Jane J Kim

Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States

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Publications (47)329.23 Total impact

  • Journal of comparative effectiveness research. 01/2014; 3(1):1-3.
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    ABSTRACT: We studied the cost-effectiveness of cervical cancer prevention strategies in the Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia (CEECA) region. The cost-effectiveness of human papillomavirus (HPV)16/18 vaccination of 12 year-old girls was calculated for 28 countries, under the assumption that vaccination prevents 70% of all cervical cancer cases and that cervical cancer and all-cause mortality rates are stable without vaccination. At three-dose vaccination costs of I$ 100 per vaccinated girl (currency 2005 international dollars), HPV16/18 vaccination was very cost-effective in 25 out of 28 countries using the country's gross domestic product (GDP) per capita as cost-effectiveness threshold (criterion by World Health Organization). A three-dose vaccination cost of I$ 100 is within the current range of vaccine costs in European immunization programs, and therefore our results indicate that HPV vaccination may be good value for money. To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of cervical cancer screening combined with vaccination, we calibrated a published simulation model to HPV genotype data collected in Slovenia, Poland, and Georgia. The screening interval was varied at 3, 6, and 10 years starting at age 25 or 30 and ending at age 60. In Slovenia and Poland, combined vaccination and 10-yearly HPV (DNA) screening (vaccination coverage 70%, screening coverage per round 70%) was very cost-effective when the cost of three-dose vaccination was I$ 100 per vaccinated girl. More intensive screening was very cost-effective when the screening coverage per round was 30% or 50%. In Georgia, 10-yearly Pap screening was very cost-effective in unvaccinated women. Vaccination combined with 10-yearly HPV screening was likely to be cost-effective if the three-dose vaccination cost was I$ 50 per vaccinated girl. To conclude, cervical cancer prevention strategies utilizing both HPV16/18 vaccination and HPV screening are very cost-effective in countries with sufficient resources. In low-resource settings, low vaccine pricing is essential for strategies of combined vaccination and screening to be cost-effective. This article forms part of a regional report entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases in the Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia Region" Vaccine Volume 31, Supplement 7, 2013. Updates of the progress in the field are presented in a separate monograph entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases" Vaccine Volume 30, Supplement 5, 2012.
    Vaccine 12/2013; 31S7:H71-H79. · 3.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To date, no studies have evaluated the cost-effectiveness of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in countries in the Extended Middle East and North Africa (EMENA) region. We synthesized population and epidemiologic data for 20 EMENA countries using a model-based approach to estimate averted cervical cancer cases and deaths, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and cost-effectiveness ratios (I$ [international dollars] per DALY averted) associated with HPV vaccination of pre-adolescent girls. We utilized additional epidemiologic data from Algeria, Lebanon, and Turkey to evaluate select cervical cancer screening strategies either alone or in combination with vaccination. Results showed that pre-adolescent vaccination of five consecutive birth cohorts at 70% coverage has the potential to prevent over 180,000 cervical cancer cases. Cases averted varied by country, largely due to differences in cancer burden and population size; 69% of cases averted occurred in the three GAVI-eligible countries in EMENA. Despite the low cervical cancer incidence in EMENA, we found that HPV vaccination was cost-effective using a threshold of each country's gross domestic product per capita (a common metric for evaluating cost-effectiveness) in all but five countries at a cost per vaccinated girl of I$25 ($5 per dose). However, cost-effectiveness diminished with increasing vaccine cost; at a cost of I$200 per vaccinated girl, HPV vaccination was cost-effective in only five countries. When the cost per vaccinated girl exceeded I$50 in Lebanon and Turkey and I$150 in Algeria, screening alone was most attractive. We identified opportunities to improve upon current national screening guidelines, involving less frequent screening every 3-5 years. While pre-adolescent HPV vaccination promises to be a cost-effective strategy in most EMENA countries at low costs, decision makers will need to consider many other factors, such as affordability, acceptability, feasibility, and competing health priorities, when making decisions about cervical cancer prevention. This article forms part of a regional report entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases in the Extended Middle East and North Africa Region" Vaccine Volume 31, Supplement 6, 2013. Updates of the progress in the field are presented in a separate monograph entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases" Vaccine Volume 30, Supplement 5, 2012.
