% in not-planning and 0.9% in planning women. Despite greater improvement, not-planning women still had a higher HbA1c (by 0.3%, P = 0.05). In the third trimester, there was no further significant changes; nevertheless, women who planned pregnancy still had a lower HbA1c (by 0.5%, P = 0.02). There were 14 malformations, stillbirths, and perinatal infant deaths in the not-planning versus five in the planning group (P = 0.07). Patients in the CSII group had a 2 kg greater weight gain compared to the MDI group (15.0 kg vs. 13.0 kg; P = 0.005).
In pregnancy with T1DM, both MDI and CSII can provide excellent glycemic control. Pregnancy planning has a beneficial effect on glycemic control, independent from the therapy model. CSII seems to predispose to a larger weight gain in mothers.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to assess a hypothesized beneficial effect of fish consumption during the last trimester of pregnancy on adverse birth outcomes resulting from prenatal exposure to fine air particulate matter.
The cohort consisted of 481 nonsmoking women with singleton pregnancies, of 18-35 years of age, who gave birth at term. All recruited women were asked about their usual diet over the period of pregnancy. Measurements of particulate matter less than 2.5 mum in size (PM(2.5)) were carried out by personal air monitoring over 48 h during the second trimester of pregnancy. The effect of PM(2.5) and fish intake during gestation on the birth weight of the babies was estimated from multivariable linear regression models, which beside the main independent variables considered a set of potential confounding factors such as the size of the mother (height, prepregnancy weight), maternal education, parity, the gender of the child, gestational age and the season of birth.
The study showed that the adjusted birth weight was significantly lower in newborns whose mothers were exposed to particulate matter greater than 46.3 microg/m3 (beta coefficient = -97.02, p = 0.032). Regression analysis stratified by the level of maternal fish consumption (in tertiles) showed that the deficit in birth weight amounted to 133.26 g (p = 0.052) in newborns whose mothers reported low fish intake (<91 g/week). The birth weight deficit in newborns whose mothers reported medium (91-205 g/week) or higher fish intake (>205 g/week) was insignificant. The interaction term between PM(2.5) and fish intake levels was also insignificant (beta = -107,35, p = 0.215). Neither gestational age nor birth weight correlated with maternal fish consumption.
The results suggest that a higher consumption of fish by women during pregnancy may reduce the risk of adverse effects of prenatal exposure to toxicants and highlight the fact that a full assessment of adverse birth outcomes resulting from prenatal exposure to ambient hazards should consider maternal nutrition during pregnancy.
Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism 01/2010; 56(2):119-26. · 1.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our primary purpose was to assess sex-specific fetal growth reduction in newborns exposed prenatally to fine particulate matter. Only women 18-35 years of age, who claimed to be non-smokers, with singleton pregnancies, without illicit drug use and HIV infection, free from chronic diseases were eligible for the study. A total of 481 enrolled pregnant women who gave birth between 37 and 43 weeks of gestation were included in the study. Prenatal personal exposure to fine particles over 48 h during the second trimester was measured using personal monitors. To evaluate the relationship between the level of PM(2.5) measured over 48 h in the second trimester of pregnancy with those in the first and the third trimesters, a series of repeated measurements in each trimester was carried out in a random subsample of 85 pregnant women. We assessed the effect of PM(2.5) exposure on the birth outcomes (weight, length and head circumference at birth) by multivariable regression models, controlling for potential confounders (maternal education, gestational age, parity, maternal height and prepregnancy weight, sex of infant, prenatal environmental tobacco smoke, and season of birth). Birth outcomes were associated positively with gestational age, parity, maternal height and prepregnancy weight, but negatively with the level of prenatal PM(2.5) exposure. Overall average increase in gestational period of prenatal exposure to fine particles by about 30 microg/m3, i.e., from 25th percentile (23.4 microg/m3) to 75th percentile (53.1 microg/m3) brought about an average birth weight deficit of 97.2g (95% CI: -201, 6.6) and length at birth of 0.7 cm (95% CI: -1.36, -0.04). The corresponding exposure lead to birth weight deficit in male newborns of 189 g (95% CI: -34.2, -343) in comparison to 17g in female newborns; the deficit of length at birth in male infants amounted to 1.1cm (95% CI: -0.11, -2.04). We found a significant interrelationship between self-reported ETS and PM(2.5), however, none of the models showed a significant interaction of both variables. The joint effect of various levels of PM(2.5) and ETS on birth outcomes showed the significant deficit only for the categories of exposure with higher component of PM(2.5). Concluding, the results of the study suggest that observed deficits in birth outcomes are rather attributable to prenatal PM(2.5) exposure and not to environmental tobacco smoke. The study also provided evidence that male fetuses are more sensitive to prenatal PM(2.5) exposure and this should persuade policy makers to consider birth outcomes by gender separately while setting air pollution guidelines.
