Jeffrey R Long

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California, United States

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Publications (259)2329.73 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Climate change, rising global energy demand, and energy security concerns motivate research into alternative, sustainable energy sources. In principle, solar energy can meet the world's energy needs, but the intermittent nature of solar illumination means that it is temporally and spatially separated from its consumption. Developing systems that promote solar-to-fuel conversion, such as via reduction of protons to hydrogen, could bridge this production-consumption gap, but this effort requires invention of catalysts that are cheap, robust, and efficient and that use earth-abundant elements. In this context, catalysts that utilize water as both an earth-abundant, environmentally benign substrate and a solvent for proton reduction are highly desirable. This Account summarizes our studies of molecular metal-polypyridyl catalysts for electrochemical and photochemical reduction of protons to hydrogen. Inspired by concept transfer from biological and materials catalysts, these scaffolds are remarkably resistant to decomposition in water, with fast and selective electrocatalytic and photocatalytic conversions that are sustainable for several days. Their modular nature offers a broad range of opportunities for tuning reactivity by molecular design, including altering ancillary ligand electronics, denticity, and/or incorporating redox-active elements. Our first-generation complex, [(PY4)Co(CH3CN)2](2+), catalyzes the reduction of protons from a strong organic acid to hydrogen in 50% water. Subsequent investigations with the pentapyridyl ligand PY5Me2 furnished molybdenum and cobalt complexes capable of catalyzing the reduction of water in fully aqueous electrolyte with 100% Faradaic efficiency. Of particular note, the complex [(PY5Me2)MoO](2+) possesses extremely high activity and durability in neutral water, with turnover frequencies at least 8500 mol of H2 per mole of catalyst per hour and turnover numbers over 600 000 mol of H2 per mole of catalyst over 3 days at an overpotential of 1.0 V, without apparent loss in activity. Replacing the oxo moiety with a disulfide affords [(PY5Me2)MoS2](2+), which bears a molecular MoS2 triangle that structurally and functionally mimics bulk molybdenum disulfide, improving the catalytic activity for water reduction. In water buffered to pH 3, catalysis by [(PY5Me2)MoS2](2+) onsets at 400 mV of overpotential, whereas [(PY5Me2)MoO](2+) requires an additional 300 mV of driving force to operate at the same current density. Metalation of the PY5Me2 ligand with an appropriate Co(ii) source also furnishes electrocatalysts that are active in water. Importantly, the onset of catalysis by the [(PY5Me2)Co(H2O)](2+) series is anodically shifted by introducing electron-withdrawing functional groups on the ligand. With the [(bpy2PYMe)Co(CF3SO3)](1+) system, we showed that introducing a redox-active moiety can facilitate the electro- and photochemical reduction of protons from weak acids such as acetic acid or water. Using a high-throughput photochemical reactor, we examined the structure-reactivity relationship of a series of cobalt(ii) complexes. Taken together, these findings set the stage for the broader application of polypyridyl systems to catalysis under environmentally benign aqueous conditions.
    Accounts of Chemical Research 06/2015; DOI:10.1021/acs.accounts.5b00082 · 24.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A new family of solid polymer electrolytes based upon anionic tetrakis(phenyl)borate tetrahedral nodes and linear bis-alkyne linkers is reported. Sonogashira polymerizations using tetrakis(4-iodophenyl)borate, tetrakis(4-iodo-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorophenyl)borate and tetrakis(4-bromo-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorophenyl)borate delivered highly cross-linked polymer networks with both 1,4-diethynylbeznene and a tri(ethylene glycol) substituted derivative. Promising initial conductivity metrics have been observed, including high room temperature conductivities (up to 2.7 × 10–4 S/cm), moderate activation energies (0.25-0.28 eV), and high lithium ion transport numbers (up to tLi+ = 0.93). Initial investigations into the effects of important materials parameters such as bulk morphology, porosity, fluorination, and other chemical modification, provide starting design parameters for further development of this new class of solid electrolytes.
