Limin Peng

Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, United States

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Publications (30)120.2 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Effective treatment algorithms are needed to guide diabetes care at hospital discharge in general medicine and surgery patients with type 2 diabetes.
    Diabetes care. 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Few studies have reported on the quality of diabetes care and glycemic control adjusted for medication use in long term care (LTC) facilities. This observational study analyzed diabetes prevalence and management and the impact of glycemic control on clinical outcome in elderly subjects admitted to 3 community LTC facilities. Among 1409 LTC residents (age 79.7 ± 12 years), the prevalence of diabetes was 34.2%. Subjects with diabetes were either on no pharmacological agents (10%) or were treated with sliding scale regular insulin (SSI, 25%), oral antidiabetic drugs (OAD, 5%), insulin (34%), or with combination of OAD and insulin (26%). Patients with diabetes had a mean daily BG of 156 ± 39 mg/dL and a mean admission HbA1c of 6.7% ± 1.1%. Compared with nondiabetes, residents with diabetes had higher number of complications (54% vs 45%, P < .001), infections (26% vs 21%, P = .036), emergency room (ER) and hospital transfers (37% vs 30%, P = .003), but similar mortality (15% vs 14%, P = .56). A total of 43% of residents with diabetes had a BG less than 70 mg/dL, and those with hypoglycemia had longer median length of stay (LOS, 52 vs 29 days, P < .001), more ER or hospital transfers (56% vs 69%, P = .005), and mortality (20% vs 10%, P = .002) compared with residents without hypoglycemia. Diabetes is common in LTC residents and is associated with higher resource utilization and complications. Hypoglycemia is common and is associated with increased need of emergency room visits and hospitalization and higher mortality. Our findings emphasize the need for randomized trials evaluating the impact of different approaches to glycemic management on clinical outcome in LTC residents with diabetes.
    Journal of the American Medical Directors Association 09/2013; · 5.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Hyperglycemia is associated with increased mortality in critically ill patients treated with total parenteral nutrition (TPN). The role of glucose variability (GV) in predicting outcomes in these patients is not known.Methods: This retrospective study included medical and surgical patients receiving TPN in a community teaching hospital. GV was calculated by standard deviation (SD) of blood glucose (BG) values and by mean BG daily delta change (daily max - daily minimum).Results: 276 medical and surgical patients (mean age: 51±18 yr), 19% with history of diabetes (DM), and 74% with ICU admission were treated with TPN. During TPN mean daily BG was 142.9±33 mg/dl, frequency of hypoglycemia <70 mg/dl and <40 mg/dl was 41% and 3%, respectively, and hospital mortality was 27.2%. The mean GV by SD: 38±21 mg/dl and by mean delta change: 58±34 mg/dl. GV was significantly higher in deceased patients (SD: 48±25 vs. 34±18 mg/dL and Δ change: 75±39 vs. 51±29 mg/dl, both p<0.01) than non-deceased patients. Multivariate analysis adjusted for age, DM status, gender, APACHE score, mean daily glucose and hypoglycemia revealed that GV was an independent predictor of hospital mortality (p<0.05). The association between GV and mortality was limited to patients without a history of DM and was not present in patients with DM.Conclusion: High GV is associated with increased hospital mortality independent of the presence and severity of hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia during TPN therapy. Prospective randomized trials are needed to determine if reduction in GV with intensive glycemic control improves clinical outcomes in patients treated with TPN.