    Vaccine 12/2013; 31S6:G65-G77. · 3.77 Impact Factor
  • Vaccine 12/2013; 31S6:G78-G79. · 3.77 Impact Factor
  • Vaccine 12/2013; 31S5:F73-F74. · 3.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Using population and epidemiologic data for 48 countries in sub-Saharan Africa, we used a model-based approach to estimate cervical cancer cases and deaths averted, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) averted and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (I$ (international dollar) per DALY averted) for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination of pre-adolescent girls. Additional epidemiologic data from Uganda and South Africa informed estimates of cancer risk reduction and cost-effectiveness ratios associated with pre-adolescent female vaccination followed by screening of women over age 30. Assuming 70% vaccination coverage, over 670,000 cervical cancer cases would be prevented among women in five consecutive birth cohorts vaccinated as young adolescents; over 90% of cases averted were projected to occur in countries eligible for GAVI Alliance support. There were large variations in health benefits across countries attributable to differential cancer rates, population size, and population age structure. More than half of DALYs averted in sub-Saharan Africa were in Nigeria, Tanzania, Uganda, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, and Mozambique. When the cost per vaccinated girl was I$5 ($0.55 per dose), HPV vaccination was cost-saving in 38 sub-Saharan African countries, and cost I$300 per DALY averted or less in the remaining countries. At this vaccine price, pre-adolescent HPV vaccination followed by screening three times per lifetime in adulthood cost I$300 per year of life saved (YLS) in Uganda (per capita GDP I$1,140) and I$1,000 per YLS in South Africa (per capita GDP I$9,480). In nearly all countries assessed, HPV vaccination of pre-adolescent girls could be very cost-effective if the cost per vaccinated girl is less than I$25-I$50, reflecting a vaccine price being offered to the GAVI Alliance. In-country decision makers will need to consider many other factors, such as affordability, acceptability, feasibility, and competing health priorities, when making decisions about cervical cancer prevention. This article forms part of a regional report entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases in the Sub-Saharan Africa Region" Vaccine Volume 31, Supplement 5, 2013. Updates of the progress in the field are presented in a separate monograph entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases" Vaccine Volume 30, Supplement 5, 2012.
    Vaccine 12/2013; 31S5:F60-F72. · 3.77 Impact Factor
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  • JAMA Internal Medicine 02/2013; 173(3):241-2. · 10.58 Impact Factor
  • Djøra I Soeteman, Jane J Kim
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    ABSTRACT: This article reviews the current evidence on the cost-effectiveness of psychotherapy for personality disorders (PDs). Although the evidence is still scarce, several well-designed cost-effectiveness studies provide insight into the question - how cost effective is it to reimburse therapies for PDs? This article further argues that the implementation costs and effects should be an integral part of cost-effectiveness analyses to enhance the dissemination of treatment recommendations. Moreover, cost-effectiveness analyses are important in working towards a more patient-centered approach in psychotherapy research that could potentially help accelerate the implementation and adoption of cost-effective care for PDs.
    Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research 02/2013; 13(1):73-81. · 1.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is recognized as one of the major causes of infection-related cancer worldwide, as well as the causal factor in other diseases. Strong evidence for a causal etiology with HPV has been stated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer for cancers of the cervix uteri, penis, vulva, vagina, anus and oropharynx (including base of the tongue and tonsils). Of the estimated 12.7 million new cancers occurring in 2008 worldwide, 4.8% were attributable to HPV infection, with substantially higher incidence and mortality rates seen in developing versus developed countries. In recent years, we have gained tremendous knowledge about HPVs and their interactions with host cells, tissues and the immune system; have validated and implemented strategies for safe and efficacious prophylactic vaccination against HPV infections; have developed increasingly sensitive and specific molecular diagnostic tools for HPV detection for use in cervical cancer screening; and have substantially increased global awareness of HPV and its many associated diseases in women, men, and children. While these achievements exemplify the success of biomedical research in generating important public health interventions, they also generate new and daunting challenges: costs of HPV prevention and medical care, the implementation of what is technically possible, socio-political resistance to prevention opportunities, and the very wide ranges of national economic capabilities and health care systems. Gains and challenges faced in the quest for comprehensive control of HPV infection and HPV-related cancers and other disease are summarized in this review. The information presented may be viewed in terms of a reframed paradigm of prevention of cervical cancer and other HPV-related diseases that will include strategic combinations of at least four major components: 1) routine introduction of HPV vaccines to women in all countries, 2) extension and simplification of existing screening programs using HPV-based technology, 3) extension of adapted screening programs to developing populations, and 4) consideration of the broader spectrum of cancers and other diseases preventable by HPV vaccination in women, as well as in men. Despite the huge advances already achieved, there must be ongoing efforts including international advocacy to achieve widespread—optimally universal—implementation of HPV prevention strategies in both developed and developing countries. This article summarizes information from the chapters presented in a special ICO Monograph ‘Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases’ Vaccine Volume 30, Supplement 5, 2012. Additional details on each subtopic and full information regarding the supporting literature references may be found in the original chapters.
    Vaccine 01/2013; 31:G1–G31. · 3.77 Impact Factor
  • Archives of internal medicine 12/2012; · 11.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Over the last 5 years, prophylactic vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) in pre-adolescent females has been introduced in most developed countries, supported by modeled evaluations that have almost universally found vaccination of pre-adolescent females to be cost-effective. Studies to date suggest that vaccination of pre-adolescent males may also be cost-effective at a cost per vaccinated individual of ∼US$400-500 if vaccination coverage in females cannot be increased above ∼50%; but if it is possible, increasing coverage in females appears to be a better return on investment. Comparative evaluation of the quadrivalent (HPV16,18,6,11) and bivalent (HPV16,18) vaccines centers around the potential trade-off between protection against anogenital warts and vaccine-specific levels of cross-protection against infections not targeted by the vaccines. Future evaluations will also need to consider the cost-effectiveness of a next generation nonavalent vaccine designed to protect against ∼90% of cervical cancers. The timing of the effect of vaccination on cervical screening programs will be country-specific and will depend on vaccination catch-up age range and coverage and the age at which screening starts. Initial evaluations suggest that if screening remains unchanged, it will be less cost-effective in vaccinated compared to unvaccinated women but, in the context of current vaccines, will remain an important prevention method. Comprehensive evaluation of new approaches to screening will need to consider the population-level effects of vaccination over time. New screening strategies of particular interest include delaying the start age of screening, increasing the screening interval and switching to primary HPV screening. Future evaluations of screening will also need to focus on the effects of disparities in screening and vaccination uptake, the potential effects of vaccination on screening participation, and the effects of imperfect compliance with screening recommendations. This article forms part of a special supplement entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases" Vaccine Volume 30, Supplement 5, 2012.
    Vaccine 11/2012; 30 Suppl 5:F157-67. · 3.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Knowledge of a country's cervical cancer (CC) burden is critical to informing decisions about resource allocation to combat the disease; however, many countries lack cancer registries to provide such data. We developed a prognostic model to estimate CC incidence rates in countries without cancer registries, leveraging information on human papilloma virus (HPV) prevalence, screening, and other country-level factors. We used multivariate linear regression models to identify predictors of CC incidence in 40 countries. We extracted age-specific HPV prevalence (10-year age groups) by country from a meta-analysis in women with normal cytology (N = 40) and matched to most recent CC incidence rates from Cancer Incidence in Five Continents when available (N = 36), or Globocan 2008 (N = 4). We evaluated country-level behavioral, economic, and public health indicators. CC incidence was significantly associated with age-specific HPV prevalence in women aged 35-64 (adjusted R-squared 0.41) ("base model"). Adding geographic region to the base model increased the adjusted R-squared to 0.77, but the further addition of screening was not statistically significant. Similarly, country-level macro-indicators did not improve predictive validity. Age-specific HPV prevalence at older ages was found to be a better predictor of CC incidence than prevalence in women under 35. However, HPV prevalence could not explain the entire CC burden as many factors modify women's risk of progression to cancer. Geographic region seemed to serve as a proxy for these country-level indicators. Our analysis supports the assertion that conducting a population-based HPV survey targeting women over age 35 can be valuable in approximating the CC risk in a given country.