    Chemical Science 06/2015; DOI:10.1039/C5SC02052B · 8.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mononuclear metalloenzymes in nature can function in cooperation with precisely positioned redox-active organic cofactors in order to carry out multielectron catalysis. Inspired by the finely tuned redox management of these bioinorganic systems, we present the design, synthesis, and experimental and theoretical characterization of a homologous series of cobalt complexes bearing redox-active pyrazines. These donor moieties are locked into key positions within a pentadentate ligand scaffold in order to evaluate the effects of positioning redox non-innocent ligands on hydrogen evolution catalysis. Both metal- and ligand-centered redox features are observed in organic as well as aqueous solutions over a range of pH values, and comparison with analogs bearing redox-inactive zinc(II) allows for assignments of ligand-based redox events. Varying the geometric placement of redox non-innocent pyrazine donors on isostructural pentadentate ligand platforms results in marked effects on observed cobalt-catalyzed proton reduction activity. Electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution from weak acids in acetonitrile solution, under diffusion-limited conditions, reveals that the pyrazine donor of axial isomer 1-Co behaves as an unproductive electron sink, resulting in high overpotentials for proton reduction, whereas the equatorial pyrazine isomer complex 2-Co is significantly more active for hydrogen generation at lower voltages. Addition of a second equatorial pyrazine in complex 3-Co further minimizes overpotentials required for catalysis. The equatorial derivative 2-Co is also superior to its axial 1-Co congener for electrocatalytic and visible-light photocatalytic hydrogen generation in biologically relevant, neutral pH aqueous media. Density functional theory calculations (B3LYP-D2) indicate that the first reduction of catalyst isomers 1-Co, 2-Co, and 3-Co is largely metal-centered while the second reduction occurs at pyrazine. Taken together, the data establish that proper positioning of non-innocent pyrazine ligands on a single cobalt center is indeed critical for promoting efficient hydrogen catalysis in aqueous media, akin to optimally positioned redox-active cofactors in metalloenzymes. In a broader sense, these findings highlight the significance of electronic structure considerations in the design of effective electron-hole reservoirs for multielectron transformations.
    Chemical Science 06/2015; DOI:10.1039/C5SC01414J · 8.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report the photochemical generation and study of a family of water-soluble iron(IV)-oxo complexes supported by pentapyridine PY5Me2-X ligands (PY5Me2 = 2,6-bis(1,1-bis(2-pyridyl)ethyl)pyridine; X = CF3, H, Me, or NMe2), in which the oxidative reactivity of these ferryl species correlates with the electronic properties of the axial pyridine ligand. Synthesis of a systematic series of [Fe(II)(L)(PY5Me2-X)](2+) complexes, where L = CH3CN or H2O, and characterizations by several methods, including X-ray crystallography, cyclic voltammetry, and Mössbauer spectroscopy, show that increasing the electron-donating ability of the axial pyridine ligand tracks with less positive Fe(III)/Fe(II) reduction potentials and quadrupole splitting parameters. The Fe(II) precursors are readily oxidized to their Fe(IV)-oxo counterparts using either chemical outer-sphere oxidants such as CAN (ceric ammonium nitrate) or flash-quench photochemical oxidation with [Ru(bpy)3](2+) as a photosensitizer and K2S2O8 as a quencher. The Fe(IV)-oxo complexes are capable of oxidizing the C-H bonds of alkane (4-ethylbenzenesulfonate) and alcohol (benzyl alcohol) substrates via hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) and an olefin (4-styrenesulfonate) substrate by oxygen atom transfer (OAT). The [Fe(IV)(O)(PY5Me2-X)](2+) derivatives with electron-poor axial ligands show faster rates of HAT and OAT compared to their counterparts supported by electron-rich axial donors, but the magnitudes of these differences are relatively modest.
