Jane J Kim

Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States

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Publications (93)721.78 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background: Studies suggest that cervical cancer screening practice in the United States is inefficient. The cost and health implications of nonadherence in the screening process compared with recommended guidelines are uncertain. Objective: To estimate the benefits, costs, and cost-effectiveness of current cervical cancer screening practice and assess the value of screening improvements. Design: Model-based cost-effectiveness analysis. Data sources: New Mexico HPV Pap Registry; medical literature. Target population: Cohort of women eligible for routine screening. Time horizon: Lifetime. Perspective: Societal. Intervention: Current cervical cancer screening practice; improved adherence to guidelines-based screening interval, triage testing, diagnostic referrals, and precancer treatment referrals. Outcome measures: Reductions in lifetime cervical cancer risk, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), lifetime costs, incremental cost-effectiveness ratios, and incremental net monetary benefits (INMBs). Results of base-case analysis: Current screening practice was associated with lower health benefit and was not cost-effective relative to guidelines-based strategies. Improvements in the screening process were associated with higher QALYs and small changes in costs. Perfect adherence to screening every 3 years with cytologic testing and adherence to colposcopy/biopsy referrals were associated with the highest INMBs ($759 and $741, respectively, at a willingness-to-pay threshold of $100 000 per QALY gained); together, the INMB increased to $1645. Results of sensitivity analysis: Current screening practice was inefficient in 100% of simulations. The rank ordering of screening improvements according to INMBs was stable over a range of screening inputs and willingness-to-pay thresholds. Limitation: The effect of human papillomavirus vaccination was not considered. Conclusions: The added health benefit of improving adherence to guidelines, especially the 3-year interval for cytologic screening and diagnostic follow-up, may justify additional investments in interventions to improve U.S. cervical cancer screening practice. Primary funding source: U.S. National Cancer Institute.
    Annals of internal medicine 09/2015; DOI:10.7326/M15-0420 · 17.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: One billion children live in war-affected regions of the world. We conducted the first cost-effectiveness analysis of an intervention for war-affected youth in sub-Saharan Africa, as well as a broader cost analysis. Methods: The Youth Readiness Intervention (YRI) is a behavioural treatment for reducing functional impairment associated with psychological distress among war-affected young persons. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in Freetown, Sierra Leone, from July 2012 to July 2013. Participants (n = 436, aged 15-24) were randomized to YRI (n = 222) or care as usual (n = 214). Functional impairment was indexed by the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Scale; scores were converted to quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). An 'ingredients approach' estimated financial and economic costs, assuming a societal perspective. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were also expressed in terms of gains across dimensions of mental health and schooling. Secondary analyses explored whether intervention effects were largest among those worst-off (upper quartile) at baseline. Results: Retention at 6-month follow-up was 85% (n = 371). The estimated economic cost of the intervention was $104 per participant. Functional impairment was lower among YRI recipients, compared with controls, following the intervention but not at 6-month follow-up, and yielded an ICER of $7260 per QALY gained. At 8-month follow-up, teachers' interviews indicated that YRI recipients observed higher school enrolment [P < 0.001, odds ratio (OR) 8.9], denoting a cost of $431 per additional school year gained, as well as better school attendance (P = 0.007, OR 34.9) and performance (P = 0.03, effect size = -1.31). Secondary analyses indicated that the intervention was cost-effective among those worst-off at baseline, yielding an ICER of $3564 per QALY gained. Conclusions: The YRI is not cost-effective at a willingness-to-pay threshold of three times average gross domestic product per capita. However, results indicate that the YRI translated into a range of benefits, such as improved school enrolment, not captured by cost-effectiveness analysis. We also outline areas for modification to improve cost-effectiveness in future trials. Trial registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: RPCGA-YRI-21003.
    Health Policy and Planning 09/2015; DOI:10.1093/heapol/czv078 · 3.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA 22:6n-3) and salicylate (acetylsalicylic acid) are both known to exert anti-inflammatory effects. This study investigated the effects of a novel bifunctional drug compound consisting of DHA and salicylate linked together by a small molecule that is stable in plasma but hydrolyzed in the cytoplasm. The components of the bifunctional compound acted synergistically to reduce inflammation mediated via nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) in cultured macrophages. Notably, oral administration of the bifunctional compound acted in two distinct ways to mitigate hyperglycemia in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistance. In mice with diet-induced obesity, the compound lowered blood glucose by reducing hepatic insulin resistance. It also had an immediate glucose-lowering effect that was secondary to enhanced glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion and abrogated by the administration of Exendin(9-39), a GLP-1 receptor antagonist. These results suggest that the bifunctional compound could be an effective treatment for individuals with type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance. This strategy could also be employed in other disease conditions characterized by chronic inflammation. Copyright © 2015, American Journal of Physiology - Endocrinology and Metabolism.
    AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism 06/2015; 309(3):ajpendo.00045.2015. DOI:10.1152/ajpendo.00045.2015 · 3.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: World Health Organization guidelines recommend that cervical cancer screening programs should prioritize screening coverage in women aged 30 to 49 years. Decisions about target ages and screening frequency depend upon local burden of disease, costs, and capacity. We used cost and test performance data from the START-UP demonstration projects in India, Nicaragua, and Uganda to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of screening at various start ages, intervals, and frequencies. We calibrated a mathematical simulation model of cervical carcinogenesis to each country and compared screening with careHPV (cervical and vaginal sampling), visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA), and cytology between the ages of 25 and 50 years, at frequencies of once to three times in a lifetime, at 5- and 10-year intervals. Screening with careHPV (cervical sampling) was the most effective and cost-effective strategy in all settings; careHPV (vaginal sampling) was only slightly less effective. The most critical ages for screening are between ages 30 and 45 years. Within this age range, screening at certain ages may be relatively more cost-effective, but cancer risk reductions are similar for a given screening test and interval. Screening three times between 30 and 45 years was very cost-effective and reduced cancer risk by ~50%.
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    ABSTRACT: As cervical cancer screening programs are implemented in low-resource settings, protocols are needed to maximize health benefits under operational constraints. Our objective was to develop a framework for examining health and economic tradeoffs between screening test sensitivity, population coverage, and follow-up of screen-positive women, to help decision makers identify where program investments yield the greatest value. As an illustrative example, we used an individual-based Monte Carlo simulation model of the natural history of human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer calibrated to epidemiologic data from Uganda. We assumed once in a lifetime screening at age 35 with two-visit HPV DNA testing or one-visit visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA). We assessed the health and economic tradeoffs that arise between 1) test sensitivity and screening coverage; 2) test sensitivity and loss to follow-up (LTFU) of screen-positive women; and 3) test sensitivity, screening coverage, and LTFU simultaneously. The decline in health benefits associated with sacrificing HPV DNA test sensitivity by 20% (e.g., shifting from provider- to self-collection of specimens) could be offset by gains in coverage if coverage increased by at least 20%. When LTFU was 10%, two-visit HPV DNA testing with 80-90% sensitivity was more effective and more cost-effective than one-visit VIA with 40% sensitivity, and yielded greater health benefits than VIA even as VIA sensitivity increased to 60% and HPV test sensitivity declined to 70%. As LTFU increased, two-visit HPV DNA testing became more costly and less effective than one-visit VIA. Setting-specific data on achievable test sensitivity, coverage, follow-up rates, and programmatic costs are needed to guide programmatic decision making for cervical cancer screening. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2015 UICC.
    International Journal of Cancer 05/2015; 137(9). DOI:10.1002/ijc.29594 · 5.09 Impact Factor
  • Jane J Kim · Philip E Castle
    Journal of Lower Genital Tract Disease 04/2015; 19(2):e45-e46. DOI:10.1097/LGT.0000000000000083 · 1.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cervical cancer screening and existing health insurance schemes in China fall short of reaching women with prevention and treatment services, especially in rural areas where the disease burden is greatest. We conducted an extended cost-effectiveness analysis (ECEA) to evaluate public financing of HPV vaccination to prevent cervical cancer, adding new dimensions to conventional cost-effectiveness analysis through an explicit inclusion of equity and impact on financial risk protection. We synthesized available epidemiological, clinical, and economic data from China using an individual-based Monte Carlo simulation model of cervical cancer to estimate the distribution of deaths averted by income quintile, comparing vaccination plus screening against current practice. We also estimated reductions in cervical cancer incidence, net costs to the government (HPV vaccination costs minus cervical cancer treatment costs averted), and patient cost savings, as well as the incremental government health care costs per death averted. HPV vaccination is cost-effective across all income groups when the cost is less than US $50 per vaccinated girl. Compared to screening alone, adding preadolescent HPV vaccination followed by cervical cancer screening in adulthood could reduce cancer by 44 percent across all income groups, while providing relatively higher financial protection to the poorest women. The absolute numbers of cervical cancer deaths averted and the financial risk protection from HPV vaccination are highest among women in the lowest quintile; women in the bottom income quintiles received higher benefits than those in the upper wealth quintiles. Patient cost savings represent a large proportion of poor women's average per capita income, reaching 60 percent among women in the bottom income quintile and declining to 15 percent among women in the wealthiest quintile. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
