[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc)ylation of cytoplasmic and nuclear proteins regulates basic cellular functions and is involved in the etiology of neurodegeneration and diabetes. Intracellular O-GlcNAcylation is catalyzed by a single O-GlcNAc transferase, O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT). Recently, an atypical O-GlcNAc transferase, extracellular O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (EOGT), which is responsible for the modification of extracellular O-GlcNAc, was identified. Although both OGT and EOGT are regulated through the common hexosamine biosynthesis pathway, EOGT localizes to the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum and transfers GlcNAc to epidermal growth factor-like domains in an OGT-independent manner. In Drosophila, loss of Eogt gives phenotypes similar to those caused by defects in the apical extracellular matrix. Dumpy, a membrane-anchored apical extracellular matrix protein, was identified as a major O-GlcNAcylated protein, and EOGT mediates Dumpy-dependent cell adhesion. In mammals, extracellular O-GlcNAc was detected on extracellular proteins including heparan sulfate proteoglycan 2, Nell1, laminin subunit alpha-5, Pamr1, and transmembrane proteins, including Notch receptors. Although the physiological function of O-GlcNAc in mammals has not yet been elucidated, exome sequencing identified homozygous EOGT mutations in patients with Adams-Oliver syndrome, a rare congenital disorder characterized by aplasia cutis congenita and terminal transverse limb defects. This review summarizes the current knowledge of extracellular O-GlcNAc and its implications in the pathological processes in Adams-Oliver syndrome.
World journal of biological chemistry. 05/2014; 5(2):224-230.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypoglycosylation is a common characteristic of dystroglycanopathy, which is a group of congenital muscular dystrophies. More than ten genes have been implicated in α-dystroglycanopathies that are associated with the defect in the O-mannosylation pathway. One such gene is GTDC2, which was recently reported to encode O-mannose β-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase. Here we show that GTDC2 generates CTD110.6 antibody-reactive N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) epitopes on the O-mannosylated α-dystroglycan (α-DG). Using the antibody, we show that mutations of GTDC2 identified in Walker-Warburg syndrome and alanine-substitution of conserved residues between GTDC2 and EGF domain O-GlcNAc transferase resulted in decreased glycosylation. Moreover, GTDC2-modified GlcNAc epitopes are localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). These data suggested that GTDC2 is a novel glycosyltransferase catalyzing GlcNAcylation of O-mannosylated α-DG in the ER. CTD110.6 antibody may be useful to detect a specific form of GlcNAcylated O-mannose and to analyze defective O-glycosylation in α-dystroglycanopathies .
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 09/2013; · 2.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously demonstrated that ppGalNAc-T13 (T13), identified as an up-regulated gene with increased metastasis in DNA microarray, generated trimeric Tn (tTn) antigen (GalNAcα1-Ser/Thr)3 on Syndecan-1 in high metastatic sublines of Lewis lung cancer. However, it is not known how tTn antigen regulates cancer metastasis. Here, we analyzed roles of tTn antigen in cancer properties. tTn antigen on Syndecan-1 increased cell adhesion to fibronectin in an integrin-dependent manner. Furthermore, cell adhesion to fibronectin induced phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase and paxillin in T13-transfectant cells. In the search of Syndecan-1-interacting molecules, it was demonstrated that tTn antigen-carrying Syndecan-1 interacted with integrin α5β1 and MMP-9, and these molecules shifted to glycolipid-enriched microdomain (GEM)/rafts along with increased metastatic potential in T13-transfectant cells. We also identified tTn-substitution site on Syndecan-1, demonstrating that tTn on Syndecan-1 is essential for the interaction with integrin α5β1 as well as for the reaction with mAb MLS128. These data suggested that high expression of ppGalNAc-T13 gene generated tTn antigen on Syndecan-1 under reduced expression of GM1, leading to the enhanced invasion and metastasis via the formation of a molecular complex consisting of integrin α5β1, Syndecan-1 and MMP-9 in GEM/rafts.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 06/2013; · 4.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pollen proteins from several grass species have been identified and characterized as causative allergens in grass pollinosis. By contrast, allergenic potential of pollen proteins from rice, which belongs to the same Poaceae family, has not well been investigated, despite that a few clinical cases have been reported on rice pollen allergy. In this study, to characterize expression and allergenic potential of pollen proteins from rice (Oryza sativa, ssp. japonica), rice putative proteins for β-expansin (EXP), a Ca(2+)-binding protein (CBP)/polcalcin, extensin (EXT), profilin (PRF) and polygalacturonase (PGA) retrieved from a rice complete cDNA database were prepared as recombinant proteins, and the antibodies to these recombinant proteins were obtained. Immuno-blotting and immuno-histological analyses showed that rice putative EXP, EXT and PGA were expressed abundantly in anther tissue and pollen granules and immuno-cross reactive with pollen proteins from timothy grass. ELISA and immuno-dot blotting analyses using serum specimens from allergic patients showed that majority of the specimens was positive in the IgE-binding to EXP and EXT, but weakly to PGA and almost negative to PRF. EXP and EXT were suggested to be potentially allergenic in the rice pollen allergy as well as the grass pollinosis.
