N Tomiyama

University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, Okinawa, Japan

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Publications (11)26.99 Total impact

  • Nihon Toseki Igakkai Zasshi 01/2013; 46(9):943-947.
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    ABSTRACT: The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is high in developed countries, including Japan. However, little is known about the prevalence of anemia according to the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) among Japanese. We studied screenees on the Okinawa General Health Maintenance Association (OGHMA) registry in 1993 (N = 94,602; 54,848 women and 39,754 men) who had both serum creatinine and hematocrit data. Anemia was defined as follows: hematocrit level <40% in men, <32% in women aged <50 years, and <35% in women aged >or=50 years. GFR was estimated using a new Japanese equation: eGFR (ml/min per 1.73 m(2)) = 194 x serum creatinine(1.094) x age(0.287) x 0.739 (if female). The prevalence of anemia clearly increased as CKD progressed below an eGFR of 60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) in both genders. Logistic analysis adjusted with body mass index and older age (>or=70 years) revealed that the odds ratio for complications of anemia was significantly increased below an eGFR of 45 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) in women and 90 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) in men. The association of lower kidney function with anemia was found to be more prevalent: adjusted odds ratio >or=2.0, from approximately 50 ml/min per 1.73 m(2). The present study suggested that there might be as many as 1,000,000 people with CKD stage 3-5 complicated with anemia in Japan.
    Clinical and Experimental Nephrology 07/2009; 13(6):614-20. · 1.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Vascular calcification is common among hemodialysis (HD) patients and contributes to the development of peripheral arterial disease. A 57-year-old Japanese man who had been on HD for 30 years was referred to us for severe pain with multiple ulcers on his toes and fingers. He was an ex-smoker and had no diabetes mellitus. On admission, he had ulcers on his big toes bilaterally and right 2nd - 4th fingers. Peripheral pulses were strong and his ankle-brachial pressure index was above 1.3. Laboratory data were as follows: calcium 9.9 mg/dl, albumin 3.3 g/dl, phosphate 3.0 mg/dl, Ca x P product 30, and parathyroid hormone 98 pg/ml. He had a parathyroidectomy in 1998 and 1999. X-rays of his hands and legs showed diffuse subcutaneous arteriolar calcification. Angiography revealed no local stenotic lesions. Despite intensive therapies including hyperbaric oxygen therapy, painful gangrene developed on his right big toe and the pain was so intense that he could not go to sleep in a supine position. We infused intravenous sodium thiosulfate (20 g) 3 times weekly, based on previous reports. Within 4 - 5 days, he experienced rapid and dramatic symptom relief. The score of the visual analogue pain scale improved from 10/10 - 2/10. The signs of ischemia, measured by transcutaneous partial oxygen pressure and thermography, improved significantly. During the infusion of sodium thiosulfate, the patient complained of nausea, vomiting and hyperosmia. These adverse symptoms were resolved after discontinuation of the infusion. Pain relief was sustained and he could walk after 2 weeks of infusion. Our case supports the use of sodium thiosulfate as a novel therapeutic choice for critical limb ischemia with severe vascular calcification in chronic HD patients.
    Clinical nephrology 09/2006; 66(2):140-3. · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Few analyses have compared pulse pressure (PP) values in hemodialysis patients with healthy individuals, and they have provided only limited data. We retrospectively examined PP in a large cohort of hemodialysis patients and healthy control subjects. The relationships of systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and PP to mean arterial pressure (MAP) levels were investigated in 234 chronic hemodialysis patients and in 682 control subjects matched for age, sex, diabetes mellitus, and body mass index. In both control and patients, PP was positively correlated with MAP, and the two regression lines were parallel (beta of control subjects = 0.52; beta of hemodialysis patients = 0.57, P = 0.48). According to the regression line, at any MAP level, the PP in hemodialysis patients was significantly higher than that in control subjects: the mean PP difference between control and patients was 19.2 mm Hg (95% CI, 17.2 to 21.1 mm Hg, P < 0.0001). When the relationships between MAP and SBP and that between MAP and DBP were analyzed, the regression lines were also parallel. However, at any MAP level, SBP was higher and DBP was lower in hemodialysis patients than control subjects; the mean SBP difference was 12.8 mm Hg (95% CI, 11.5 to 14.1 mm Hg, P < 0.0001) and mean DBP difference was 6.4 mm Hg (95% CI, 5.7 to 7.0 mm Hg, P < 0.0001). At any MAP level, hemodialysis patients had a higher SBP, lower DBP, and higher PP values than those control subjects with a normal renal function who were matched for age, sex, diabetes mellitus, and body mass index. Further study is needed to determine whether preventing or reducing an elevated PP improves the prognosis for hemodialysis patients.