    Endocrine Practice 09/2013; · 2.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine differences in inpatient glycemic control and response to two different glargine-based insulin regimens in general medicine and surgery patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). This is a post-hoc analysis of a prospective, multicenter, randomized trial of 298 non-ICU medicine and surgery patients with T2D treated with Basal Bolus regimen with glargine once daily and glulisine before meals and with Basal Plus regimen with glargine once daily and supplemental doses of glulisine before meals for blood glucose (BG)>140mg/dl. Major study outcomes included differences in mean daily BG, frequency of treatment failures (defined as >2 consecutive BG>240mg/dl or a mean daily BG>240mg/dl), and hypoglycemia between the medicine and surgery cohorts. Patients treated with Basal Bolus or with Basal Plus experienced similar improvement in mean daily BG after 1st day of therapy (p=0.16), number of treatment failures (p=0.11) and hypoglycemic events (p=0.50). Compared to surgery patients (n=130), medicine patients (n=168) had higher admission BG (p=0.01) and HbA1c levels (p<0.01); however, they had similar response to either treatment regimen without differences in mean daily BG after 1st day of therapy (p=0.18), number of treatment failures (p=0.58), daily insulin requirements (p=0.36), or in the frequency of hypoglycemia (p=0.79). The Basal Plus regimen with glargine once daily and correction doses with glulisine before meals resulted in similar glycemic control to basal bolus regimen. We observed no differences in response to either basal insulin regimen between medicine and surgery patients with type 2 diabetes.
    Journal of diabetes and its complications 08/2013; · 2.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE This study investigated the safety and efficacy of sitagliptin (Januvia) for the inpatient management of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in general medicine and surgery patients.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In this pilot, multicenter, open-label, randomized study, patients (n = 90) with a known history of T2D treated with diet, oral antidiabetic agents, or low total daily dose of insulin (≤0.4 units/kg/day) were randomized to receive sitagliptin alone or in combination with glargine insulin (glargine) or to a basal bolus insulin regimen (glargine and lispro) plus supplemental (correction) doses of lispro. Major study outcomes included differences in daily blood glucose (BG), frequency of treatment failures (defined as three or more consecutive BG >240 mg/dL or a mean daily BG >240 mg/dL), and hypoglycemia between groups.RESULTSGlycemic control improved similarly in all treatment groups. There were no differences in the mean daily BG after the 1st day of treatment (P = 0.23), number of readings within a BG target of 70 and 140 mg/dL (P = 0.53), number of BG readings >200 mg/dL (P = 0.23), and number of treatment failures (P > 0.99). The total daily insulin dose and number of insulin injections were significantly less in the sitagliptin groups compared with the basal bolus group (both P < 0.001). There were no differences in length of hospital stay (P = 0.78) or in the number of hypoglycemic events between groups (P = 0.86)CONCLUSIONS Results of this pilot indicate that treatment with sitagliptin alone or in combination with basal insulin is safe and effective for the management of hyperglycemia in general medicine and surgery patients with T2D.
    Diabetes care 07/2013; · 7.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE Effective and easily implemented insulin regimens are needed to facilitate hospital glycemic control in general medical and surgical patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D).RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This multicenter trial randomized 375 patients with T2D treated with diet, oral antidiabetic agents, or low-dose insulin (≤0.4 units/kg/day) to receive a basal bolus regimen with glargine once daily and glulisine before meals, a basal plus regimen with glargine once daily and supplemental doses of glulisine, and sliding scale regular insulin (SSI).RESULTSImprovement in mean daily blood glucose (BG) after the first day of therapy was similar between basal bolus and basal plus groups (P = 0.16), and both regimens resulted in a lower mean daily BG than did SSI (P = 0.04). In addition, treatment with basal bolus and basal plus regimens resulted in less treatment failure (defined as >2 consecutive BG >240 mg/dL or a mean daily BG >240 mg/dL) than did treatment with SSI (0 vs. 2 vs. 19%, respectively; P < 0.001). A BG <70 mg/dL occurred in 16% of patients in the basal bolus group, 13% in the basal plus group, and 3% in the SSI group (P = 0.02). There was no difference among the groups in the frequency of severe hypoglycemia (<40 mg/dL; P = 0.76).CONCLUSIONS The use of a basal plus regimen with glargine once daily plus corrective doses with glulisine insulin before meals resulted in glycemic control similar to a standard basal bolus regimen. The basal plus approach is an effective alternative to the use of a basal bolus regimen in general medical and surgical patients with T2D.