Journal of Biochemistry 05/2013; · 3.07 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Allergenic potential of food proteins is associated with stability to gastric and pancreatic digestive enzymes. However, much attention has not been focused on intracellular digestion of protein antigens during the passage through intestinal epithelia. We report here the degradation and survival of a bis-phosphorylated protein, ovalbumin, in the course of passage through Caco-2 cell monolayers cultured on porous membrane. SDS-PAGE in combination with phosphoprotein staining showed that ovalbumin, which had passed through the cell layers, was almost intact in its polypeptide chain but partly dephosphorylated. By contrast, quantitative analysis using ELISA indicated that complete dephosphorylation in advance by an alkaline phosphatase markedly reduced the ovalbumin passage. The reduced passage was restored in the presence of cathepsin inhibitors, leupeptin and pepstatin-A. Moreover, the complete dephosphorylation increased susceptibility of ovalbumin to in vitro digestion with cathepsin B, which cleaved near an ovalbumin phosphorylation site, Ser345. The susceptibility of ovalbumin to lysosomal proteases may affect its passage through the intestinal epithelia, leading to determination of allergic sensitization and elicitation in egg allergy.
Journal of Biochemistry 01/2013; · 3.07 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Milk fat globules (MFGs) secreted by lactating mammary gland are unique lipid surrounded by a phospholipid bi-layer. We report here post-weaning changes in milk fat globule EGF factor VIII (MFG-E8) and annexin V-accessible phosphatidylserine on the surface of MFGs. The MFG content in milk markedly decreased to about half within 2 days after forced weaning, despite a slight increase in milk protein content. Immunofluorescence-staining of MFGs using anti-MFG-E8 and annexin V indicated that MFG-E8 was present on some, but not all, MFGs before weaning, whereas most of MFGs were MFG-E8-positive and annexin V-negative after weaning. Free MFG-E8 with binding activity to phosphatidylserine was present abundantly in the post-weaning milk, and indeed exhibited binding to MFGs in pre-weaning milk. MFGs were taken up by HC11 mouse mammary epithelial cells in vitro, and those from post-weaning milk were remarkable for such cellular uptake. Moreover, the uptake of MFGs by the cells was inhibited by an anti-MFG-E8 antibody. Taken together, these findings suggest that MFG-E8 plays a critical role in regulation of MFG dynamics after weaning or during the suckling interval through the control of MFG-epithelial cell interaction in lactating mammary glands.
