[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: p53 is well known as a "guardian of the genome" for differentiated cells, in which it induces cell cycle arrest and cell death after DNA damage and thus contributes to the maintenance of genomic stability. In addition to this tumor suppressor function for differentiated cells, p53 also plays an important role in stem cells. In this cell type, p53 not only ensures genomic integrity after genotoxic insults but also controls their proliferation and differentiation. Additionally, p53 provides an effective barrier for the generation of pluripotent stem cell-like cells from terminally differentiated cells. In this review, we summarize our current knowledge about p53 activities in embryonic, adult and induced pluripotent stem cells.
World journal of biological chemistry. 09/2011; 2(9):202-14.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The incidence of cancer in patients with neurological diseases, who have been treated with LiCl, is below average. LiCl is a well-established inhibitor of Glycogen synthase kinase-3, a kinase that controls several cellular processes, among which is the degradation of the tumour suppressor protein p53. We therefore wondered whether LiCl induces p53-dependent cell death in cancer cell lines and experimental tumours.
Here we show that LiCl induces apoptosis of tumour cells both in vitro and in vivo. Cell death was accompanied by cleavage of PARP and Caspases-3, -8 and -10. LiCl-induced cell death was not dependent on p53, but was augmented by its presence. Treatment of tumour cells with LiCl strongly increased TNF-α and FasL expression. Inhibition of TNF-α induction using siRNA or inhibition of FasL binding to its receptor by the Nok-1 antibody potently reduced LiCl-dependent cleavage of Caspase-3 and increased cell survival. Treatment of xenografted rats with LiCl strongly reduced tumour growth.
Induction of cell death by LiCl supports the notion that GSK-3 may represent a promising target for cancer therapy. LiCl-induced cell death is largely independent of p53 and mediated by the release of TNF-α and FasL.Key words: LiCl, TNF-α, FasL, apoptosis, GSK-3, FasL.
Cell Communication and Signaling 01/2011; 9:15. · 5.09 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite an increasing interest in the role of the p53 tumour suppressor protein in embryonic stem cells, not much is known about its regulation in this cell type. We show that the relatively high amount of p53 protein correlates with a higher amount of p53 RNA in ES cells compared to differentiated cells. Moreover, p53 RNA is more stable in embryonic stem cells and the p53 protein is more often transcribed. This is at least partly due to decreased expression of miRNA-125a and 125b in embryonic stem cells. Despite its cytoplasmic localisation, p53 is degraded in 26S proteasomes in embryonic stem cells. This process is controlled by Mdm2, the deubiquitinating enzyme Hausp and Ubc13. In contrast, the E3 ligase PirH2 appears to be less important for the control of p53 in embryonic stem cells. During differentiation, p53 protein and RNA levels are decreased which corresponds to increased expression of miRNA-125a and miRNA-125b.
Experimental Cell Research 09/2010; 316(15):2434-46. · 3.56 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ubiquitin ligase Mdm2 targets the p53 tumor suppressor protein for proteasomal degradation. Mutating phosphorylation sites in the central domain of Mdm2 prevents p53 degradation, although it is still ubiquitylated, indicating that Mdm2 has a post-ubiquitylation function for p53 degradation. We show that Mdm2 associates with several subunits of the 19S proteasome regulatory particle in a ubiquitylation-independent manner. Mdm2 furthermore promotes the formation of a ternary complex of itself, p53, and the proteasome. Replacing phosphorylation sites within the central domain with alanines reduced the formation of the ternary complex. The C-terminus of Mdm2 was sufficient for interaction with the proteasome despite an additional proteasome binding site in the Mdm2 N-terminus. In addition to binding to the proteasome, the C-terminus of Mdm2 bound to the central domain, possibly competing with, and therefore blocking, Mdm2/proteasome interaction. We propose that Mdm2 facilitates, or at least enhances, the association of p53 with the proteasome and that phosphorylation of the central domain of Mdm2 regulates this process.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 06/2010; 107(22):10038-43. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: P53 is one of the most important tumour suppressor proteins. While its activity seems to be dispensable for normal proliferating cells, this protein is required to maintain genomic integrity after DNA damage. In response to cellular stress, the amount of p53 protein accumulates and fulfils its function as a transcription factor. Most of the genes that are regulated by p53 control progression through the cell cycle or initiate cell death. A large number of proteins have been identified in recent years that control the activity of this important tumour suppressor protein. These proteins regulate the turnover of p53, its association with co-repressor and co-activator proteins and target gene promoters or impinge on p53 oligomerisation. This review shall give an overview of our current knowledge on how the activity of the p53 protein is controlled.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: P53 is a key tumor suppressor protein. In response to DNA damage, p53 accumulates to high levels in differentiated cells and activates target genes that initiate cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Since stem cells provide the proliferative cell pool within organisms, an efficient DNA damage response is crucial.