    Inorganic Chemistry 06/2015; 54(12). DOI:10.1021/acs.inorgchem.5b00658 · 4.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have gained much attention as next-generation porous media for various applications, especially gas separation/storage, and catalysis. New MOFs are regularly reported; however, to develop better materials in a timely manner for specific applications, the interactions between guest molecules and the internal surface of the framework must first be understood. A combined experimental and theoretical approach is presented, which proves essential for the elucidation of small-molecule interactions in a model MOF system known as M2 (dobdc) (dobdc(4-) = 2,5-dioxido-1,4-benzenedicarboxylate; M = Mg, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, or Zn), a material whose adsorption properties can be readily tuned via chemical substitution. It is additionally shown that the study of extensive families like this one can provide a platform to test the efficacy and accuracy of developing computational methodologies in slightly varying chemical environments, a task that is necessary for their evolution into viable, robust tools for screening large numbers of materials. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
    Advanced Materials 05/2015; DOI:10.1002/adma.201500966 · 15.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Solvothermal reactions between the tritopic pyrazole-based functionalized ligand 1,3,5-tris((1H-pyrazol-4-yl)phenyl)benzene (H3BTPP) and nickel(II) perchlorate or copper(II) nitrate afforded two new metal-organic frameworks, Ni3(BTPP)2•solvent (Ni-BTPP) and CuI4CuII2(OH)2(BTPP)2•solvent (Cu-BTPP). Powder diffraction structure determination methods were employed to determine the crystal and molecular structure of the copper(I,II) derivative: triangular [Cu3N6(μ3-OH)] nodes are connected to six nearby ones by the pyrazolate ligands, thus constructing flat two-dimensional layers that stack to form slit-like one-dimensional channels. Thermogravimetric analyses highlighted both the thermal stability and the permanent porosity of these two materials. Porosity was confirmed by N2 adsorption at 77 K, yielding Langmuir specific surface areas of 1923(3) m2/g and 874(8) m2/g for Ni-BTPP and Cu-BTPP, respectively. Additionally, Ni-BTPP adsorbed 1.73 mmol/g (7.6 wt %) of CO2 at the mild conditions of 298 K and 1 bar.
    CrystEngComm 05/2015; DOI:10.1039/C5CE00561B · 3.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The charge-neutral, aluminium-based metal–organic framework containing accessible 2,2′-bipyridine (bpy) sites, MOF-253, is a suitable host material for the immobilization of various copper catalysts. The catalytic performance of CuCl2, Cu(NO3)2, Cu(BF4)2 and Cu(CF3SO3)2 before and after coordination to the bpy ligands in MOF-253 was studied in the Meinwald rearrangement of α-pinene oxide to campholenic aldehyde (CA). The coordination environment of Cu2+ in MOF-253 was further studied via EPR spectroscopy. Although the catalytic activity of the copper salts decreased upon heterogenization through coordination with the bpy linker, the selectivity to campholenic aldehyde markedly increased. Furthermore, the catalytic performance of the MOF loaded with copper salts was shown to vary greatly with the choice of charge compensating anion, allowing for improvement of the heterogeneous catalyst.
    Catalysis Today 05/2015; 246. DOI:10.1016/j.cattod.2014.08.006 · 3.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The catalytic properties of the metal-organic framework Fe2(dobdc), containing open Fe(II) sites, include hydroxylation of phenol by pure Fe2(dobdc) and hydroxylation of ethane by its magnesium-diluted analogue, Fe0.1Mg1.9(dobdc). In earlier work, the latter reaction was proposed to occur through a redox mechanism involving the generation of an iron(IV)-oxo species, which is an intermediate that is also observed or postulated (depending on the case) in some heme and non-heme enzymes and their model complexes. In the present work, we present a detailed mechanism by which the catalytic material, Fe0.1Mg1.9(dobdc), activates the strong C-H bonds of ethane. Kohn-Sham density functional and multireference wave function calculations have been performed to characterize the electronic structure of key species. We show that the catalytic non-heme-Fe hydroxylation of the strong C-H bond of ethane proceeds by a quintet single-state σ-attack pathway after the formation of highly reactive iron-oxo intermediate. The mechanistic pathway involves three key transition states, with the highest activation barrier for the transfer of oxygen from N2O to the Fe(II) center. The uncatalyzed reaction, where nitrous oxide directly oxidizes ethane to ethanol is found to have an activation energy of 280 kJ/mol, in contrast to 82 kJ/mol for the slowest step in the iron(IV)-oxo catalytic mechanism. The energetics of the C-H bond activation steps of ethane and methane are also compared. Dehydrogenation and dissociation pathways that can compete with the formation of ethanol were shown to involve higher barriers than the hydroxylation pathway.
