L D Britt

Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, Virginia, United States

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Publications (140)319.2 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The Diverse Surgeons Initiative (DSI) is a program that was created to provide underrepresented minority surgical residents with the clinical knowledge and minimally invasive surgical skills necessary to excel in surgical residency and successfully transition into surgical practice. The early success of the graduates of the program has been published; however, a more longitudinal assessment of the program was suggested and warranted. This study provides a 5-year follow-up of the 76 physicians that participated in the DSI from 2002 to 2009 to determine if the trend toward fellowship placement and academic appointments persisted. Additionally, this extended evaluation yields an opportunity to assess these young surgeons' professional progress and contributions to the field. The most current professional development and employment information was obtained for the 76 physicians that completed the DSI from 2002 to 2009. The percentage of DSI graduates completing surgical residency, obtaining subspecialty fellowships, attaining board certification, receiving fellowship in the American College of Surgeons, contributing to the peer-reviewed literature, acquiring academic faculty positions, and ascending to professional leadership roles were calculated and compared with the original assessment. Of the 76 DSI graduates, 99% completed general surgery residency. Of those eligible, 87% completed subspecialty fellowships; 87% were board certified; 50% received fellowship in the American College of Surgeons; 76% had contributed to the peer-reviewed literature; 41% had obtained faculty positions; and 18% held local, regional, or national professional leadership positions. This longitudinal analysis has revealed sustained success of the DSI in preparing underrepresented minority residents to excel in their training and transition into practice, obtain postsurgical fellowships, acquire faculty appointments, and contribute to the advancement of the field of surgery. Copyright © 2015 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Journal of the American College of Surgeons 03/2015; 220(3). DOI:10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2014.12.006 · 4.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study was designed to define the gaps in essential and desirable (E/D) case volumes that may prompt reevaluation of the acute care surgery (ACS) curriculum or restructuring of the training provided. A review of the first 2 years of ACS case log entry (July 2011 to June 2013) was performed. Individual trainee logs were evaluated to determine how often they performed each case on the E/D list. Trainees described cases using current procedural terminology codes, which had been previously mapped to the E/D list. There were 29 trainees from 15 programs (Year 1) and 30 trainees from 13 programs (Year 2) who participated in case log entry, with some overlap between the years. There were a total of 487 fellow-months of data with an average of 14.6 current procedural terminology codes per month and 175.5 per year for cases on the E/D list versus 12 and 143.5 for cases not on the E/D list, respectively. Overall, the most common essential cases were laparotomy for trauma (1,463; 705 in Year 1, 758 in Year 2), tracheostomy (665; 372 in Year 1, 293 in Year 2) and gastrostomy tubes (566; 289 in Year 1, 277 in Year 2). There are a total of 73 types of essential operations and 45 types of desirable operations in the current curriculum. There were 16 distinct codes (13.6%) never used, of which 6 overlapped with other codes. Based on body region, the 10 E/D codes never used by any fellow were as follows: one head/face, lateral canthotomy; five neck; elective neck dissections; one thoracic, vascular trauma to chest; three pediatrics, inguinal hernia repair and small bowel obstruction treatments. The current ACS trainees lack adequate head/neck and pediatric experience as defined by the ACS curriculum. Restructuring rotations at individual institutions and a focus on novel educational modalities may be needed to augment the individual institutional exposure. Reevaluation of the curriculum may be warranted.
    Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery 02/2015; 78(2):259-264. DOI:10.1097/TA.0000000000000522 · 2.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Procalcitonin is used as a marker for sepsis but there is little known about the correlation of the procalcitonin elevation with the causative organism in sepsis. All patients aged 18 to 80 years who were admitted to the surgery service from June 2010 to May 2012 and who had a procalcitonin drawn were evaluated. Culture data were reviewed to determine the causative organism. Infections analyzed included pneumonia, urinary tract infection (UTI), bloodstream infection, and Clostridium difficile. Other parameters assessed included reason for admission, body mass index, pressor use, antibiotic duration, and disposition. Two hundred thirty-two patient records were reviewed. Patients without a known infection/source of sepsis had a mean procalcitonin of 3.95. Those with pneumonia had a procalcitonin of 20.59 (P = 0.03). Those with a UTI had a mean procalcitonin of 66.84 (P = 0.0005). Patients with a bloodstream infection had a mean procalcitonin of 33.30 (P = 0.003). Those with C. difficile had a procalcitonin of 47.20 (P = 0.004). When broken down by causative organisms, those with Gram-positive sepsis had a procalcitonin of 23.10 (P = 0.02) compared with those with Gram-negative sepsis at 32.75 (P = 0.02). Those with fungal infections had a procalcitonin of 42.90 (P = 0.001). These data suggest that procalcitonin elevation can help guide treatment by indicating likely causative organism and infection type. These data may provide a good marker for initiation of antifungal therapy.
    The American surgeon 09/2014; 80(9). · 0.92 Impact Factor
  • L D Britt
    08/2014; 149(10). DOI:10.1001/jamasurg.2014.386
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    ABSTRACT: Chest x-rays (CXRs) have been the mainstay for the management of thoracostomy tubes (TTs), but reports that ultrasound (US) may be more sensitive for detection of pneumothorax (PTX) continue to increase. The objective of this study was to determine if US is safe and effective for the detection of PTX following TT removal.
    Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery 08/2014; 77(2):256-261. DOI:10.1097/TA.0000000000000315 · 2.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An ultrasound (US) examination can be easily and rapidly performed at the bedside to aide in clinical decisions. Previously we demonstrated that US was safe and as effective as a chest x-ray (CXR) for removal of tube thoracostomy (TT) when performed by experienced sonographers. This study sought to examine if US was as safe and accurate for the evaluation of pneumothorax (PTX) associated with TT removal after basic US training. Patients included had TT managed by the surgical team between October 2012 and May 2013. Bedside US was performed by a variety of members of the trauma team before and after removal. All residents received, at minimum, a 1-hour formal training class in the use of ultrasound. Data were collected from the electronic medical records. We evaluated 61 TTs in 61 patients during the study period. Exclusion of 12 tubes occurred secondary to having incomplete imaging, charting, or death before having TT removed. Of the 49 remaining TT, all were managed with US imaging. Average age of the patients was 40 years and 30 (61%) were male. TT was placed for PTX in 37 (76%), hemothorax in seven (14%), hemopneumothorax in four (8%), or a pleural effusion in one (2%). Two post pull PTXs were correctly identified by residents using US. This was confirmed on CXR with appropriate changes made. US was able to successfully predict the safe TT removal and patient discharge at all residency levels after receiving a basic US training program.
    The American surgeon 08/2014; 80(8). · 0.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Withdrawal of care has increased in recent years as the population older than 65 years of age has increased. We sought to investigate the impact of this decision on our mortality rate. We retrospectively reviewed a prospectively collected database to determine the percentage of cases in which care was actively withdrawn. Neurologic injury as the cause for withdrawal, age of the patient, number of days to death, number of cases thought to be treatment failures, and the reason for failure were analyzed. Between January 2008 and December 2012, there were 536 trauma service deaths; 158 (29.5%) had care withdrawn. These patients were 67 (± 18.5) years old and neurologic injury was responsible in 63 per cent (± 5.29%). Fifty-two per cent of the patients died by Day 3; 65 per cent by Day 5; and 74 per cent Day 7. A total of 22.7 per cent (± 7.9%) could be considered a treatment failure. Accounting for cases in which care was withdrawn for futility would decrease the overall mortality rate by approximately 23 per cent. Trauma center mortality calculation does not account for care withdrawn. Treating an active, aging population, with advance directives, requires methodologies that account for such decision-making when determining mortality rates.
