[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study is to clarify the absorption mechanism of a drug from the kidney surface membrane in rats. We studied the absorption characteristics of phenolsulfonphthalein (PSP) and other compounds with different molecular weights after their application to the rat kidney surface in vivo, employing a cylindrical diffusion cell (i.d. 6 mm, area 0.28 cm(2)). The time course of free PSP amounts remaining in the diffusion cell obeyed first-order kinetics at a dose of 1 mg, and its rate constant k(a) was calculated to be 0.0137 min(-1). Absorption ratios of PSP in 4 h were calculated (from the amount recovered from the diffusion cell) to be 91.4, 96.4 and 97.7% at doses of 0.5, 1 and 1.5 mg, respectively. The area under the curve for the plasma concentration profile of free PSP was proportional to the application dose. It is thus suggested that the absorption process of PSP from the rat kidney surface does not approach saturation at a dose of 1.5 mg. Also, no significant difference was seen in the k(a) values within the dose range of 0.5-1.5 mg, which were estimated by curve-fitting the plasma concentration profiles of free PSP in a two-compartment model with first-order absorption. Furthermore, we examined the importance of molecular weight on the absorption from the kidney surface using fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextrans (FDs) with molecular weights of 4400 (FD-4), 11,000 (FD-10), 40,500 (FD-40) or 69,000 (FD-70), including the organic anions bromphenol blue and bromosulfonphthalein. The absorption ratios of FDs from the rat kidney surface in 6 h decreased with an increase in the molecular weight (76.1% for FD-4, 54.4% for FD-10, 11.5% for FD-40 and 3.9% for FD-70). A linear relationship was observed between k(a) and the reciprocal value of z the square root of the molecular weight of these compounds. The limit of absorption from the rat kidney surface was extrapolated to be at a molecular weight of approximately 130,000.
European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics 12/2004; 58(3):705-11. DOI:10.1016/j.ejpb.2004.04.016 · 3.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Local distribution into brain tumor and the pharmacokinetics of 4-pyridoxate diammine hydroxy platinum (PyPt), a novel cisplatin derivative, were examined using rats implanted with 9L glioma and compared with cisplatin. PyPt (5.0 mg/kg) and cisplatin (3.5 mg/kg) were administered as selective intracarotid infusions for 30 min to the rats. Dialysates from extracellular fluid (ECF) in tumor and non-tumor brain tissues were collected by simultaneous microdialysis. The amount of platinum was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, as representative of the drug administered. Plasma concentration of total and protein unbound platinum, and urinary excretion amount and tissue distribution of total platinum were also determined. Unbound platinum was accumulated preferentially in the brain tumor tissue ECF after drug administration, while there was little distribution into normal tissue ECF of the brain. In the brain tumor, the values of the unbound platinum AUC and MRT, where AUC is the area under the concentration-time curve and MRT is the mean residence time, for PyPt were 1.7 and 1.3 times larger than with cisplatin, respectively. The brain tumor distribution coefficient (the ratio of brain tumor ECF platinum AUC to plasma protein unbound platinum AUC) for PyPt (0.85) was higher than that for cisplatin (0.69), indicating that the local amount of platinum distributed into the glioma is enhanced by PyPt rather than by cisplatin. The binding to plasma proteins of PyPt (23%) was lower than that of cisplatin (65%). The total platinum concentration in tissues after administration of PyPt was significantly lower than that of cisplatin in the kidney, liver and spleen. In addition, the urinary excretion amount of total platinum after the administration of PyPt was significantly larger than that of cisplatin. These results suggested that PyPt is easily eliminated by rapid urinary excretion because of its reduced interaction with plasma proteins and poor distribution to the kidney or reticuloendothelial tissues such as the liver and spleen. It is concluded that PyPt is an effective cisplatin derivative for the treatment of gliomas with the added advantage of enhancing local distribution of drug into the brain tumor and reducing its accumulation in the kidney, which has previously