    Journal of the American Chemical Society 04/2015; 137(17). DOI:10.1021/jacs.5b00382 · 11.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Despite the large number of metal-organic frameworks that have been studied in the context of post-combustion carbon capture, adsorption equilibria of gas mixtures including CO2, N2, and H2O, which are the three biggest components of the flue gas emanating from a coal- or natural gas-fired power plant, have never been reported. Here, we disclose the design and validation of a high-throughput multicomponent adsorption instrument that can measure equilibrium adsorption isotherms for mixtures of gases at conditions that are representative of an actual flue gas from a power plant. This instrument is used to study 15 different metal-organic frameworks, zeolites, mesoporous silicas, and activated carbons representative of the broad range of solid adsorbents that have received attention for CO2 capture. While the multicomponent results presented in this work provide many interesting fundamental insights, only adsorbents functionalized with alkylamines are shown to have any significant CO2 capacity in the presence of N2 and H2O at equilibrium partial pressures similar to those expected in a carbon capture process. Most significantly, the amine-appended metal organic framework mmen-Mg2(dobpdc) (mmen = N,N'-dimethylethylenediamine, dobpdc (4-) = 4,4'-dioxido-3,3'-biphenyldicarboxylate) exhibits a record CO2 capacity of 4.2 ± 0.2 mmol/g (16 wt %) at 0.1 bar and 40 °C in the presence of a high partial pressure of H2O.
    Journal of the American Chemical Society 04/2015; 137(14). DOI:10.1021/jacs.5b00838 · 11.44 Impact Factor
  • Katie R. Meihaus, Jeffrey R. Long
    ChemInform 04/2015; 46(16). DOI:10.1002/chin.201516303
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    ABSTRACT: Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are known to facilitate energy-efficient separations of important industrial chemical feedstocks. Here, we report how a class of green MOFs - namely CD-MOFs - exhibits high shape-selectivity towards aromatic hydrocarbons. CD-MOFs, which consist of an extended porous network of γ-cyclodextrins (γ-CDs) and alkali metal cations, can separate a wide range of benzenoid compounds as a result of their relative orientation and packing within the transverse channels, formed from linking (γ-CD)6 body-centered cuboids in three dimensions. Adsorption isotherms and liquid-phase chromatographic measurements indicate a retention order of ortho- > meta- > para-xylene. The persistence of this regioselectivity is also observed during the liquid-phase chromatography of the ethyltoluene and cymene regioisomers. In addition, molecular shape-sorting within CD-MOFs facilitates the separation of the industrially relevant BTEX (Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene and the Xylene isomers) mixture. The high resolution and large separation factors exhibited by CD-MOFs for benzene and these alkylaromatics provide an efficient, reliable and green alternative to current isolation protocols. Furthermore, the isolation of the regioisomers of (i) ethyltoluene and (ii) cymene, together with the purification of (iii) cumene from its major impurities (benzene, n-propylbenzene and diisopropylbenzene), highlight the specificity of the shape-selectivity exhibited by CD-MOFs. Grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations and single component static vapor adsorption isotherms and kinetics reveal the origin of the shape-selectivity and provide insight into the capability of CD-MOFs to serve as versatile separation platforms derived from renewable sources.