    Vaccine 03/2015; 130(24). DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2015.02.052 · 3.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among women in El Salvador. Utilizing data from the Cervical Cancer Prevention in El Salvador (CAPE) demonstration project, we assessed the health and economic impact of HPV-based screening and two different algorithms for the management of women who test HPV-positive, relative to existing Pap-based screening. We calibrated a mathematical model of cervical cancer to epidemiologic data from El Salvador and compared three screening algorithms for women aged 30 to 65 years: 1) HPV screening every 5 years followed by referral to colposcopy for HPV-positive women (Colposcopy Management [CM]); 2) HPV screening every 5 years followed by treatment with cryotherapy for eligible HPV-positive women (Screen and Treat [ST]); and 3) Pap screening every 2 years followed by referral to colposcopy for Pap-positive women (Pap). Potential harms and complications associated with overtreatment were not assessed. Under base case assumptions of 65% screening coverage, HPV-based screening was more effective than Pap, reducing cancer risk by approximately 60% (Pap: 50%). ST was the least costly strategy, and cost $2,040 per year of life saved. ST remained the most attractive strategy as visit compliance, costs, coverage, and test performance were varied. We conclude that a screen-and-treat algorithm within an HPV-based screening program is very cost-effective in El Salvador, with a cost-effectiveness ratio below per capita GDP. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    International Journal of Cancer 01/2015; 137(4). DOI:10.1002/ijc.29438 · 5.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Standardized screening protocols for anal cancer do not yet exist despite the growing evidence that this human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancer is preceded by premalignant stages, which if detected and removed, may prevent progression to cancer. Men who have sex with men (MSM) who are human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected are among those at highest risk for anal cancer development. In order to inform policy recommendations in the United States, we estimated the health benefits and resource trade-offs associated with alternative primary anal cancer screening strategies for HIV-infected MSM. Method: We developed and calibrated a natural history microsimulation model that reflects the most recent understanding of anal carcinogenesis, accounting for interactions between HPV type-specific infections, CD4 lymphocyte strata, and anti-retroviral treatment (ART) status. Relevant strategies involved cytology-based screening, which varied by screening interval (i.e., every 1-3 years) and age at which men initiate screening (i.e., 30 vs. 40 years). Triage of abnormal results involved high-resolution anoscopy. Primary outcomes included discounted life expectancy (3% per year), cancer risk reduction and resource use (number of anoscopies performed). We calculated the incremental harm-benefit ratio (IHBR) in terms of the additional number of anoscopies required per year of life saved (YLS) for each strategy compared with the next most harmful strategy. Sensitivity analyses were conducted on test characteristics, and parameter uncertainty for progression to invasive cancer. Results: Compared with no screening, the least intensive strategy is projected to reduce cancer risk by 24%, while the most intensive strategy may reduce cancer risk by 66% among HIV-infected MSM. All strategies that initiated screening at age 40 were dominated by strategies that started at age 30. For those strategies on the harm-benefit frontier, triennial cytology-based screening required an additional 7.2 anoscopies per YLS compared with no screening, while the most intensive screening strategy (annual) required an additional 40.3 anoscopies per YLS, compared with biennial screening. The rank-order of strategies was preserved when we assumed a less sensitive anal cytology test. Conclusion: For HIV-infected MSM, the most efficient anal cancer screening strategies involve starting at age 30; however, the optimal screening interval is unclear, as more intensive strategies require explicit trade-offs between the harms and benefits, and depend on capacity constraints and society's willingness-to-pay for life-years and other health benefits.