Journal of Biochemistry 10/2012; · 3.07 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phagocytes engulf pathogenic microbes, kill them and degrade their cellular macromolecules by hydrolytic enzymes in phagolysosomes. However, such enzymes are unable to degrade some microbial polysaccharides, and fate of such indigestible polysaccharides in phagocytes remains uncertain. Using the extracellular domain of Dectin-1 as β-glucan-specific probes, we succeeded in detection of soluble and Dectin-1-reactive β-glucan discharged from mouse RAW 264.7 and human THP-1 macrophage cell lines as well as mouse peritoneal macrophages, which had phagocytized insoluble β-glucan particles. The RAW 264.7 cell culture-supernatant containing the discharged β-glucan stimulated naïve RAW 264.7 cells, resulting in the induction of cytokine expression. Such discharge of Dectin-1-reactive β-glucan from macrophage cells was inhibited by either NADPH oxidase inhibitors (apocynin and diphenylene iodonium) or radical scavengers (N-acetyl cysteine and MCI-186). Moreover, reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by a Cu(2+)/ascorbic acid system solubilized insoluble β-glucan particles in vitro, and a part of the solubilized β-glucan was Dectin-1 reactive and biologically active in macrophage activation. The soluble and biologically active β-glucan was degraded further during prolonged exposure to ROS. These results suggest that degraded but Dectin-1-reactive β-glucan is discharged from macrophage cells phagocytizing insoluble β-glucan particles and stimulates not only themselves again but also the other naïve phagocytes, leading to the effective elimination of infecting microbes and the ultimate breakdown and inactivation of metabolically resistant β-glucan.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 04/2012; 421(2):329-34. · 2.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: O-linked-β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modification is a unique cytoplasmic and nuclear protein modification that is common in nearly all eukaryotes, including filamentous fungi, plants, and animals. We had recently reported that epidermal growth factor (EGF) repeats of Notch and Dumpy are O-GlcNAcylated by an atypical O-GlcNAc transferase, EOGT, in Drosophila. However, no study has yet shown whether O-GlcNAcylation of extracellular proteins is limited to insects such as Drosophila or whether it occurs in other organisms, including mammals. Here, we report the characterization of A130022J15Rik, a mouse gene homolog of Drosophila Eogt (Eogt 1). Enzymatic analysis revealed that Eogt1 has a substrate specificity similar to that of Drosophila EOGT, wherein the Thr residue located between the fifth and sixth conserved cysteines of the folded EGF-like domains is modified. This observation is supported by the fact that the expression of Eogt1 in Drosophila rescued the cell-adhesion defect caused by Eogt downregulation. In HEK293T cells, Eogt1 expression promoted modification of Notch1 EGF repeats by O-GlcNAc, which was further modified, at least in part, by galactose to generate a novel O-linked-N-acetyllactosamine structure. These results suggest that Eogt1 encodes EGF domain O-GlcNAc transferase and that O-GlcNAcylation reaction in the secretory pathway is a fundamental biochemical process conserved through evolution.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 03/2012; 419(1):14-9. · 2.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to analyze the mechanisms for cancer metastasis, high metastatic sublines (H7-A, H7-Lu, H7-O, C4-sc, and C4-ly) were obtained by repeated injection of mouse Lewis lung cancer sublines H7 and C4 into C57BL/6 mice. These sublines exhibited increased proliferation and invasion activity in vitro. Ganglioside profiles exhibited lower expression of GM1 in high metastatic sublines than the parent lines. Then, we established GM1-Si-1 and GM1-Si-2 by stable silencing of GM1 synthase in H7 cells. These GM1-knockdown clones exhibited increased proliferation and invasion. Then, we explored genes that markedly altered in the expression levels by DNA microarray in the combination of C4 vs. C4-ly or H7 vs. H7 (GM1-Si). Consequently, pp-GalNAc-T13 gene was identified as up-regulated genes in the high metastatic sublines. Stable transfection of pp-GalNAc-T13 cDNA into C4 (T13-TF) resulted in increased invasion and motility. Then, immunoblotting and flow cytometry using various antibodies and lectins were performed. Only anti-trimeric Tn antibody (mAb MLS128), showed increased expression levels of trimeric Tn antigen in T13-TF clones. Moreover, immunoprecipitation/immunoblotting was performed by mAb MLS128, leading to the identification of an 80 kDa band carrying trimeric Tn antigen, i.e. Syndecan-1. Stable silencing of endogenous pp-GalNAc-T13 in C4-sc (T13-KD) revealed that primary tumors generated by subcutaneous injection of T13-KD clones showed lower coalescence to fascia and peritoneum, and significantly reduced lung metastasis than control clones. These data suggested that high expression of pp-GalNAc-T13 gene generated trimeric Tn antigen on Syndecan-1, leading to the enhanced metastasis.