    Diabetes care 02/2013; · 7.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To compare the response to different insulin regimens for management of hyperglycemia in diabetic patients with hematological malignancies receiving dexamethasone.Methods: Retrospective analysis to determine whether basal bolus insulin (BBI) regimen with detemir and aspart is superior to the use of sliding scale regular insulin (SSI) in the management of hyperglycemia in hospitalized diabetic patients receiving dexamethasone.Results: Forty patients with hematological malignancies were treated with intravenous (8-12 mg/day) or oral (40 mg/day) dexamethasone for 3 days. In the SSI group (n=28), the average day 1-3 BG was 301±57 mg/dL while in the BBI group (n=12) it was 219±51 mg/dL (P<0.001). The BBI regimen resulted in BG reduction throughout the course of dexamethasone therapy that averaged -52±82 mg/dL while in the SSI mean daily BG increased on average by +128±77 mg/dL (P<0.001). On the last day of dexamethasone administration, insulin requirements were 49±29 units/day in SSI group and 122±39 units/day in BBI group (P<0.001). Three patients in the SSI group developed diabetic ketoacidosis or hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state during steroid therapy. No hypoglycemia was observed in either group. The length of stay and infection rates were similar between groups.Conclusion: Basal and bolus insulin regimen is an effective and safe approach for the management of dexamethasone-induced hyperglycemia in hospitalized patients with hematological malignancies.
    Endocrine Practice 01/2013; · 2.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Thiazolidinedione (TZD) therapy has been associated with an increased risk of bone fractures. Studies in rodents have led to a model in which decreased bone quality in response to TZDs is due to a competition of lineage commitment between osteoblasts (OBs) and adipocytes (ADs) for a common precursor cell, resulting in decreased OB numbers. Our goal was to investigate the effects of TZD exposure on OB-AD lineage determination from primary human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) both in vitro and in vivo from nondiabetic subjects and patients with type 2 diabetics. Our experimental design included 2 phases. Phase 1 was an in vitro study of TZD effects on the differentiation of hBMSCs into OBs and ADs in nondiabetic subjects. Phase 2 was a randomized, placebo-controlled trial to determine the effects of 6-month pioglitazone treatment in vivo on hBMSC differentiation using AD/OB colony forming unit assays in patients with type 2 diabetes. In vitro, TZDs (pioglitazone and rosiglitazone) enhanced the adipogenesis of hBMSCs, whereas neither altered OB differentiation or function as measured by alkaline phosphatase activity, gene expression, and mineralization. The ability of TZDs to enhance adipogenesis occurred at a specific time/stage of the differentiation process, and pretreating with TZDs did not further enhance adipogenesis. In vivo, 6-month TZD treatment decreased OB precursors, increased AD precursors, and increased total colony number in patients with type 2 diabetes. Our results indicate that TZD exposure in vitro potently stimulates adipogenesis but does not directly alter OB differentiation/mineralization or lineage commitment from hBMSCs. However, TZD treatment in type 2 diabetic patients results in decreased osteoblastogenesis from hBMSCs compared with placebo, indicating an indirect negative effect on OBs and suggesting an alternative model by which TZDs might negatively regulate bone quality.