    The American surgeon 08/2014; 80(8). · 0.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) were previously shown to be capable of initiating the inflammatory response seen in the transition of an infection to sepsis. However, another tenet of sepsis is the development of a hypercoagulable state and the role of OMVs in the development of this hypercoagulability has not been evaluated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of OMVs to elicit endothelial mediators of coagulation and inflammation and induce platelet activation. Methods: Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were incubated with OMVs and were analyzed for the expression of tissue factor (TF), thrombomodulin, and the adhesion molecules P-selectin and E-selectin. Supernatants of OMV-treated HUVECs were mixed with whole blood and assessed for prothrombotic monocyte-platelet aggregates (MPA). Results: OMVs induce significantly increased expression of TF, E-selectin, and P-selectin, whereas, the expression of thrombomodulin by HUVECs is significantly decreased (P < 0.05). The lipopolysaccharide inhibitor clearly inhibited the expression of E-selectin following incubation with OMVs, although its impact on TF and thrombomodulin expression was nominal. Incubation of whole blood with supernatant from HUVECs exposed to OVMs resulted in increased MPAs. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that, at the cellular level, OMVs from pathogenic bacteria play a complex role in endothelial activation. Although OMV-bound lipopolysaccharide modulates inflammatory proteins, including E-selectin, it has a negligible effect on the tested coagulation mediators. Additionally, endothelial activation by OMVs facilitates platelet activation as indicated by increased MPAs. By influencing the inflammatory and coagulation cascades, OMVs may contribute to the hypercoagulable response seen in sepsis.
    Journal of Surgical Research 05/2014; 192(1). DOI:10.1016/j.jss.2014.05.007 · 2.12 Impact Factor
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    Journal of the American College of Surgeons 05/2014; 218(5):1049-55. DOI:10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2013.12.049 · 4.45 Impact Factor
  • 03/2014; 76(3):888-93. DOI:10.1097/TA.0000000000000133
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    ABSTRACT: Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a probe-based technique that permits high resolution imaging of live bacterial cells. However, stably immobilizing cells to withstand the probe-based lateral forces remains an obstacle in AFM mediated studies, especially those of live, rod shaped bacteria in nutrient media. Consequently, AFM has been under-utilized in the research of bacterial surface dynamics. The aim of the current study was to immobilize a less adherent Escherichia coli strain in a method that both facilitates AFM imaging in nutrient broth and preserves overall cell viability. Immobilization reagents and buffers were systematically evaluated and the cell membrane integrity was monitored in all sample preparations. As expected, the biocompatible gelatin coated surfaces facilitated stable cell attachment in lower ionic strength buffers, yet poorly immobilized cells in higher ionic strength buffers. In comparison, poly-l-lysine surfaces bound cells in both low and high ionic strength buffers. The benefit of the poly-l-lysine binding capacity was offset by the compromised membrane integrity exhibited by cells on poly-l-lysine surfaces. However, the addition of divalent cations and glucose to the immobilization buffer was found to mitigate this unfavorable effect. Ultimately, immobilization of E. coli cells on poly-l-lysine surfaces in a lower ionic strength buffer supplemented with Mg2+ and Ca2+ was determined to provide optimal cell attachment without compromising the overall cell viability. Cells immobilized in this method were stably imaged in media through multiple division cycles. Furthermore, permeability assays indicated that E. coli cells recover from the hypoosmotic stress caused by immobilization in low ionic strength buffers. Taken together, this data suggests that stable immobilization of viable cells on poly-l-lysine surfaces can be accomplished in lower ionic strength buffers that are supplemented with divalent cations for membrane stabilization while minimizing binding interference. The data also indicates that monitoring cell viability as a function of sample preparation is important and should be an integral part of the work flow for determining immobilization parameters. A method for immobilizing a less adherent E. coli mutant for AFM imaging in nutrient broth is presented here in addition to a proposed work flow for developing and optimizing immobilization strategies.