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 03/2012; 419(1):7-13. · 2.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The O-linked-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modification of cytoplasmic and nuclear proteins regulates basic cellular functions and is involved in the aetiology of diabetes and neurodegeneration. This intracellular O-GlcNAcylation is catalyzed by a single O-GlcNAc transferase, OGT. Here we report a novel OGT, EOGT, responsible for extracellular O-GlcNAcylation. Although both OGT and EOGT are regulated by hexosamine flux, EOGT localizes to the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum and transfers GlcNAc to epidermal growth factor-like domains in an OGT-independent manner. Loss of Eogt gives phenotypes similar to those caused by defects in the apical extracellular matrix. Dumpy (Dp), a membrane-anchored extracellular protein, is O-GlcNAcylated, and EOGT is required for Dp-dependent epithelial cell-matrix interactions. Thus, O-GlcNAcylation of secreted and membrane glycoproteins is a novel mediator of cell-cell or cell-matrix interactions at the cell surface.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cell surface mucins configure the cell surface by presenting extended protein backbones that are heavily O-glycosylated. The glycopeptide structures establish physicochemical properties at the cell surface that enable and block the formation of biologically important molecular complexes. Some mucins, such as MUC1, associate with receptor tyrosine kinases and other cell surface receptors, and engage in signal transduction in order to communicate information regarding conditions at the cell surface to the nucleus. In that context, the MUC1 cytoplasmic tail (MUC1CT) receives phosphorylation signals from receptor tyrosine kinases and serine/threonine kinases, which enables its association with different signaling complexes that conduct these signals to the nucleus and perhaps other subcellular organelles. We have detected the MUC1CT at promoters of over 500 genes, in association with several different transcription factors, and have shown that promoter occupancy can vary under different growth factor conditions. However, the full biochemical nature of the nuclear forms of MUC1 and its function at these promoter regions remain undefined. I will present evidence that nuclear forms of the MUC1CT include extracellular and cytoplasmic tail domains. In addition, I will discuss evidence for a hypothesis that the MUC1CT possesses a novel catalytic function that enables remodeling of the transcription factor occupancy of promoters, and thereby engages in regulation of gene expression.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is known that mutant mice of the beta-1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase gene (beta3Gn-T5) respond well to T-cell dependent and independent antigens. Here, we examined the effectiveness of anti-ganglioside antibody generation by immunization of beta3Gn-T5 mutant mice with liposome-embedded glycosphingolipids such as GD1a and GT1b. Consequently, the mutant mice showed a more efficient generation of anti-GD1a or anti-GT1b antibodies than wild-type mice in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using sera during immunization. Thus, the beta3Gn-T5 deficient mutant mice proved more responsive than wild-type mice to not only protein antigens, but also to carbohydrates in glycolipids. Furthermore, about 50% of monoclonal antibodies generated using splenocytes of the immunized mutant mice were of the IgG class. Besides general high responsiveness to proteins and glycolipids, it could be expected that the mutant mice of beta3Gn-T5 would be useful in the generation of monoclonal antibodies towards lacto-/neolacto-series glycolipids, since these mutants lack lacto-/neolacto-series glycolipids. In fact, they showed a good serum response in immuno-fluorescence assay with cultured living cells when immunized by glycolipids extracted from ovarian cancer cell lines. These results suggested that beta3Gn-T5 mutant mice are useful for the generation of anti-glycolipid antigens with lacto-/neolacto-core structures expressed in cancer cells.