    Translational research : the journal of laboratory and clinical medicine. 09/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: We aimed to determine risk factors associated with hypoglycemia during subcutaneous insulin therapy in non-critically ill patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: We conducted an analysis of three randomized control trials using basal/bolus regimen and regular sliding scale insulin (SSI) in patients with diabetes admitted to medical and surgical settings. Results: We analyzed medical records of 261 general medicine and 211 noncardiac surgery patients treated with basal/bolus regimen with glargine/glulisine (n = 169), detemir/aspart (n = 67), neutral protamine Hagedorn/regular (n = 63), or with SSI (n = 173). The overall frequency of mild and severe hypoglycemia (<70 and <40 mg/dl) was 19% and 2%, respectively. During treatment, medical patients experienced a higher number of hypoglycemia than surgical patients (23% versus 13%; p = .005), but the rate of severe hypoglycemia was similar between groups (1.9% versus 1.9%; p = not significant). Increasing age, impaired kidney function (glomerular filtration rate < 60 ml/min), total daily insulin dose, and type of insulin regimen (basal/bolus versus SSI) during hospitalization were important contributors for hypoglycemia in both medical and surgical patients. Among these variables, increasing age and type of insulin regimen (basal/bolus versus SSI) were found to be independent predictors of hypoglycemic events. Conclusions: Mild hypoglycemic events are common during subcutaneous insulin therapy in medical and surgical patients with type 2 diabetes. Increasing age, impaired renal function, daily insulin dose, and insulin regimen (basal/bolus versus SSI) are important predictors of hypoglycemia during insulin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
    Journal of diabetes science and technology 09/2012; 6(5):1022-9.
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    ABSTRACT: Parenteral nutrition has been associated with metabolic and infectious complications in intensive care unit patients. The underlying mechanism for the high risk of complications is not known but may relate to the proinflammatory effects of soybean oil-based lipid emulsions, the only Food and Drug Administration-approved lipid formulation for clinical use. Prospective, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial. Medical-surgical intensive care units from a major urban teaching hospital and a tertiary referral university hospital. Adult medical-surgical intensive care unit patients. Parenteral nutrition containing soybean oil-based (Intralipid) or olive oil-based (ClinOleic) lipid emulsions. Differences in hospital clinical outcomes (nosocomial infections and noninfectious complications), hospital length of stay, glycemic control, inflammatory and oxidative stress markers, and granulocyte and monocyte functions between study groups. A total of 100 patients were randomized to either soybean oil-based parenteral nutrition or olive oil-based parenteral nutrition for up to 28 days. A total of 49 patients received soybean oil-based parenteral nutrition (age 51 ± 15 yrs, body mass index 27 ± 6 kg/m2, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score 15.5 ± 7 [±SD]), and a total of 51 patients received olive oil-based lipid emulsion in parenteral nutrition (age 46 ± 19 yrs, body mass index 27 ± 8 kg/m2, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score 15.1 ± 6 [±SD]) for a mean duration of 12.9 ± 8 days. The mean hospital blood glucose concentration during parenteral nutrition was 129 ± 14 mg/dL, without differences between groups. Patients treated with soybean oil-based and olive oil-based parenteral nutrition had a similar length of stay (47 ± 47 days and 41 ± 36 days, p = .49), mortality (16.3% and 9.8%, p = .38), nosocomial infections (43% vs. 57%, p = .16), and acute renal failure (26% vs. 18%, p = .34). In addition, there were no differences in inflammatory and oxidative stress markers or in granulocyte and monocyte functions between groups. The administration of parenteral nutrition containing soybean oil-based and olive oil-based lipid emulsion resulted in similar rates of infectious and noninfectious complications and no differences in glycemic control, inflammatory and oxidative stress markers, and immune function in critically ill adults.
    Critical care medicine 04/2012; 40(6):1792-8. · 6.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hyperglycemia and elevated free fatty acids (FFA) are implicated in the development of endothelial dysfunction. Infusion of soy-bean oil-based lipid emulsion (Intralipid®) increases FFA levels and results in elevation of blood pressure (BP) and endothelial dysfunction in obese healthy subjects. The effects of combined hyperglycemia and high FFA on BP, endothelial function and carbohydrate metabolism are not known. Twelve obese healthy subjects received four random, 8-h IV infusions of saline, Intralipid 40 mL/h, Dextrose 10% 40 mL/h, or combined Intralipid and dextrose. Plasma levels of FFA increased by 1.03±0.34 mmol/L (p=0.009) after Intralipid, but FFAs remained unchanged during saline, dextrose, and combined Intralipid and dextrose infusion. Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations significantly increased after dextrose and combined Intralipid and dextrose (all, p<0.05) and were not different from baseline during saline and lipid infusion. Intralipid increased systolic BP by 12±9 mmHg (p<0.001) and diastolic BP by 5±6 mmHg (p=0.022),and decreased flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) from baseline by 3.2%±1.4% (p<0.001). Saline and dextrose infusion had neutral effects on BP and FMD. The co-administration of lipid and dextrose decreased FMD by 2.4%±2.1% (p=0.002) from baseline, but did not significantly increase systolic or diastolic BP. Short-term Intralipid infusion significantly increased FFA and BP; in contrast, FFA and BP were unchanged during combined infusion of Intralipid and dextrose. Combined Intralipid and dextrose infusion resulted in endothelial dysfunction similar to Intralipid alone.