Environmental Research 04/2009; 109(4):447-56. · 3.24 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to determine whether nutritional status of pregnant women influences the birth outcome.
A prospective study, conducted in Krakow, in 382 non-smoking, no obese pregnant women between the ages of 18 - 35. The course of pregnancy was uncomplicated, finished with natural labor, in biological time limits. The impact of mother's nutritional status before pregnancy and weight gain on newborns weight, length and head circumference was estimated by multivariate linear regression.
The infant birth weight depended on mothers nutritional status before pregnancy and was lower in the group of underweight subjects (3381.6 g vs. 3479.9 g, p = 0.022). Women with low increase in body mass during pregnancy delivered newborns with lower anthropometrics parameters. The increase in body weight of one category resulted in statistically significant increase of birth weight by 140.9 g, increase of length by 0.51 cm and in head circumference by 0.27 cm.
Increase in body mass during pregnancy is particularly important in the group of women underweight before pregnancy. Change of nutritional habits before and in the course of pregnancy may have beneficial effects for intrauterine fetal development.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to estimate the amount of absorbed mercury (Hg) by mothers and their infants as a result of fish consumption during pregnancy.
The cohort consisted of 313 mother-infant pairs recruited initially from ambulatory prenatal clinics in the first and second trimesters of pregnancy. The customary pattern of fish consumption during pregnancy reported by mothers was correlated with Hg levels in cord and maternal blood at delivery. Blood Hg level was measured using atomic absorption spectrometry.
The mean Hg concentration in cord blood was markedly higher than in maternal blood at delivery (1.09 microg/L; 95%CI: 1.00-1.13 microg/L vs. 0.83 microg/L, 95%CI: 0.76-0.91 microg/L). There was significant correlation (r(s)=0.62, 95%CI: 0.55-0.69) between Hg levels in cord and maternal blood. The overall ratio of Hg in cord blood vs. maternal blood was 1.7 (95%C: 1.50-1.89). Fish consumed during the last pregnancy trimester correlated stronger with umbilical cord concentrations (r(s)=0.32; 95%CI: 0.22-0.40) than with Hg in maternal blood (r(s)=0.23; 95%CI: 0.14-0.33).
The study shows that in Poland, babies are exposed to moderate levels of mercury prior to birth and that fish eating in pregnancy significantly contributes to prenatal Hg exposure. The findings also suggest that the level of cord blood Hg should not be used for describing inter-individual differences in maternal exposure to Hg unless a proper correction factor is introduced.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health 02/2007; 20(1):31-7. · 1.31 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the study is to assess the cognitive and psychomotor status of 1-year-old infants whose mothers were exposed to low, but varying, amounts of mercury during pregnancy.
Mercury levels in cord and maternal blood at delivery were used to assess prenatal environmental exposure to mercury. Bayley Scales of Infant Development were used to assess neurobehavioral health outcomes. The cohort consisted of 233 infants who were born at 33 to 42 weeks of gestation between January 2001 and March 2003 to mothers attending ambulatory prenatal clinics in the first and second trimesters of pregnancy. Enrollment included only nonsmoking women with singleton pregnancies between the ages of 18 and 35 years who were free from chronic diseases.
The geometric mean (GM) for maternal blood mercury level for the group of infants with normal neurocognitive performance was lower (GM = 0.52 mug/L; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.46-0.58) than that observed in the group with delayed performance (GM = 0.75 mug/L; 95% CI, 0.59-0.94), and this difference was significant (p = 0.010). The GM of cord blood mercury level in the normal group also was lower (GM = 0.85 mug/L; 95% CI, 0.78-0.93) than that observed in the group with delayed performance (GM = 1.05 mug/L; 95% CI, 0.87-1.27), and this difference was of borderline significance (p = 0.070). The relative risk (RR) for delayed performance increased more than threefold (RR = 3.58; 95% CI, 1.40-9.14) if cord blood mercury level was greater than 0.80 mug/L. Risk for delayed performance in the group of infants with greater maternal mercury levels (>0.50 mug/L) also was significantly greater (RR = 2.82; 95% CI, 1.17-6.79) compared with children whose mothers had mercury levels less than 0.50 mug/L.