    Kidney International 01/2003; 62(6):2195-201. · 8.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A 33-year-old woman was referred from an outside dialysis clinic to our hospital because of severe abdominal pain during hemodialysis. She had been on chronic hemodialysis for the past 11 years due to chronic glomerulonephritis. Nafamostat mesilate was used as an anticoagulant for hemodialysis, because it was during her menstrual period with hypermenorrhea. On admission, she had no abdominal pain or gynecological abnormalities. On the second day, she had similar abdominal pain during hemodialysis with nafamostat mesilate in our dialysis unit. The abdominal pain disappeared within 60 minutes after discontinuing the hemodialysis. We re-started dialysis using heparin instead of nafamostat mesilate and she had no symptoms. The titer of total immunoglobulin E was high. The drug lymphocyte stimulation test was positive for nafamostat mesilate and antigen specific immunoglobulin E to nafamostat mesilate was highly positive in her blood. Although an allergic reaction to nafamostat mesilate is a rare complication, it should be one of the differential diagnoses of abdominal pain occurring during hemodialysis.
    Internal Medicine 11/2002; 41(10):864-6. · 0.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Information concerning medication use in Asian haemodialysis patients is sparse. We surveyed prescribed medications and examined the relation between the number of medications and mortality and clinical characteristics in chronic haemodialysis patients, in Okinawa, Japan. We conducted a cross-sectional multicentre survey in August 1999 and patients were observed during 13 months of follow up. The clinical demographics of 850 chronic haemodialysis patients in seven dialysis units were obtained. Compared with the mean number of medications prescribed in ambulatory patients treated in general practice reported from Ministry of Health and Welfare of Japan (2.7 (n=20 716)), the mean number medications in haemodialysis patients was larger (7.2 (n=850)). The three most prescribed drug types in haemodialysis patients were those related to calcium and phosphate metabolism (88%), antihypertensive agents (71%), and erythropoietin (60%). Among the 850 patients, 38 died during the 13-month follow-up period. The number of medications was positively associated with mortality after adjusting for age, sex, and other clinical factors: the hazard ratio was 1.14 (95% confidence interval 1.03-1.26, P=0.007). A multiple linear regression analysis using the number of medications as a dependent factor and sex and other clinical characteristics as independent factors revealed that male sex (P=0.04), diabetes mellitus (P<0.0001), and duplication of drugs (P<0.0001) were positively correlated with the number of medications. Multiple drug use was observed in haemodialysis patients. The number of prescribed drugs was a significant predictor of short-term mortality. Male sex, diabetes mellitus, and duplication of drugs were correlated with increases in the number of medications.
    Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 10/2002; 17(10):1819-24. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A 39-year-old man had been suffering from periodic fever since childhood. He was started on hemodialysis due to secondary amyloidosis on December 2000. The patient was believed to have Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) because of recurrent fever with peritonitis, arthritis and inflammatory changes and secondary amyloidosis in his kidneys, heart and colon. No other family member had recurrent fever. IL-6, TNF, and dopamine beta-hydroxylase were not increased in the febril phase. The patient was homozygous for the M6941 mutation. We report the first Japanese case of FMF associated with amyloidosis and confirmed by a gene mutation.