    Ultramicroscopy 02/2014; 137:30–39. DOI:10.1016/j.ultramic.2013.10.017 · 2.75 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Surgical Research 02/2014; 186(2):688. DOI:10.1016/j.jss.2013.11.1014 · 2.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A case log was created by the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma Acute Care Surgery (ACS) committee to track trainee operative experiences, allowing them to enter their cases in the form of Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes. We hypothesized that the number of cases an ACS trainee performed would be similar to the expectations of a fifth-year general surgery resident and that the current list of essential and desired cases (E/D list) would accurately reflect cases done by ACS trainees. The database was queried from July 1, 2011, to June 30, 2012. Trainees were classified as those in American Association for the Surgery of Trauma-accredited fellowships (ACC) and those in ACS fellowships not accredited (non-ACC). CPT codes were mapped to the E/D list. Cases entered manually were individually reviewed and assigned a CPT code if possible or listed as "noncodable." To compensate for nonoperative rotations and noncompliance, case numbers were analyzed both annually and monthly to estimate average case numbers for all trainees. In addition, case logs of trainees were compared with the E/D list to assess how well it reflected actual trainee experience. Eighteen ACC ACS and 11 non-ACC ACS trainees performed 16.4 (12.6) cases per month compared with 15.7 (14.2) cases for non-ACC ACS fellows (p = 0.71). When annualized, trainees performed, on average, 195 cases per year. Annual analysis led to similar results. The E/D list captured only approximately 50% of the trainees' operative experience. Only 77 cases were categorized as pediatric. ACS trainees have substantial operative experience averaging nearly 200 major cases during their ACS year. However, high variability exists in the number of essential or desirable cases being performed with approximately 50% of the fellows' operative experience falling outside the E/D list of cases. Modification of the fellows' operative experience and/or the rotation requirements seems to be needed to provide experience in E/D cases.
    02/2014; 76(2):329-39. DOI:10.1097/TA.0000000000000114
  • The American surgeon 01/2014; 80(4). · 0.92 Impact Factor
  • Annals of surgery 08/2013; 258(4). DOI:10.1097/SLA.0b013e3182a507de · 7.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Over the past 15 years, there has been a rapid transformation in the way blunt aortic injuries (BAIs) are managed shifting from open thoracotomies to thoracic endovascular repairs (TEVAR). As a result of this change, we sought to describe our experience with open and endovascular repairs through a retrospective analysis of all trauma patients admitted with BAI to our Level I trauma center from 2002 to 2011. Demographic data, type of repair, complications, length of stay (LOS) data, and mortality were identified. No difference was noted in age, sex, Injury Severity Score, or Glasgow Coma Scale score between the two groups. There were also no differences in the number of acute complications or mortality. Intensive care unit (ICU) LOS was significantly shorter in the TEVAR group (20 vs 9 days, P < 0.05). Additionally, there was a trend toward shorter hospital LOS (28 vs 18 days, P = 0.07) and ventilator length of stay (12 vs 5 days, P = 0.171). In summary, endovascular repair of BAI is safe and has no increased rate of acute complications or mortality. ICU LOS is much shorter with TEVAR, and there was a trend toward shorter ventilator and hospital LOS, all of which may result in decreased cost. Still, more needs to be learned about potential long-term complications.
    The American surgeon 08/2013; 79(8):806-9. · 0.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Gram-negative bacteria release outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) during growth that contain various membrane components involved in eliciting an inflammatory response, including lipopolysaccharide and virulence factors. However, little is known about the role of OMVs in sepsis. The objective of this study was to determine how OMVs, derived from Escherichia (E.) coli, elicit the cellular responses involved in activating the inflammatory cascade, and to determine whether additional virulence factors in pathogenic OMVs augment the inflammatory response. Human umbilical endothelial cells were inoculated with OMVs from non-pathogenic E. coli (npOMV) or pathogenic E. coli (pOMV) and analyzed for adhesion protein synthesis, cytokine production, and necrosis factor (NF)-κB translocation. Flow cytometry demonstrated that human umbilical vein endothelial cells exposed to npOMV or pOMV significantly increased expression of E-selectin and intercellular adhesion molecule, with a large population of cells demonstrating increased expression of both proteins. Interleukin-6 levels were significantly elevated by 4 h after exposure to npOMV and pOMVs. NF-κB translocation to the nucleus was shown to be induced by npOMV and pOMVs. However, the role of additional virulence factors associated with pOMVs remains undefined. Both npOMVs and pOMVs are capable of initiating the inflammatory cascade in endothelial cells. OMVs trigger NF-κB translocation to the nucleus, resulting in up-regulation of adhesion molecules and cytokines, presumably for the recruitment of leukocytes. By eliciting an inflammatory response, OMVs could facilitate the transition from a localized infection to a systemic response, and ultimately sepsis.