    Journal of the American Chemical Society 03/2015; 137(17). DOI:10.1021/ja511878b · 11.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The process of carbon capture and sequestration has been proposed as a method of mitigating the build-up of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. If implemented, the cost of electricity generated by a fossil fuel-burning power plant would rise substantially, owing to the expense of removing CO2 from the effluent stream. There is therefore an urgent need for more efficient gas separation technologies, such as those potentially offered by advanced solid adsorbents. Here we show that diamine-appended metal-organic frameworks can behave as 'phase-change' adsorbents, with unusual step-shaped CO2 adsorption isotherms that shift markedly with temperature. Results from spectroscopic, diffraction and computational studies show that the origin of the sharp adsorption step is an unprecedented cooperative process in which, above a metal-dependent threshold pressure, CO2 molecules insert into metal-amine bonds, inducing a reorganization of the amines into well-ordered chains of ammonium carbamate. As a consequence, large CO2 separation capacities can be achieved with small temperature swings, and regeneration energies appreciably lower than achievable with state-of-the-art aqueous amine solutions become feasible. The results provide a mechanistic framework for designing highly efficient adsorbents for removing CO2 from various gas mixtures, and yield insights into the conservation of Mg(2+) within the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase family of enzymes.
    Nature 03/2015; 519(7543). DOI:10.1038/nature14327 · 42.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We describe a robust screening technique that correlates the surface area of metal-organic frameworks to the proton T2 relaxation behavior of imbibed solvent at low field (13 MHz). In frameworks with small pore sizes (<1 nm) or strong solvent-framework interactions, diffusional exchange between the pore-confined and inter-particle solvent populations remains slow compared to the T2 of the pore-confined solvent, allowing for a direct porosity analysis of the T2 spectrum obtained from Laplace inversions. Increases in framework pore-size (>1 nm) lead to corresponding increases in the rate of solvent exchange, as confirmed by T2 relaxation exchange (REXSY) experiments; increases in the pore size also increases the T2 of the pore-confined solvent. The combination of these two effects results in comparable rates of relaxation and exchange, which precludes the direct analysis of Laplace inversions. Thus, two- and three-site kinetics models were applied to extract porosity from relaxation decays, thereby improving the utility of the porosity screening tool.
    Microporous and Mesoporous Materials 03/2015; 205:65-69. DOI:10.1016/j.micromeso.2014.07.037 · 3.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Metal-organic frameworks featuring ligands with open chelating groups are versatile platforms for the preparation of a diverse set of heterogeneous catalysts through postsynthetic metalation. The crystalline nature of these materials allows them to be characterized via X-ray diffraction, which provides valuable insight into the structure of the metal sites that facilitate catalysis. A highly porous and thermally robust zirconium-based metal-organic framework, Zr6O4(OH)4(bpydc)6 (bpydc(2-) = 2,2'-bipyridne-5,5'-dicarboxylate), bears open bipyridine sites that readily react with a variety of solution- and gas-phase metal sources to form the corresponding metalated frameworks. Remarkably, Zr6O4(OH)4(bpydc)6 undergoes a single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation upon metalation that involves a change in space group from Fm3̅m to Pa3̅. This structural transformation leads to an ordering of the metalated linkers within the framework, allowing structural characterization of the resulting metal complexes. Furthermore, Zr6O4(OH)4(bpydc)6 yields an active heterogeneous catalyst for arene C-H borylation when metalated with [Ir(COD)2]BF4 (COD = 1,5-cyclooctadiene). These results highlight the unique potential of metal-organic frameworks as a class of heterogeneous catalysts that allow unparalleled structural characterization and control over their active sites.