Nagoya journal of medical science 08/2011; 73(3-4):137-46. · 0.80 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mammary epithelium produces numerous lipid droplets during lactation and secretes them in plasma membrane-enclosed vesicles known as milk fat globules. The biogenesis of such fat globules is considered to provide a model for clarifying the mechanisms of lipogenesis in mammals. In the present study, we identified acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase, ATP citrate lyase, and fatty acid synthase in mouse milk. Fractionation of milk showed that these three enzymes were located predominantly in milk fat globules. The three enzymes were resistant to trypsin digestion without Triton X-100, indicating that they were not located on the outer surface of the globules and thus associated with the precursors of the globules before secretion. When a low dose of rapamycin, an inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), was injected into lactating mice, the levels of the three enzymes in milk were decreased within 3h after injection. Since the protein levels of the three enzymes in tissues were not obviously altered by this short-term treatment, known transcriptional control by mTOR signaling was unlikely to account for this decrease in their levels in milk. Our findings suggest a new, putatively mTOR-dependent localization of the three enzymes for de novo lipogenesis.
Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 04/2011; 508(1):87-92. · 3.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Few common carbohydrate epitopes consisting of terminal beta-(1,2)-xylose and/or alpha-(1,3)-fucose residues are shared by a variety of glycoproteins from plants, insects and parasitic worms, termed cross-reactive carbohydrate determinant (CCD), and frequently recognized by IgE antibodies of patients with food and/or respiratory allergy, though clinical relevancy of such CCD-specific IgE is still controversial. Attention has also been focused on CCDs from the undesired post-translational modification of recombinant therapeutic proteins produced by transgenic plants and insects. In the present study, to clarify immunogenic potentials of CCD-bearing glycoproteins, the antibody response to a model plant glycoprotein, horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was investigated in a mouse model. C3H/He mice were immunized with HRP plus Al(OH)(3) or Freund's adjuvant, and IgG and IgE responses to CCDs in addition to HRP were analyzed by ELISA using some distinct glycoproteins with known N-glycan structures. IgE response to HRP was induced remarkably, whereas that to CCD was weaker and delayed. Moreover, apparent ratio of the CCD-specific antibodies to HRP-specific ones tended to be higher in IgG2a and IgG2b isotypes than IgG1, IgG3 and IgE. In contrast to rabbit antibodies, the CCD-specific antibodies from the mice gave poor reactivity with bromelain and honeybee phospholipase A2, suggesting the critical role of both beta-(1,2)-xylose and alpha-(1,3)-mannose in the CCD-recognition by the mouse antibodies. Moreover, the mouse antibodies showed weaker cross-reactivity to pollen- and insect-derived glycoproteins than the rabbit ones. Thus, in this mouse model, not only IgE but also IgG2 antibody responses to CCDs were induced by immunizing with a CCD-bearing glycoprotein, suggesting that CCDs affected not only Th2-type but also Th1-type antibody response at least in C3H/He mice.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Involution of the mammary gland is a regressive phase that occurs after lactation, and requires reprogramming of gene expression for the tissue to return to a pre-pregnant state. Although the transcriptome of the mammary gland demonstrates complex changes at the mRNA level, the molecular mechanisms governing post-transcriptional control remain obscure. In the present study, we isolated cytoplasmic mRNA-protein complexes (mRNPs) from the mouse mammary gland at the early involution stage using discontinuous sucrose density ultracentrifugation. mRNPs including untranslated mRNAs were then purified with oligo(dT) immobilized on cellulose or paramagnetic beads. Proteins in the purified complexes were subjected to one/two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry. This identified heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A/B (Hnrpab), along with three other heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins. Hnrpab in the mRNPs reproducibly increased within 48 h after weaning and became one of the major components. When a vector expressing Hnrpab was transfected into two different cell lines, their growth was suppressed, demonstrating that this protein has cytostatic activity. These results suggest that early involution can be used as a model for understanding the mechanism of post-transcriptional control of gene expression, responsible for modulation of cell function.