    Metabolism: clinical and experimental 04/2012; 61(10):1370-6. · 3.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Many obese children with unprovoked diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) display clinical features of type 2 diabetes during follow up. We describe the clinical presentation, autoimmune markers and the long-term course of obese and lean children with DKA. We reviewed the medical records on the initial acute hospitalization and outpatient follow-up care of 21 newly diagnosed obese and 20 lean children with unprovoked DKA at Emory University affiliated children's hospitals between 1/2003 and 12/2006. Obese children with DKA were older and predominantly male, had acanthosis nigricans, and had lower prevalence of autoantibodies to islet cells and glutamic acid decarboxylase than lean children. Half of the obese, but none of the lean children with DKA achieve near-normoglycemia remission and discontinued insulin therapy during follow-up. Time to achieve remission was 2.2±2.3 months. There were no differences on clinical presentation between obese children who achieved near-normoglycemia remission versus those who did not. The addition of metformin to insulin therapy shortly after resolution of DKA resulted in lower hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels, higher rates of near-normoglycemia remission, and lower frequency of DKA recurrence. Near-normoglycemia remission, however, was of short duration and the majority of obese patients required reinstitution of insulin treatment within 15 months of follow-up. In contrast to lean children with DKA, many obese children with unprovoked DKA display clinical and immunologic features of type 2 diabetes during follow-up. The addition of metformin to insulin therapy shortly after resolution of DKA improves glycemic control, facilitates achieving near-normoglycemia remission and prevents DKA recurrence in obese children with DKA.
    Primary care diabetes. 01/2012; 6(1):61-5.
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    ABSTRACT: Background / Purpose: Glycemic variability has been identified in the literature as an independent predictor of mortality in critically ill patients; however, its impact on clinical outcomes in patients admitted to general medicine and surgery services is not known. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to establish whether glycemic variability could predict hospital complications among non-cardiac, general surgery patients randomized to insulin treatment (RABBIT surgery). A total of 211 patients were randomized to either insulin glargine plus insulin glulisine (basal-bolus) or sliding scale insulin. The mean standard deviation of all hospital blood glucose values was used to calculate glycemic variability. Main conclusion: There was no difference in mortality among patients receiving either basal-bolus or sliding scale insulin, but the frequency of post-operative complications were significantly reduced among patients receiving basal-bolus insulin (P = 0.003). There was a positive association between glycemic variability and patients achieving post-operative blood glucose values within the target range of 80-140mg/dL. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that glycemic variability was not associated with an increased risk of mortality or hospital complications. In order to utilize glycemic variability to predict clinical outcomes and optimize glycemic control in this setting, further analyses of large-scale clinical trials are needed.