The results may be of public health importance because delayed psychomotor or mental performance in infants is assumed to be an indicator of later neurocognitive development in children, which may persist into adult life.
Annals of Epidemiology 06/2006; 16(6):439-47. · 2.48 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hemocidins are a novel class of antibacterial peptides generated proteolytically from hemoglobin. These peptides play a particularly important role in maintaining vaginal homeostasis during menstrual bleeding. To investigate the hemoglobin fragmentation process during the last stages of pregnancy, we examined uterine secretion (lochia) samples from a group of 22 healthy women who underwent cesarean delivery at term.
Patients were divided into three groups: (1) the elective cesarean deliveries without symptoms of spontaneous labor, (2) the nonelective cesarean deliveries with spontaneous beginning of labor, and (3) the nonelective cesarean deliveries during advanced labor. The samples were subjected to chromatographic estimation of free hemoglobin and peptides. In three representative patients the identification of all lochial peptides was performed.
All samples contained a significant amount of free hemoglobin and its level increased with labor progression. The presence of peptide fractions was also detected in most lochia samples. They were confirmed to be human hemoglobin fragments, almost identical to the recently described bactericidal hemocidins from menstrual discharge. The level of peptides also increased during labor. The subgroup with advanced labor demonstrated the highest amount of hemocidins.
The presented results prove that proteolysis of free hemoglobin in the female upper reproductive tract begins together with the clinical symptoms of normal labor. We speculate that cesarean delivery affects molecular mechanisms involved in antibacterial hemocidins generation and, in effect, might be responsible for the increased risk of gynecologic infections in cesarean deliveries.
Journal of the Society for Gynecologic Investigation 06/2006; 13(4):285-91. · 2.26 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The exceptionality of endometrium, differentiating it from other epithelial tissues is related with its ability to regulate the number and activity of infiltrating immunological cells according to menstrual cycle phases. The aim of this study was a comparative evaluation of the number of CD56 positive cells, as well the analysis of CD69 antigen expression during decidualization.
The expression of CD56 and CD69 antigens was analyzed using the immunohistochemistry method in 20 decidual tissue samples derived after curettage following spontaneous abortion and in 38 endometrial tissue samples obtained during hysterectomy performed because of benign myoma diagnosis. The endometrial tissue samples were divided regarding to the menstrual cycle phases. Following phases were distinguished: early proliferative, mid-proliferative, late proliferative, early secretory, mid secretory and late secretory.
The higher CD56 positive cells were recognized in the endometrium during mid secretory cycle phase. The number of CD56 positive cells was significantly lower in endometrium, independent of menstrual cycle phase in comparison to endometrium following abortion. The expression of CD69 antigen was observed to increase beginning with early secretory cycle phase and remained at high level during the secretory cycle phase and the abortion.
The observed differences in the number of CD56 positive cells during decidualization without the changes in immune cells activity evaluated using CD69 antigen expression may indicate the participation of activated mononuclear cells in the normal development of pregnancy beginning with implantation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The particular purpose of our study was to assess the impact of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) on the individual variability of blood lead levels in pregnant women as earlier publications demonstrated the increased blood lead in smokers.
The material consisted of 240 pregnant women who participated in a prospective cohort study on vulnerability of the fetus and infant to environmental hazards. The enrolment included only non-smoking women with singleton pregnancies between the ages of 18-35 years. Whole blood lead concentrations were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.
On average, blood-lead measured in pregnant women at delivery was low (GM = 1.7 microg/dL; 95% CI:1.6-1.8 microg/dL) and none of them showed levels above 4.0 microg/dL, but persons reporting exposure to ETS had significantly higher blood lead level (GM = 1.9 microg/dL; 95%CI:1.8-2.1 microg/dL) than those free from this exposure (GM = 1.6 microg/dL; 95%CI:1.5-1.7 microg/dL). In order to single out the effect of the ETS exposure from the confounding variables, we used the stepwise multivariate linear regression for log blood-lead in maternal blood as dependent variable and a set of independent variables, such as age, weight of women before pregnancy and their education level. The results of the analysis showed that all the independent variables included in the model explained 11% of total blood-lead variability among the study women. The strongest component of variance was attributed to ETS exposure (5%), age (3%), education level (2%) and weight (1%). Inclusion into the model of other variables, e.g., residence area and traffic intensity did not improve the proportion of explained variability.