    International Journal of Cancer 09/2012; · 6.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To quantify the trade-offs of alternative strategies in treating pediatric major depressive disorder with respect to the clinical benefit and risk of fatal and nonfatal suicidal behavior over a 5-year time horizon. We developed a disease simulation model integrating epidemiological and clinical data from the literature to simulate the effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), and a combination of both on a US pediatric population with major depressive disorder. In a cohort of 1,000,000 simulated individuals (ages 10-24 years), the use of SSRIs was associated with the highest number of suicide-related events, while CBT was associated with the lowest number. Over a 5-year period, the strategy with the highest number of symptom-free weeks depended on assumptions made regarding treatment efficacy beyond the available clinical data. Considering the risk-benefit profile over a 5-year period, CBT offers a safer profile than combination treatment or SSRIs alone with respect to suicide deaths and attempts. Any additional benefits of SSRIs, either alone or in combination with CBT, must be weighed against the expected increase in suicides.
    Value in Health 07/2012; 15(5):724-9. · 2.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Scientific and epidemiological data, coupled with model-based analyses of cervical cancer prevention strategies, support the likelihood of synergistic benefits associated with the use of both primary and secondary prevention.(1-3) To prioritize one approach over the other, especially as an "either-or" comparison, is inconsistent with the current evidence base and fails to acknowledge the country-specific sociocultural, political, and economic contexts that drive prevention success (or failure). Maine et al. provide an overview of cervical cancer prevention,(4) yet cite previous studies inaccurately, resulting in a bias against HPV vaccination. They estimate a 76% reduction in cervical cancer with a "combined program of VIA [visual inspection with ascetic acid] and cryotherapy" (4)((p1551)) (test sensitivity of 90% multiplied by 85% cure rate), ignoring the lack of data for VIA at repeated intervals. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print April 19, 2012: e1. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2011.300539).
    American Journal of Public Health 04/2012; 102(6):1050-1; author reply 1051. · 3.93 Impact Factor
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    Jane J Kim
    Milbank Quarterly 03/2012; 90(1):38-41. · 4.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Current prophylactic vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV) target two oncogenic types (16 and 18) that contribute to 70% of cervical cancer cases worldwide. Our objective was to quantify the range of additional benefits conferred by second-generation HPV prophylactic vaccines that are expected to expand protection to five additional oncogenic types (31, 33, 45, 52 and 58). METHODS: A microsimulation model of HPV and cervical cancer calibrated to epidemiological data from two countries (Kenya and Uganda) was used to estimate reductions in lifetime risk of cervical cancer from the second-generation HPV vaccines. We explored the independent and joint impact of uncertain factors (i.e., distribution of HPV types, co-infection with multiple HPV types, and unidentifiable HPV types in cancer) and vaccine properties (i.e., cross-protection against non-targeted HPV types), compared against currently-available vaccines. RESULTS: Assuming complete uptake of the second-generation vaccine, reductions in lifetime cancer risk were 86.3% in Kenya and 91.8% in Uganda, representing an absolute increase in cervical cancer reduction of 26.1% in Kenya and 17.9% in Uganda, compared with complete uptake of current vaccines. The range of added benefits was 19.6% to 29.1% in Kenya and 14.0% to 19.5% in Uganda, depending on assumptions of cancers attributable to multiple HPV infections and unidentifiable HPV types. These effects were blunted in both countries when assuming vaccine cross-protection with both the current and second-generation vaccines. CONCLUSION: Second-generation HPV vaccines that protect against additional oncogenic HPV types have the potential to improve cervical cancer prevention. Co-infection with multiple HPV infections and unidentifiable HPV types can influence vaccine effectiveness, but the magnitude of effect may be moderated by vaccine cross-protective effects. These benefits must be weighed against the cost of the vaccines in future analyses.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(11):e48426. · 3.73 Impact Factor
  • Jane J Kim
    BMJ (Clinical research ed.). 01/2012; 344:e1544.