    American Diabetes Association 71st Scientific Sessions 2011; 10/2011
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    ABSTRACT: Soybean oil-based lipid emulsions are the only Food and Drug Administration-approved lipid formulation for clinical use in parenteral nutrition (PN). Recently concerns with its use have been raised due to the proinflammatory effects that may lead to increased complications because they are rich in ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. This was a prospective, randomized, controlled, crossover study comparing the vascular, metabolic, immune, and inflammatory effects of 24-h infusion of PN containing soybean oil-based lipid emulsion (Intralipid), olive oil-based (ClinOleic), lipid free, and normal saline in 12 healthy subjects. Soybean oil-PN increased systolic blood pressure compared with olive oil-PN (P < 0.05). Soybean oil PN reduced brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation from baseline (-23% at 4 h and -25% at 24 h, both P < 0.01); in contrast, olive oil PN, lipid free PN, and saline did not change either systolic blood pressure or flow-mediated dilatation. Compared with saline, soybean oil PN, olive oil PN, and lipid free PN similarly increased glucose and insulin concentrations during infusion (P < 0.05). There were no significant changes in plasma free fatty acids, lipid profile, inflammatory and oxidative stress markers, immune function parameters, or sympathetic activity between soybean oil- and olive oil-based lipid emulsions. The 24-h infusion of PN containing soybean oil-based lipid emulsion increased blood pressure and impaired endothelial function compared with PN containing olive oil-based lipid emulsion and lipid-free PN in healthy subjects. These vascular changes may have significant implications in worsening outcome in subjects receiving nutrition support. Randomized controlled trials with relevant clinical outcome measures are needed in patients receiving PN with olive oil-based and soybean oil-based lipid emulsions.
    The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 08/2011; 96(10):3207-16. · 6.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To conduct a bedside study to determine the factors driving insulin noncompliance in inner-city patients with recurrent diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). We analyzed socioeconomic and psychological factors in 164 adult patients with DKA who were admitted to Grady Hospital between July 2007 and August 2010, including demographics, diabetes treatment, education, and mental illness. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and the Short Form-36 surveys were used to screen for depression and assess quality of life. The average number of admissions was 4.5 ± 7 per patient. A total of 73 patients presented with first-time DKA, and 91 presented with recurrent DKA; 96% of patients were African American. Insulin discontinuation was the leading precipitating cause in 68% of patients; other causes were new-onset diabetes (10%), infection (15%), medical illness (4%), and undetermined causes (3%). Among those who stopped insulin, 32% gave no reasons for stopping, 27% reported lack of money to buy insulin, 19% felt sick, 15% were away from their supply, and 5% were stretching insulin. Compared with first-time DKA, those with recurrent episodes had longer duration of diabetes (P < 0.001), were a younger age at the onset of diabetes (P = 0.04), and had higher rates of depression (P = 0.04), alcohol (P = 0.047) and drug (P < 0.001) abuse, and homelessness (P = 0.005). There were no differences in quality-of-life scores, major psychiatric illnesses, or employment between groups. Poor adherence to insulin therapy is the leading cause of recurrent DKA in inner-city patients. Several behavioral, socioeconomic, psychosocial, and educational factors contribute to poor compliance. The recognition of such factors and the institution of culturally appropriate interventions and education programs might reduce DKA recurrence in minority populations.