    Inorganic Chemistry 02/2015; 54(6). DOI:10.1021/acs.inorgchem.5b00096 · 4.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An iron-based metal-organic framework featuring coordinatively-unsaturated redox-active metal cation sites, Fe2(dobdc) (dobdc(4-) = 1,4-dioxido-2,5-benzenedicarboxylate), is shown to strongly bind nitric oxide at 298 K. Adsorption isotherms indicate an ad-sorption capacity greater than 16 wt %, corresponding to the adsorption of one NO molecule per iron center. Infrared, UV-vis, and Mössbauer spectroscopies, together with magnetic susceptibility data, confirm the strong binding is a result of electron transfer from the Fe(II) sites to form Fe(III)-NO(-) adducts. Consistent with these results, powder neutron diffraction experiments indicate that NO is bound to the iron centers of the framework with an Fe-NO separation of 1.77(1) Å and an Fe-N-O angle of 150.9(5)°. The nitric oxide-containing material, Fe2(NO)2(dobdc), steadily releases bound NO under humid conditions over the course of more than 10 days, making it a much better candidate than other porous ma-terials for certain biomedical applications.
    Journal of the American Chemical Society 02/2015; 137(10). DOI:10.1021/ja5132243 · 11.44 Impact Factor
  • Thomas M McDonald, Eric D Bloch, Jeffrey R Long
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    ABSTRACT: A methodology utilizing a thermogravimetric analyzer to monitor propane uptake following incremental increases of the temperature is demonstrated as a means of rapidly determining the optimum activation conditions for metal-organic frameworks. Improved activation conditions for the tetrazolate-bridged framework Mn-BTT, quickly discovered using this procedure, were found to increase significantly both its CO2 adsorption capacity and the isosteric heat of CO2 adsorption. The ability of the methodology to readily differentiate porous and nonporous materials makes it well-suited for use in the high-throughput discovery of new metal-organic frameworks with high surface areas.
    Chemical Communications 02/2015; 51(24). DOI:10.1039/c5cc00681c · 6.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The phosphotungstate anion (PTA) is widely used to facilitate the precipitation of disease-causing prion protein (PrP(Sc)) from infected tissue for applications in structural studies and diagnostic approaches. However, the mechanism of this precipitation is not understood. In order to elucidate the nature of the PTA interaction with PrP(Sc) under physiological conditions, solutions of PTA were characterized by NMR spectroscopy at varying pH. At neutral pH, the parent [PW12O40](3-) ion decomposes to give a lacunary [PW11O39](7-) (PW11) complex and a single orthotungstate anion [WO4](2-) (WO4). To measure the efficacy of each component of PTA, increasing concentrations of PW11, WO4, and mixtures thereof were used to precipitate PrP(Sc) from brain homogenates of scrapie prion-infected mice. The amount of PrP(Sc) isolated, quantified by ELISA and immunoblotting, revealed that both PW11 and WO4 contribute to PrP(Sc) precipitation. Incubation with sarkosyl, PTA, or individual components of PTA resulted in separation of higher-density PrP aggregates from the neuronal lipid monosialotetrahexosylganglioside (GM1), as observed by sucrose gradient centrifugation. These experiments revealed that yield and purity of PrP(Sc) were greater with polyoxometalates (POMs), which substantially supported the separation of lipids from PrP(Sc) in the samples. Interaction of POMs and sarkosyl with brain homogenates promoted the formation of fibrillar PrP(Sc) aggregates prior to centrifugation, likely through the separation of lipids like GM1 from PrP(Sc). We propose that this separation of lipids from PrP is a major factor governing the facile precipitation of PrP(Sc) by PTA from tissue and might be optimized further for the detection of prions.
    ACS Chemical Biology 02/2015; 10(5). DOI:10.1021/cb5006239 · 5.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: For coordinatively unsaturated metal–organic frameworks (MOFs), the metal centers can be functionalized as CO2 capture/storage adsorbents by grafting species having specific active groups. We report direct measurement of enthalpy of adsorption of CO2 on an alkylamine-appended MOF, mmen-Mg2(dobpdc) employing gas adsorption calorimetry at 298, 323 and 348 K. This methodology provides, for the first time, the detailed dependence of energy and entropy of sorption as a function of coverage and temperature. The enthalpy data suggest three types of adsorption events: strongest exothermic initial chemisorption at low coverage, majority moderate chemisorption at intermediate loading and weakest physisorption at highest coverage. The partial molar properties and isotherms are consistent with the presence of two different potential chemisorption mechanisms: 2:1 (amine–CO2) stoichiometry near zero coverage and 1:1 afterwards. Both chemical potential and differential enthalpy of adsorption become less negative with increasing temperature, implying increasing adsorbent entropy at elevated temperature. These observations are consistent with weaker CO2 binding at higher temperature.