caused severe nephrotoxicity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The in vivo antitumor activity and toxicity of a newly synthesized polymeric prodrug of cisplatin was investigated and also compared with plain cisplatin. The prodrug included a dicarboxymethyl-dextran conjugate of cisplatin (DCM-Dex/CDDP). DCM-Dex/CDDP was i.v. injected in mice bearing s.c. Colon 26 mouse colon cancer cells. The tissue distribution of platinum was thereafter determined by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The platinic concentration of the organs showed a high rate of retention at 24 h after injection in the DCM-Dex/CDDP-treated mice. No biochemical or hematologically adverse effects were observed. In addition, DCM-Dex/CDDP showed a significantly higher antitumor activity than cisplatin alone. These results indicate that DCM-Dex/CDDP may therefore be a potentially effective cancer chemotherapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In vitro release behavior and cytotoxic activity, and in vivo plasma disposition of newly synthesized macromolecular derivatives of cisplatin (CDDP) were investigated and compared with CDDP. The derivatives included oxidized dextran conjugate of CDDP (OX-Dex/CDDP) and dicarboxymethylated dextran conjugate of CDDP (DCM-Dex/CDDP). In vitro release of platinum complex from dextran conjugated CDDP was determined by an equilibrium dialysis method. These dextran conjugates showed sustained release of the platinum complex. In vitro release half-life for DCM-Dex/CDDP was significantly longer (4.5 times) than that for OX-Dex/CDDP. In vitro cytotoxic activity of CDDP and dextran conjugated CDDP against colon 26, mouse colon cancer cell line, was measured using the MTT assay method. OX-Dex/CDDP showed a similar cytotoxic activity to CDDP. However, both cytotoxic activities were markedly decreased when preincubated with the medium containing serum. On the other hand, DCM-Dex/CDDP retained residual cytotoxic activity at a significantly higher level than OX-Dex/CDDP after preincubation with the medium containing serum, although it showed the lowest cytotoxic activity. This indicated longer maintenance of the in vitro antitumor activity of DCM-Dex/CDDP in serum compared with OX-Dex/CDDP. Plasma disposition of CDDP and dextran conjugated CDDP was determined by intravenous administration to rats. Although the total platinum plasma concentration-time profile for OX-Dex/CDDP was similar to that for CDDP, its markedly higher profile was achieved when DCM-Dex/CDDP was administered. The values of the total platinum AUC and MRT, where AUC is the area under the platinum concentration-time curve and MRT is the mean residence time, for DCM-Dex/CDDP were 11.2 times and 4.8 times significantly higher than with OX-Dex/CDDP in plasma, respectively. DCM-Dex/CDDP also showed a significantly lower total clearance compared with OX-Dex/CDDP. These results from the in vivo experiments revealed that retention of DCM-Dex/CDDP in blood circulation was much greater than that for OX-Dex/CDDP. DCM-Dex/CDDP thus has potential as a macromolecular derivative of CDDP for passive tumor targeting.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Simultaneous brain microdialysis in tumour and non-tumour tissues has been used for kinetic determination of the local distribution of an anticancer agent, cisplatin, in rats.
Rat brain was implanted with 9L malignant glioma and cisplatin (3.5 mg kg−) was administered as a selective intracarotid infusion for 30 min to rats prepared for brain microdialysis. The amount of platinum in the dialysate collected from tumour and non-tumour brain tissues was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, as representative of cisplatin. Total and free platinum concentrations in plasma were also measured. Free platinum is accumulated preferentially in the tumour tissue and the brain tumour distribution coefficient (the ratio of brain tumour platinum AUC to plasma free platinum AUC, where AUC is the area under the platinum concentration-time curve) was 0.69, although there was little distribution into normal brain tissue. Drug binding to plasma proteins was 65%.
It is concluded that simultaneous microdialysis is an easy and available method for assessing in-vivo local pharmacokinetics and distribution of cisplatin in tumour and non-tumour tissues of the brain.
Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 09/1997; 49(8):777-80. DOI:10.1111/j.2042-7158.1997.tb06111.x · 2.26 Impact Factor