The reason for higher levels of blood-lead in the ETS-exposed women may result from the fact that tobacco smoke contains lead. However, it is possible that inhaled tobacco smoke also increases the absorption of lead from particulate matter deposited in the bronchial tree.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health 01/2006; 19(4):205-10. · 1.31 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to estimate exposure of pregnant women in Poland to fine particulate matter [less than or equal to 2.5 microm in diameter (PM 2.5)] and to assess its effect on the birth outcomes. The cohort consisted of 362 pregnant women who gave birth between 34 and 43 weeks of gestation. The enrollment included only nonsmoking women with singleton pregnancies, 18-35 years of age, who were free from chronic diseases such as diabetes and hypertension. PM 2.5 was measured by personal air monitoring over 48 hr during the second trimester of pregnancy. All assessed birth effects were adjusted in multiple linear regression models for potential confounding factors such as the size of mother (maternal height, prepregnancy weight), parity, sex of child, gestational age, season of birth, and self-reported environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The regression model explained 35% of the variability in birth weight (beta = -200.8, p = 0.03), and both regression coefficients for PM 2.5 and birth length (beta = -1.44, p = 0.01) and head circumference (HC; beta = -0.73, p = 0.02) were significant as well. In all regression models, the effect of ETS was insignificant. Predicted reduction in birth weight at an increase of exposure from 10 to 50 microg/m3 was 140.3 g. The corresponding predicted reduction of birth length would be 1.0 cm, and of HC, 0.5 cm. The study provides new and convincing epidemiologic evidence that high personal exposure to fine particles is associated with adverse effects on the developing fetus. These results indicate the need to reduce ambient fine particulate concentrations. However, further research should establish possible biologic mechanisms explaining the observed relationship.
Environmental Health Perspectives 11/2004; 112(14):1398-402. · 7.26 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to describe pharmacological supplements during pregnancy in the sample of 406 nonsmoking women, residents of Krakow. Multivitamins' supplements were taken by 79.1%, folic acid by 41.4%, magnesium by 23.9% and iron only by 14.5% of the study group. Our results confirm that vitamin and mineral supplements, ferrum, folic acid and magnesium in particular, are inadequate in comparison to recommended intakes. Women with lower education (secondary school or lower) failed to supplement diet with multivitamins (OR = 5.74; 95% CI: 1.41-23.5) and folic acid (OR = 2.11; 95% CI: 1.22-3.66). Otherwise, health problems during the previous pregnancies and nulliparity have lowered pharmacological folic acid supplements (OR = 0.45; 95% CI: 0.21-0.97 and OR = 0.57; 95% CI: 0.32-0.99, respectively). Results of our study show that diet assessed for pregnancy period does not meet nutritional requirements. Pharmacological supplementary intake of vitamins and minerals is also insufficient. It is advisable to popularize education concerning necessity and usefulness of vitamin and microelement supplementation during medical examinations in the childbearing age.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION. The aim of the article is to asses metabolic changes in pregnant women with gesta- tional diabetes and compare to healthy women as well as to determine whether GDM is characterized by relative changes in C-reactive protein (CRP) level. MATERIAL AND METHODS. We performed a cross- sectional study that included 335 pregnant women, all of the Caucasian race. They underwent oral glu-
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A cohort study assessed the relationship between dietary intake of vitamin A in 493 healthy mothers before and around conception and adverse birth outcomes associated with environmental toxicant exposures. The cohort, non-smoking women with singleton pregnancies, aged 18-35 years, gave birth at 34-43 weeks of gestation. The women were asked about their diets over one year preceding pregnancy. Measurements of PM2.5 were carried out during the second trimester. Birth outcomes were adjusted for potential confounding factors, including gestational age. Standardized beta regression coefficients confirmed an inverse association between PM2.5 and birth weight (beta = -172.4, p = 0.02), but the effect of vitamin A on birth weight was positive (beta = 176.05, p = 0.05), when the two were adjusted for each other. The negative effect of higher prenatal PM2.5 exposures (above third tertile) on birth weight was significant in women below the third tertile of vitamin A intakes (beta = -185.1, p = 0.00), but not in women with higher intakes (beta = 38.6, p = 0.61). The negative effect of higher PM2.5 exposure on length at birth was significant with lower vitamin A intakes (beta = -1.1, p = 0.00) but not with higher intakes (beta = -0.3, p = 0.56). Prepregnancy nutrition of mothers may modulate the harmful effects of prenatal exposures to pollutants on birth outcomes.
International journal of occupational and environmental health 13(2):175-80. · 1.18 Impact Factor