    The 36th Annual Meeting of the Society for Medical Decision Making; 10/2014
  • Emily A Burger · Jane J Kim
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    ABSTRACT: Failures in cervical cancer screening include non-participation, under-screening, and loss-to-follow up of abnormal results. We estimated the long-term health benefits from and maximum investments in interventions targeted to improving compliance to guidelines while remaining cost-effective. We employed a mathematical model empirically calibrated to simulate the natural history of cervical cancer in Norway. A baseline scenario reflecting current practice using cytology-based screening was compared to scenarios that target different sources of non-compliance: 1) failure to follow-up women with abnormal results, 2) screening less frequently than recommended (i.e., under-screening), and 3) absence of screening. A secondary analysis included human papillomavirus (HPV)-based screening as the primary test. Model outcomes included reductions in lifetime cancer risk and incremental net monetary benefit (INMB) resulting from improvements with compliance. Compared to the status quo, improving all sources of non-compliance leads to important health gains and produced positive INMBs across a range of developed-country willingness-to-pay thresholds. For example, a 2% increase in compliance could reduce lifetime cancer risk by 1-3%, depending on the targeted source of non-compliance and primary screening method. Assuming a willingness-to-pay threshold of $83,000 per year of life saved and cytology-based screening, interventions that increase follow-up of abnormal results yielded the highest INMB per 2% increase in coverage ($19 ($10-21)). With HPV-based screening, recruiting non-screeners resulted in the largest INMB ($23 ($18-32)). Considerable funds could be allocated towards policies that improve compliance with screening under the current cytology-based program or towards adoption of primary HPV-based screening while remaining cost-effective. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    International Journal of Cancer 10/2014; 135(8). DOI:10.1002/ijc.28838 · 5.09 Impact Factor
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    Sorapop Kiatpongsan · Jane J Kim
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Current prophylactic vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV) target two of the most oncogenic types, HPV-16 and -18, which contribute to roughly 70% of cervical cancers worldwide. Second-generation HPV vaccines include a 9-valent vaccine, which targets five additional oncogenic HPV types (i.e., 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58) that contribute to another 15-30% of cervical cancer cases. The objective of this study was to determine a range of vaccine costs for which the 9-valent vaccine would be cost-effective in comparison to the current vaccines in two less developed countries (i.e., Kenya and Uganda).
    PLoS ONE 09/2014; 9(9):e106836. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0106836 · 3.23 Impact Factor
  • Jane J Kim
    JNCI Journal of the National Cancer Institute 08/2014; 106(8). DOI:10.1093/jnci/dju213 · 12.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mathematical models of cervical cancer have been widely used to evaluate the comparative effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of preventive strategies. Major advances in the understanding of cervical carcinogenesis motivate the creation of a new disease paradigm in such models. To keep pace with the most recent evidence, we updated a previously developed microsimulation model of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cervical cancer to reflect 1) a shift towards health states based on HPV rather than poorly reproducible histological diagnoses and 2) HPV clearance and progression to precancer as a function of infection duration and genotype, as derived from the control arm of the Costa Rica Vaccine Trial (2004-2010). The model was calibrated leveraging empirical data from the New Mexico Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Registry (1980-1999) and a state-of-the-art cervical cancer screening registry in New Mexico (2007-2009). The calibrated model had good correspondence with data on genotype- and age-specific HPV prevalence, genotype frequency in precancer and cancer, and age-specific cancer incidence. We present this model in response to a call for new natural history models of cervical cancer intended for decision analysis and economic evaluation at a time when global cervical cancer prevention policy continues to evolve and evidence of the long-term health effects of cervical interventions remains critical.
    American Journal of Epidemiology 07/2014; 180(5). DOI:10.1093/aje/kwu159 · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are ideally administered before HPV exposure; therefore, catch-up programs for girls past adolescence have not been readily funded. We evaluated the benefits and cost-effectiveness of a delayed, 1-year female catch-up vaccination program in Norway. Methods: We calibrated a dynamic HPV transmission model to Norwegian data and projected the costs and benefits associated with 8 HPV-related conditions while varying the upper vaccination age limit to 20, 22, 24, or 26 years. We explored the impact of vaccine protection in women with prior vaccine-targeted HPV infections, vaccine cost, coverage, and natural- and vaccine-induced immunity. Results: The incremental benefits and cost-effectiveness decreased as the upper age limit for catch-up increased. Assuming a vaccine cost of $150/dose, vaccination up to age 20 years remained below Norway's willingness-to-pay threshold (approximately $83 000/quality-adjusted life year gained); extension to age 22 years was cost-effective at a lower cost per dose ($50-$75). At high levels of vaccine protection in women with prior HPV exposure, vaccinating up to age 26 years was cost-effective. Results were stable with lower coverage. Conclusions: HPV vaccination catch-up programs, 5 years after routine implementation, may be warranted; however, even at low vaccine cost per dose, the cost-effectiveness of vaccinating beyond age 22 years remains uncertain.