    Internal Medicine 04/2002; 41(3):221-4. · 0.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Local distribution into brain tumor and the pharmacokinetics of 4-pyridoxate diammine hydroxy platinum (PyPt), a novel cisplatin derivative, were examined using rats implanted with 9L glioma and compared with cisplatin. PyPt (5.0 mg/kg) and cisplatin (3.5 mg/kg) were administered as selective intracarotid infusions for 30 min to the rats. Dialysates from extracellular fluid (ECF) in tumor and non-tumor brain tissues were collected by simultaneous microdialysis. The amount of platinum was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, as representative of the drug administered. Plasma concentration of total and protein unbound platinum, and urinary excretion amount and tissue distribution of total platinum were also determined. Unbound platinum was accumulated preferentially in the brain tumor tissue ECF after drug administration, while there was little distribution into normal tissue ECF of the brain. In the brain tumor, the values of the unbound platinum AUC and MRT, where AUC is the area under the concentration-time curve and MRT is the mean residence time, for PyPt were 1.7 and 1.3 times larger than with cisplatin, respectively. The brain tumor distribution coefficient (the ratio of brain tumor ECF platinum AUC to plasma protein unbound platinum AUC) for PyPt (0.85) was higher than that for cisplatin (0.69), indicating that the local amount of platinum distributed into the glioma is enhanced by PyPt rather than by cisplatin. The binding to plasma proteins of PyPt (23%) was lower than that of cisplatin (65%). The total platinum concentration in tissues after administration of PyPt was significantly lower than that of cisplatin in the kidney, liver and spleen. In addition, the urinary excretion amount of total platinum after the administration of PyPt was significantly larger than that of cisplatin. These results suggested that PyPt is easily eliminated by rapid urinary excretion because of its reduced interaction with plasma proteins and poor distribution to the kidney or reticuloendothelial tissues such as the liver and spleen. It is concluded that PyPt is an effective cisplatin derivative for the treatment of gliomas with the added advantage of enhancing local distribution of drug into the brain tumor and reducing its accumulation in the kidney, which has previously caused severe nephrotoxicity.
    Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 01/2001; 23(12):1491-6. · 1.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The in vivo antitumor activity and toxicity of a newly synthesized polymeric prodrug of cisplatin was investigated and also compared with plain cisplatin. The prodrug included a dicarboxymethyl-dextran conjugate of cisplatin (DCM-Dex/CDDP). DCM-Dex/CDDP was i.v. injected in mice bearing s.c. Colon 26 mouse colon cancer cells. The tissue distribution of platinum was thereafter determined by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The platinic concentration of the organs showed a high rate of retention at 24 h after injection in the DCM-Dex/CDDP-treated mice. No biochemical or hematologically adverse effects were observed. In addition, DCM-Dex/CDDP showed a significantly higher antitumor activity than cisplatin alone. These results indicate that DCM-Dex/CDDP may therefore be a potentially effective cancer chemotherapy.
    Anti-Cancer Drugs 02/2000; 11(1):33-8. · 2.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In vitro release behavior and cytotoxic activity, and in vivo plasma disposition of newly synthesized macromolecular derivatives of cisplatin (CDDP) were investigated and compared with CDDP. The derivatives included oxidized dextran conjugate of CDDP (OX-Dex/CDDP) and dicarboxymethylated dextran conjugate of CDDP (DCM-Dex/CDDP). In vitro release of platinum complex from dextran conjugated CDDP was determined by an equilibrium dialysis method. These dextran conjugates showed sustained release of the platinum complex. In vitro release half-life for DCM-Dex/CDDP was significantly longer (4.5 times) than that for OX-Dex/CDDP. In vitro cytotoxic activity of CDDP and dextran conjugated CDDP against colon 26, mouse colon cancer cell line, was measured using the MTT assay method. OX-Dex/CDDP showed a similar cytotoxic activity to CDDP. However, both cytotoxic activities were markedly decreased when preincubated with the medium containing serum. On the other hand, DCM-Dex/CDDP retained residual cytotoxic activity at a significantly higher level than OX-Dex/CDDP after preincubation with the medium containing serum, although it showed the lowest cytotoxic activity. This indicated longer maintenance of the in vitro antitumor activity of DCM-Dex/CDDP in serum compared with OX-Dex/CDDP. Plasma disposition of CDDP and dextran conjugated CDDP was determined by intravenous administration to rats. Although the total platinum plasma concentration-time profile for OX-Dex/CDDP was similar to that for CDDP, its markedly higher profile was achieved when DCM-Dex/CDDP was administered. The values of the total platinum AUC and MRT, where AUC is the area under the platinum concentration-time curve and MRT is the mean residence time, for DCM-Dex/CDDP were 11.2 times and 4.8 times significantly higher than with OX-Dex/CDDP in plasma, respectively. DCM-Dex/CDDP also showed a significantly lower total clearance compared with OX-Dex/CDDP. These results from the in vivo experiments revealed that retention of DCM-Dex/CDDP in blood circulation was much greater than that for OX-Dex/CDDP. DCM-Dex/CDDP thus has potential as a macromolecular derivative of CDDP for passive tumor targeting.
    Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 08/1999; 22(7):756-61. · 1.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Simultaneous brain microdialysis in tumour and non-tumour tissues has been used for kinetic determination of the local distribution of an anticancer agent, cisplatin, in rats. Rat brain was implanted with 9L malignant glioma and cisplatin (3.5 mg kg-1) was administered as a selective intracarotid infusion for 30 min to rats prepared for brain microdialysis. The amount of platinum in the dialysate collected from tumour and non-tumour brain tissues was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, as representative of cisplatin. Total and free platinum concentrations in plasma were also measured. Free platinum is accumulated preferentially in the tumour tissue and the brain tumour distribution coefficient (the ratio of brain tumour platinum AUC to plasma free platinum AUC, where AUC is the area under the platinum concentration-time curve) was 0.69, although there was little distribution into normal brain tissue. Drug binding to plasma proteins was 65%. It is concluded that simultaneous microdialysis is an easy and available method for assessing in-vivo local pharmacokinetics and distribution of cisplatin in tumour and non-tumour tissues of the brain.
    Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 09/1997; 49(8):777-80. · 2.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by recurrent attacks of fever with serosal inflammation. FMF gene (MEFV) mutations have been identified primarily in patients from Mediterranean populations. Although several clinical cases have been reported in Japan, there have been few reports to date on mutation analysis. We studied FMF patients and their relatives to examine the clinical and genetic features of this disease in the Japanese population. Twelve Japanese FMF patients who met the Tel Hashomer criteria and a total of 17 relatives from 5 of 10 families underwent molecular genetic studies to detect MEFV mutations. The characteristics of these Japanese FMF patients and geno-phenotypical correlations were examined. Almost all of our patients had been suffering for a long time from fever of unknown origin and one patient also had systemic amyloidosis. In our 12 FMF patients, we detected the substitutions E84K, L110P, E148Q, R761H and M694I. We also newly diagnosed 2 relatives as having FMF based on clinical symptoms and the existence of FMF mutations. One patient was homozygous for E148Q, the patient with systemic amyloidosis was a homozygote for M694I and 4 patients from 3 families were compound heterozygotes for E148Q and M694I. Three patients in one family were compound heterozygotes for E148Q, L110P and M694I. There were 3 patients who were heterozygous for E84K, L110P-E148Q or M694I and had no other nucleotide changes in the exons of MEFV. On the other hand, 2 relatives who had never experienced symptoms of FMF were homozygous for L110P-E148Q as well as compound heterozygous for E148Q/E148Q-R761H. E148Q and M694I were the most frequently detected substitutions in our study. MEFV mutations occur in Japanese FMF patients though FMF is rare in Japan. The identification of MEFV mutations could be a reliable diagnostic test for FMF. The results of genetic analyses on 14 Japanese FMF patients in this study revealed that E148Q and M694I are frequent alleles.
    Clinical and experimental rheumatology 26(1):13-7. · 2.66 Impact Factor