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    ABSTRACT: Although the randomized controlled trial (RCT) is widely considered the most reliable method for evaluation of health care interventions, challenges to both internal and external validity exist. Thus, the efficacy of an intervention in a trial setting does not necessarily represent the real-world performance that decision makers seek to inform comparative effectiveness studies and economic evaluations. Using data from the ASCUS-LSIL Triage Study (ALTS), we performed a simplified economic evaluation of age-based management strategies to detect cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3) among women who were referred to the study with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL). We used data from the trial itself to adjust for 1) potential lead time bias and random error that led to variation in the observed prevalence of CIN3 by study arm and 2) potential ascertainment bias among providers in the most aggressive management arm. We found that using unadjusted RCT data may result in counterintuitive cost-effectiveness results when random error and/or bias are present. Following adjustment, the rank order of management strategies changed for 2 of the 3 age groups we considered. Decision analysts need to examine study design, available trial data, and cost-effectiveness results closely in order to detect evidence of potential bias. Adjustment for random error and bias in RCTs may yield different policy conclusions relative to unadjusted trial data.
    Medical Decision Making 12/2011; 32(3):400-27. · 2.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Eastern Africa has the world's highest cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates. We used epidemiologic data from Kenya, Mozambique, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zimbabwe to develop models of HPV-related infection and disease. For each country, we assessed HPV vaccination of girls before age 12 followed by screening with HPV DNA testing once, twice, or three times per lifetime (at ages 35, 40, 45). For women over age 30, we assessed only screening (with HPV DNA testing up to three times per lifetime or VIA at age 35). Assuming no waning immunity, mean reduction in lifetime cancer risk associated with vaccination ranged from 36 to 45%, and vaccination followed by screening once per lifetime at age 35 with HPV DNA testing ranged from 43 to 51%. For both younger and older women, the most effective screening strategy was HPV DNA testing three times per lifetime. Provided the cost per vaccinated girl was less than I$10 (I$2 per dose), vaccination had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio [I$ (international dollars)/year of life saved (YLS)] less than the country-specific per capita GDP, a commonly cited heuristic for "very cost-effective" interventions. If the cost per vaccinated girl was between I$10 (I$2 per dose) and I$25 (I$5 per dose), vaccination followed by HPV DNA testing would save the most lives and would be considered good value for public health dollars. These results should be used to catalyze design and evaluation of HPV vaccine delivery and screening programs, and contribute to a dialogue on financing HPV vaccination in poor countries.
    International Journal of Cancer 06/2011; 130(11):2672-84. · 6.20 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
329.23 Total Impact Points


  • 2006–2013
    • Harvard Medical School
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
    • Duke University Medical Center
      • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
      Durham, NC, United States
    • Imperial College London
      • Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology
      London, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2004–2013
    • Harvard University
      • • Center for Health Decision Science
      • • Department of Health Policy and Management
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 2012
    • Chulalongkorn University
      Krung Thep, Bangkok, Thailand
    • University of Sydney
      Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  • 2010–2011
    • De Viersprong National Institute of Personality Disorders
      Amsterdamo, North Holland, Netherlands
    • Catalan Institute of Oncology
      • Infections and Cancer Unit
      Badalona, Catalonia, Spain
    • Erasmus MC
      • Department of Medical Psychology and Psychotherapy
      Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 2007
    • The University of Western Ontario
      • Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
      London, Ontario, Canada