    Diabetes care 07/2011; 34(9):1891-6. · 7.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hyperglycemia is a recognized complication of parenteral nutrition (PN). We aimed to determine the impact of hyperglycemia during PN unaccompanied by tight blood glucose (BG) control on hospital complications and mortality. We reviewed the medical records of 276 medical and surgical patients receiving PN to determine the impact of hyperglycemia on survival after adjusting for known prognostic factors, and to determine whether BG levels before initiation of PN, within 24 hours of PN initiation, or during PN therapy are predictive of adverse outcomes. A total of 276 medical (35%) and surgical (65%) patients receiving PN initiated 12 ± 12 days after admission for a mean of 15 ± 24 days. Deceased patients (27.2%) were older, had higher Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores, and had higher BG levels during PN therapy versus survivors (all, P < 0.01). Deceased patients had higher BG levels within 24 hours of PN initiation (162 ± 55 mg/dL vs 139 ± 37 mg/dL; P = 0.003) and higher BG levels during days 2 to 10 of PN (161 ± 53 mg/dL vs 142 ± 34 mg/dL; P = 0.013) compared with survivors. Blood glucose levels were associated with increased odds ratio (OR) for mortality pre-PN (P = 0.008), within 24 hours of PN initiation (P < 0.001), and during days 2 to 10 of PN (P < 0.001). In multiple regression models adjusted for age, sex, and history of diabetes, mortality was independently associated with pre-PN BG levels 121 to 150 mg/dL (OR, 2.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-4.4), 151 to 180 mg/dL (OR, 3.41; 95% CI, 1.3-8.7,), and > 180 mg/dL (OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 0.9-5.2), and with BG levels within 24 hours of PN initiation > 180 mg/dL (OR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.2-6.8). A BG level > 180 mg/dL within 24 hours of PN initiation was associated with increased risk of pneumonia (OR, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.4-7.1) and acute renal failure (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.1-5.0). Hyperglycemia during PN without tight BG control is associated with increased risk of hospital complications and mortality. Randomized controlled trials are needed to determine benefits of intensified glycemic control on clinical outcomes in hospitalized subjects receiving PN.
    Hospital practice (1995). 04/2011; 39(2):81-8.
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    ABSTRACT: The optimal treatment of hyperglycemia in general surgical patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus is not known. This randomized multicenter trial compared the safety and efficacy of a basal-bolus insulin regimen with glargine once daily and glulisine before meals (n = 104) to sliding scale regular insulin (SSI) four times daily (n = 107) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus undergoing general surgery. Outcomes included differences in daily blood glucose (BG) and a composite of postoperative complications including wound infection, pneumonia, bacteremia, and respiratory and acute renal failure. The mean daily glucose concentration after the 1st day of basal-bolus insulin and SSI was 145 ± 32 mg/dL and 172 ± 47 mg/dL, respectively (P < 0.01). Glucose readings <140 mg/dL were recorded in 55% of patients in basal-bolus and 31% in the SSI group (P < 0.001). There were reductions with basal-bolus as compared with SSI in the composite outcome [24.3 and 8.6%; odds ratio 3.39 (95% CI 1.50-7.65); P = 0.003]. Glucose <70 mg/dL was reported in 23.1% of patients in the basal-bolus group and 4.7% in the SSI group (P < 0.001), but there were no significant differences in the frequency of BG <40 mg/dL between groups (P = 0.057). Basal-bolus treatment with glargine once daily plus glulisine before meals improved glycemic control and reduced hospital complications compared with SSI in general surgery patients. Our study indicates that a basal-bolus insulin regimen is preferred over SSI in the hospital management of general surgery patients with type 2 diabetes.
    Diabetes care 02/2011; 34(2):256-61. · 7.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To compare the safety and efficacy of continuous insulin infusion (CII) via a computer-guided and a standard paper form protocol in a medical intensive care unit (ICU). Multicenter randomized trial of 153 ICU patients randomized to CII using the Glucommander (n = 77) or a standard paper protocol (n = 76). Both protocols used glulisine insulin and targeted blood glucose (BG) between 80 mg/dL and 120 mg/dL. The Glucommander resulted in a lower mean BG value (103 ± 8.8 mg/dL vs. 117 ± 16.5 mg/dL, P < 0.001) and in a shorter time to reach BG target (4.8 ± 2.8 vs.7.8 hours ± 9.1 hours, P < 0.01), and once at target resulted in a higher percentage of BG readings within target (71.0 ± 17.0% vs. 51.3 ± 19.7%, P < 0.001) than the standard protocol. Mean insulin infusion rate in the Glucommander was similar to the standard protocol (P = 0.12). The percentages of patients with ≥1 episode of BG <40 mg/dL and <60 mg/dL were 3.9% and 42.9% in the Glucommander and 5.6% and 31.9% in the standard, respectively [P = not significant (NS)]. Repeated measures analyses show that the probabilities of BG reading <40 mg/dL or <60 mg/dL were not significantly different between groups (P = 0.969, P = 0.084) after accounting for within-patient correlations with or without adjusting for time effect. There were no differences between groups in the length of hospital stay (P = 0.704), ICU stay (P = 0.145), or inhospital mortality (P = 0.561). Both treatment algorithms resulted in significant improvement in glycemic control in critically ill patients in the medical ICU. The computer-based algorithm resulted in tighter glycemic control without an increased risk of hypoglycemic events compared to the standard paper protocol.