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 07/2014; 211(2). DOI:10.1093/infdis/jiu413 · 6.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Increasingly, countries have introduced female vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV), causally linked to several cancers and genital warts, but few have recommended vaccination of boys. Declining vaccine prices and strong evidence of vaccine impact on reducing HPV-related conditions in both women and men prompt countries to reevaluate whether HPV vaccination of boys is warranted. A previously-published dynamic model of HPV transmission was empirically calibrated to Norway. Reductions in the incidence of HPV, including both direct and indirect benefits, were applied to a natural history model of cervical cancer, and to incidence-based models for other non-cervical HPV-related diseases. We calculated the health outcomes and costs of the different HPV-related conditions under a gender-neutral vaccination program compared to a female-only program. Vaccine price had a decisive impact on results. For example, assuming 71% coverage, high vaccine efficacy and a reasonable vaccine tender price of $75 per dose, we found vaccinating both girls and boys fell below a commonly cited cost-effectiveness threshold in Norway ($83,000/quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained) when including vaccine benefit for all HPV-related diseases. However, at the current market price, including boys would not be considered 'good value for money.' For settings with a lower cost-effectiveness threshold ($30,000/QALY), it would not be considered cost-effective to expand the current program to include boys, unless the vaccine price was less than $36/dose. Increasing vaccination coverage to 90% among girls was more effective and less costly than the benefits achieved by vaccinating both genders with 71% coverage. At the anticipated tender price, expanding the HPV vaccination program to boys may be cost-effective and may warrant a change in the current female-only vaccination policy in Norway. However, increasing coverage in girls is uniformly more effective and cost-effective than expanding vaccination coverage to boys and should be considered a priority.
    PLoS ONE 03/2014; 9(3):e89974. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0089974 · 3.23 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Comparative Effectiveness Research 01/2014; 3(1):1-3. DOI:10.2217/cer.13.81 · 0.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We studied the cost-effectiveness of cervical cancer prevention strategies in the Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia (CEECA) region. The cost-effectiveness of human papillomavirus (HPV)16/18 vaccination of 12 year-old girls was calculated for 28 countries, under the assumption that vaccination prevents 70% of all cervical cancer cases and that cervical cancer and all-cause mortality rates are stable without vaccination. At three-dose vaccination costs of I$ 100 per vaccinated girl (currency 2005 international dollars), HPV16/18 vaccination was very cost-effective in 25 out of 28 countries using the country's gross domestic product (GDP) per capita as cost-effectiveness threshold (criterion by World Health Organization). A three-dose vaccination cost of I$ 100 is within the current range of vaccine costs in European immunization programs, and therefore our results indicate that HPV vaccination may be good value for money. To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of cervical cancer screening combined with vaccination, we calibrated a published simulation model to HPV genotype data collected in Slovenia, Poland, and Georgia. The screening interval was varied at 3, 6, and 10 years starting at age 25 or 30 and ending at age 60. In Slovenia and Poland, combined vaccination and 10-yearly HPV (DNA) screening (vaccination coverage 70%, screening coverage per round 70%) was very cost-effective when the cost of three-dose vaccination was I$ 100 per vaccinated girl. More intensive screening was very cost-effective when the screening coverage per round was 30% or 50%. In Georgia, 10-yearly Pap screening was very cost-effective in unvaccinated women. Vaccination combined with 10-yearly HPV screening was likely to be cost-effective if the three-dose vaccination cost was I$ 50 per vaccinated girl. To conclude, cervical cancer prevention strategies utilizing both HPV16/18 vaccination and HPV screening are very cost-effective in countries with sufficient resources. In low-resource settings, low vaccine pricing is essential for strategies of combined vaccination and screening to be cost-effective. This article forms part of a regional report entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases in the Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia Region" Vaccine Volume 31, Supplement 7, 2013. Updates of the progress in the field are presented in a separate monograph entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases" Vaccine Volume 30, Supplement 5, 2012.