    Journal of Surgical Research 06/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.jss.2013.05.035 · 2.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: IMPORTANCE With duty hour debates, specialization, and sex distribution changes in the applicant pool, the relative competitiveness for general surgery residency (GSR) is undefined. OBJECTIVE To determine the modern attributes of top-ranked applicants to GSR. DESIGN Validation cohort, survey. SETTING National sample of university and community-based GSR programs. PARTICIPANTS Data were abstracted from Electronic Residency Application Service files of the top 20-ranked applicants to 22 GSR programs. We ranked program competitiveness and blinded review of personal statements. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Characteristics associated with applicant ranking by the GSR program (top 5 vs 6-20) and ranking by highly competitive programs were identified using t and χ2 tests and modified Poisson regression. RESULTS There were 333 unique applicants among the 440 Electronic Residency Application Service files. Most applicants had research experience (93.0%) and publications (76.8%), and 28.4% had Alpha Omega Alpha membership. Nearly half were women (45.2%), with wide variation by program (20.0%-75.0%) and a trend toward fewer women at programs in the South and West (38.0% and 37.5%, respectively). Men had higher United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 1 scores (238.0 vs 230.1; P < .001) but similar Step 2 scores (245.3 vs 244.5; P = .54). Using bivariate analysis, highly competitive programs were more likely to rank applicants with publications, research experience, Alpha Omega Alpha membership, higher Step 1 scores, and excellent personal statements and those who were male or Asian. However, the only significant predictors were Step 1 scores (relative risk [RR], 1.36 for every 10-U increase), publications (RR, 2.20), personal statements (RR, 1.62), and Asian race (RR, 1.70 vs white). Alpha Omega Alpha membership (RR, 1.62) and Step 1 scores (RR, 1.01) were the only variables predictive of ranking in the top 5. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE This national sample shows GSR is a highly competitive, sex-neutral discipline in which academic performance is the most important factor for ranking, especially in the most competitive programs. This study will inform applicants and program directors about applicants to the GSR program.
    05/2013; 148(5):413-7. DOI:10.1001/jamasurg.2013.180
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    ABSTRACT: Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is a noninvasive method for diagnosing choledocholithiasis. It is said to be as accurate as the gold standard endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for detecting common bile duct (CBD) stones. A study was needed to look at the accuracy of MRCP compared with intraoperative cholangiography (IOC) for detecting stones in the CBD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of MRCP in patients with choledocholithiasis diagnosed with IOC. This was a retrospective study looking at patients who underwent IOC. Results were compared with respective preoperative MRCP results if available. Four hundred twenty patients who underwent IOC were reviewed and met criteria for the study. Seventy patients had preoperative MRCP. Accuracy of MRCP when compared with IOC was 70%. MRCP has a high rate of false normal results compared with IOC and is not as accurate as more invasive techniques. There is no need for preoperative MRCP in patients with suspected choledocholithiasis caused by stones.
    American journal of surgery 04/2013; 205(4):371-3. DOI:10.1016/j.amjsurg.2012.07.033 · 2.36 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Surgical Research 02/2013; 179(2):199. DOI:10.1016/j.jss.2012.10.325 · 2.12 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
319.20 Total Impact Points


  • 1994–2015
    • Eastern Virginia Medical School
      • • Department of Surgery
      • • Division of General Surgery
      Norfolk, Virginia, United States
  • 2009
    • American College of Surgeons
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 2006
    • University of Wisconsin–Madison
      Madison, Wisconsin, United States
    • Hampton University
      • Department of Communicative Sciences & Disorders
      Hampton, VA, United States
  • 2002
    • University of Maryland Medical Center
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States