Cell Biochemistry and Function 06/2010; 28(4):321-8. · 2.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Heterogeneity of ribosome structure, due to variations in ribosomal protein composition, has been shown to be of physiological significance in plants and yeast. Mammalian genomics have demonstrated numerous genes that are paralogous to genes encoding ribosomal proteins. Although the vast majority are considered to be pseudogenes, mRNA expression of a few paralogues, such as human ribosomal protein L39-like/L39-2, has been reported. In the present study, ribosomes from the liver, mammary gland, and testis of rodents were analyzed using a combination of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis under radical-free and highly reducing conditions, and mass spectrometry. This system allowed identification of 78 ribosomal proteins and Rack1 from a single gel. The degree of heterogeneity was far less than that reported for plant and yeast ribosomes, and was in accord with published biochemical and genetic data for mammalian ribosomes. Nevertheless, an uncharacterized paralogue of ribosomal protein L22, ribosomal protein L22-like 1, was identified as a minor ribosomal component. Ribosomal proteins L10-like and L39-like, paralogues of ribosomal proteins L10 and L39, respectively, were found in ribosomes only from the testis. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction yielded supportive evidence for specific expression of L10-like and L39-like in the testis. Newly synthesized L39-like is likely to be transported to the nucleolus, where ribosome biosynthesis occurs, and then incorporated into translating ribosomes in the cytoplasm. Heterogeneity of mammalian testicular ribosomes is structurally non-negligible, and may offer valuable insights into the function of the customized ribosome.
Journal of Proteome Research 03/2010; 9(3):1351-66. · 5.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Noroviruses (NoVs), which cannot be grown in cell culture, are a major infectious agent of gastroenteritis. An in vitro assay system was established for the evaluation of NoV binding to enterocytes using virus-like particles (VLPs) produced in a baculovirus system expressing a NoV VP1 capsid protein. After confirmation of the purity by MS analysis, VLPs were incubated with human intestinal Caco-2 cells. NoV VLPs were detected clearly by confocal laser microscopy only on a certain population of Caco-2 cells, and were semi-quantified by immunoblotting of cell lysates. Then the suppressive effect of pasteurized bovine colostrum was analyzed on the VLP binding to Caco-2 cells by immunoblotting. The colostrum reduced VLP binding in a dose-dependent manner, at about 50% suppression with 12.5 microg of the colostral proteins. Furthermore, the colostrum contained IgG antibodies reacting to VLPs, suggesting that cross-reactive antibodies in the bovine colostrums block human NoV binding to intestinal cells.
Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry 03/2010; 74(3):541-7. · 1.27 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epidermal growth factor (EGF) domains are posttranslationally modified with unique O-linked glycans. The classical types of O-glycans on EGF domains are O-fucose and O-glucose glycans, found on many plasma glycoproteins and signaling molecules, whose biological functions have been demonstrated especially in the context of the Notch signaling pathway. We recently discovered O-GlcNAc modification as a new modification of the EGF domain that occurs on the conserved Ser/Thr residue located between the fifth and sixth cysteine residues within the EGF domain of Notch receptors in Drosophila. Here, we describe the methods employed to detect the O-GlcNAc modification of EGF repeats of Notch receptors. These methods include mass spectrometric analysis, galactosyltransferase labeling, immunoblotting with a specific antibody, and beta-N-acetyl-hexosaminidase digestion experiments. We also describe a method to detect O-GlcNAc transferase activity from crude membrane fraction proteins prepared from cultured S2 cells.
Methods in enzymology 01/2010; 480:355-73. · 1.90 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Notch and the DSL Notch ligands Delta and Serrate/Jagged are glycoproteins with a single transmembrane domain. The extracellular domain (ECD) of both Notch receptors and Notch ligands contains numerous epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like repeats which are post-translationally modified by a variety of glycans. Inactivation of a subset of genes that encode glycosyltransferases which initiate and elongate these glycans inhibits Notch signaling. In the formation of developmental boundaries in Drosophila and mammals, in mouse T-cell and marginal zone B-cell development, and in co-culture Notch signaling assays, the regulation of Notch signaling by glycans is to date a cell-autonomous effect of the Notch-expressing cell. The regulation of Notch signaling by glycans represents a new paradigm of signal transduction. O-fucose glycans modulate the strength of Notch binding to DSL Notch ligands, while O-glucose glycans facilitate juxta-membrane cleavage of Notch, generating the substrate for intramembrane cleavage and Notch activation. Identifying precisely how the addition of particular sugars at specific locations on Notch modifies Notch signaling is a challenge for the future.
Current Topics in Developmental Biology 01/2010; 92:131-64. · 4.21 Impact Factor