    Journal of Materials Chemistry A 01/2015; 2015(3):4248-4254. DOI:10.1039/C4TA06496H · 7.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: First-row two-coordinate complexes are attracting much interest. Herein, we report the high-yield isolation of the linear two-coordinate iron(I) complex salt [K(L)][Fe{N(SiMe3)2}2] (L=18-crown-6 or crypt-222) through the reduction of either [Fe{N(SiMe3)2}2] or its three-coordinate phosphine adduct [Fe{N(SiMe3)2}2(PCy3)]. Detailed characterization is gained through X-ray diffraction, variable-temperature NMR spectroscopy, and magnetic susceptibility studies. One- and two-electron oxidation through reaction with I2 is further found to afford the corresponding iodo iron(II) and diiodo iron(III) complexes.
    Angewandte Chemie International Edition 01/2015; 127(1). DOI:10.1002/anie.201408802 · 11.34 Impact Factor
  • Ehud Tsivion, Jeffrey R Long, Martin Head-Gordon
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    ABSTRACT: In order for hydrogen gas to be used as a fuel, it must be stored in sufficient quantity on board the vehicle. Efforts are being made to increase the hydrogen storage capabilities of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) by introducing unsatu-rated metal sites into their linking element(s), as hydrogen adsorption centers. In order to devise successful hydrogen storage strategies there is a need for a fundamental understanding of the weak and elusive hydrogen physisorption in-teraction. Here we report our findings from the investigation of the weak inter-molecular interactions of adsorbed hy-drogen molecules on MOF-linkers by using cluster models. Since physical interactions such as dispersion and polariza-tion have a major contribution to attraction energy, our approach is to analyze the adsorption interaction using Ener-gy Decomposition Analysis (EDA) that distinguishes the contribution of the physical interactions from the charge-transfer (CT) "chemical" interaction. Surprisingly, it is found that CT from the adsorbent to the σ*(H2) orbital is pre-sent in all studied complexes and can contribute up to approximately -2 kJ/mol to the interaction. When metal ions are present, donation from the σ(H2) → metal Rydberg-like orbital, along with the adsorbent → σ*(H2) contribution, can contribute from -2 to -10 kJ/mol, depending on the coordination mode. To reach a sufficient adsorption enthalpy for practical usage, the hydrogen molecule must be substantially polarized. Ultimately, the ability of the metallated linker to polarize the hydrogen molecule is highly dependent on the geometry of the metal ion coordination site where a strong electrostatic dipole or quadrupole moment is required.
    Journal of the American Chemical Society 11/2014; DOI:10.1021/ja5101323 · 11.44 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

20k Citations
2,329.73 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2012–2015
    • Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
      • Geochemistry Department
      Berkeley, California, United States
  • 1997–2015
    • University of California, Berkeley
      • Department of Chemistry
      Berkeley, California, United States
    • University of Florence
      Florens, Tuscany, Italy
  • 2010
    • Centre de Recherche Paul Pascal
      Pessac, Aquitaine, France
  • 2007
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      Los Ángeles, California, United States
    • Indiana University Bloomington
      Bloomington, Indiana, United States
    • Washington University in St. Louis
      San Luis, Missouri, United States
  • 2004–2006
    • Nanjing University
      • State Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry
      Nanjing, Jiangsu Sheng, China
    • University of Angers
      Angers, Pays de la Loire, France
  • 1996–1998
    • Boston University
      • Department of Chemistry
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1993–1998
    • Harvard University
      • Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States