    Vaccine 12/2013; 31S7:H71-H79. DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2013.04.086 · 3.62 Impact Factor
  • Vaccine 12/2013; 31S6:G78-G79. DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2012.11.078 · 3.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To date, no studies have evaluated the cost-effectiveness of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in countries in the Extended Middle East and North Africa (EMENA) region. We synthesized population and epidemiologic data for 20 EMENA countries using a model-based approach to estimate averted cervical cancer cases and deaths, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and cost-effectiveness ratios (I$ [international dollars] per DALY averted) associated with HPV vaccination of pre-adolescent girls. We utilized additional epidemiologic data from Algeria, Lebanon, and Turkey to evaluate select cervical cancer screening strategies either alone or in combination with vaccination. Results showed that pre-adolescent vaccination of five consecutive birth cohorts at 70% coverage has the potential to prevent over 180,000 cervical cancer cases. Cases averted varied by country, largely due to differences in cancer burden and population size; 69% of cases averted occurred in the three GAVI-eligible countries in EMENA. Despite the low cervical cancer incidence in EMENA, we found that HPV vaccination was cost-effective using a threshold of each country's gross domestic product per capita (a common metric for evaluating cost-effectiveness) in all but five countries at a cost per vaccinated girl of I$25 ($5 per dose). However, cost-effectiveness diminished with increasing vaccine cost; at a cost of I$200 per vaccinated girl, HPV vaccination was cost-effective in only five countries. When the cost per vaccinated girl exceeded I$50 in Lebanon and Turkey and I$150 in Algeria, screening alone was most attractive. We identified opportunities to improve upon current national screening guidelines, involving less frequent screening every 3-5 years. While pre-adolescent HPV vaccination promises to be a cost-effective strategy in most EMENA countries at low costs, decision makers will need to consider many other factors, such as affordability, acceptability, feasibility, and competing health priorities, when making decisions about cervical cancer prevention. This article forms part of a regional report entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases in the Extended Middle East and North Africa Region" Vaccine Volume 31, Supplement 6, 2013. Updates of the progress in the field are presented in a separate monograph entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases" Vaccine Volume 30, Supplement 5, 2012.
    Vaccine 12/2013; 31S6:G65-G77. DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2012.06.096 · 3.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Using population and epidemiologic data for 48 countries in sub-Saharan Africa, we used a model-based approach to estimate cervical cancer cases and deaths averted, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) averted and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (I$ (international dollar) per DALY averted) for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination of pre-adolescent girls. Additional epidemiologic data from Uganda and South Africa informed estimates of cancer risk reduction and cost-effectiveness ratios associated with pre-adolescent female vaccination followed by screening of women over age 30. Assuming 70% vaccination coverage, over 670,000 cervical cancer cases would be prevented among women in five consecutive birth cohorts vaccinated as young adolescents; over 90% of cases averted were projected to occur in countries eligible for GAVI Alliance support. There were large variations in health benefits across countries attributable to differential cancer rates, population size, and population age structure. More than half of DALYs averted in sub-Saharan Africa were in Nigeria, Tanzania, Uganda, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, and Mozambique. When the cost per vaccinated girl was I$5 ($0.55 per dose), HPV vaccination was cost-saving in 38 sub-Saharan African countries, and cost I$300 per DALY averted or less in the remaining countries. At this vaccine price, pre-adolescent HPV vaccination followed by screening three times per lifetime in adulthood cost I$300 per year of life saved (YLS) in Uganda (per capita GDP I$1,140) and I$1,000 per YLS in South Africa (per capita GDP I$9,480). In nearly all countries assessed, HPV vaccination of pre-adolescent girls could be very cost-effective if the cost per vaccinated girl is less than I$25-I$50, reflecting a vaccine price being offered to the GAVI Alliance. In-country decision makers will need to consider many other factors, such as affordability, acceptability, feasibility, and competing health priorities, when making decisions about cervical cancer prevention. This article forms part of a regional report entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases in the Sub-Saharan Africa Region" Vaccine Volume 31, Supplement 5, 2013. Updates of the progress in the field are presented in a separate monograph entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases" Vaccine Volume 30, Supplement 5, 2012.
    Vaccine 12/2013; 31S5(Suppl 5):F60-F72. DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2012.07.093 · 3.62 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
721.78 Total Impact Points


  • 2006–2015
    • Harvard University
      • Department of Health Policy and Management
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
    • Duke University
      Durham, North Carolina, United States
  • 2004–2015
    • Harvard Medical School
      • Department of Medicine
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
    • Oak Ridge Center For Risk Analysis
      オーク・リッジ, Tennessee, United States
  • 2006–2013
    • University of California, San Diego
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      • • Department of Medicine
      San Diego, California, United States
  • 2012
    • Rady Children's Hospital
      San Diego, California, United States
  • 2007
    • The University of Western Ontario
      • Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
      London, Ontario, Canada
  • 2002–2007
    • Columbia University
      • Department of Medicine
      New York, New York, United States