    Journal of Hospital Medicine 10/2010; 5(8):432-7. · 1.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We compared the effects of high and low oral and intravenous (iv) fat load on blood pressure (BP), endothelial function, autonomic nervous system, and oxidative stress in obese healthy subjects. Thirteen obese subjects randomly received five 8-h infusions of iv saline, 20 (32 g, low iv fat) or 40 ml/h intralipid (64 g, high iv fat), and oral fat load at 32 (low oral) or 64 g (high oral). Systolic BP increased by 14 ± 10 (P = 0.007) and 12 ± 9 mmHg (P = 0.007) after low and high iv lipid infusions and by 13 ± 17 (P = 0.045) and 11 ± 11 mmHg (P = 0.040) after low and high oral fat loads, respectively. The baseline flow-mediated dilation was 9.4%, and it decreased by 3.8 ± 2.1 (P = 0.002) and 4.1 ± 3.1% (P < 0.001) after low and high iv lipid infusion and by 3.8 ± 1.8 (P = 0.002) and 5.0 ± 2.5% (P < 0.001) after low and high oral fat load, respectively. Oral and iv fat load stimulated oxidative stress, increased heart rate, and decreased R-R interval variability. Acute iv fat load decreased blood glucose by 6-10 mg/dl (P < 0.05) without changes in insulin concentration, whereas oral fat increased plasma insulin by 3.7-4.0 μU/ml (P < 0.01) without glycemic variations. Intravenous saline and both oral and iv fat load reduced leptin concentration from baseline (P < 0.01). In conclusion, acute fat load administered orally or intravenously significantly increased blood pressure, altered endothelial function, and activated sympathetic nervous system by mechanisms not likely depending on changes in leptin, glucose, and insulin levels in obese healthy subjects. Thus, fat load, independent of its source, has deleterious hemodynamic effects in obese subjects.
    AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism 10/2010; 299(6):E953-8. · 4.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hospital hyperglycemia, in individuals with and without diabetes, has been identified as a marker of poor clinical outcome in cardiac surgery patients. However, the impact of perioperative hyperglycemia on clinical outcome in general and noncardiac surgery patients is not known. This was an observational study with the aim of determining the relationship between pre- and postsurgery blood glucose levels and hospital length of stay (LOS), complications, and mortality in 3,184 noncardiac surgery patients consecutively admitted to Emory University Hospital (Atlanta, GA) between 1 January 2007 and 30 June 2007. The overall 30-day mortality was 2.3%, with nonsurvivors having significantly higher blood glucose levels before and after surgery (both P < 0.01) than survivors. Perioperative hyperglycemia was associated with increased hospital and intensive care unit LOS (P < 0.001) as well as higher numbers of postoperative cases of pneumonia (P < 0.001), systemic blood infection (P < 0.001), urinary tract infection (P < 0.001), acute renal failure (P = 0.005), and acute myocardial infarction (P = 0.005). In multivariate analysis (adjusted for age, sex, race, and surgery severity), the risk of death increased in proportion to perioperative glucose levels; however, this association was significant only for patients without a history of diabetes (P = 0.008) compared with patients with known diabetes (P = 0.748). Perioperative hyperglycemia is associated with increased LOS, hospital complications, and mortality after noncardiac general surgery. Randomized controlled trials are needed to determine whether perioperative diabetes management improves clinical outcome in noncardiac surgery patients.
    Diabetes care 08/2010; 33(8):1783-8. · 7.74 Impact Factor