In proliferating embryonic stem cells, p53 is localized predominantly in the cytoplasm. DNA damage-induced nuclear accumulation of p53 in embryonic stem cells activates transcription of the target genes mdm2, p21, puma and noxa. We observed bi-phasic kinetics for nuclear accumulation of p53 after ionizing radiation. During the first wave of nuclear accumulation, p53 levels were increased and the p53 target genes mdm2, p21 and puma were transcribed. Transcription of noxa correlated with the second wave of nuclear accumulation. Transcriptional activation of p53 target genes resulted in an increased amount of proteins with the exception of p21. While p21 transcripts were efficiently translated in 3T3 cells, we failed to see an increase in p21 protein levels after IR in embryonal stem cells.
In embryonic stem cells where (anti-proliferative) p53 activity is not necessary, or even unfavorable, p53 is retained in the cytoplasm and prevented from activating its target genes. However, if its activity is beneficial or required, p53 is allowed to accumulate in the nucleus and activates its target genes, even in embryonic stem cells.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The p53 protein is one of the most important tumor suppressor proteins. Normally, the p53 protein is in a latent state. However, when its activity is required, e.g. upon DNA damage, nucleotide depletion or hypoxia, p53 becomes rapidly activated and initiates transcription of pro-apoptotic and cell cycle arrest-inducing target genes. The activity of p53 is regulated both by protein abundance and by post-translational modifications of pre-existing p53 molecules. In the 30 years of p53 research, a plethora of modifications and interaction partners that modulate p53's abundance and activity have been identified and new ones are continuously discovered. This review will summarize our current knowledge on the regulation of p53 abundance and activity.
Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 01/2009; 44(6):367-92. · 5.58 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The p53 protein is one of the most important tumor suppressor proteins. The most prevailing property of this tumor suppressor protein is its activation in response to DNA damage which counteracts the propagation of genetic alterations to daughter cells under conditions that provoke mutagenesis. In response to DNA damage and some other kinds of cellular stress the turnover of p53 is reduced or completely switched-off, which leads to a strong increase in the amount of the p53 protein and subsequently to the implementation of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Although post-translational modifications of p53 certainly contribute to the activation of p53 under physiologic conditions, an increase in the amount of the protein e.g., after overexpression, is sufficient for p53's deadly activities. This makes this tumor suppressor protein an interesting target for cancer therapy. This article summarizes the most important principles for the regulation of p53, with a particular focus on recent findings. Furthermore, open questions and possible future directions shall be discussed.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The p53 protein is one of the major tumor suppressor proteins. In response to DNA damage, p53 is prevented from degradation and accumulates to high levels. Ionizing radiation leads to hypophosphorylation of the p53 ubiquitin ligase Mdm2 at sites where phosphorylation is critical for p53 degradation and to the phosphorylation and activation of Akt/PKB, a kinase that phosphorylates and inhibits GSK-3. GSK-3, which normally phosphorylates Mdm2, is inactivated in response to ionizing radiation. We show that p53 accumulates in lymphoblasts from patients with the hereditary disorder ataxia telangiectasia in response to ionizing radiation despite the absence of a functional ATM kinase. Also, knockdown of ATR did not prevent p53 accumulation in response to ionizing radiation. Instead, p53 stabilization in response to ionizing radiation depended on the inactivation of GSK-3 and the presence of Akt/PKB. Akt/PKB is a target of DNA-PK, a kinase that is activated after ionizing radiation. Correspondingly, down-regulation of DNA-PK prevented phosphorylation of Akt/PKB and GSK-3 after ionizing radiation and strongly reduced the accumulation of p53. We therefore propose a signaling cascade for the regulation of p53 in response to ionizing radiation that involves activation of DNA-PK and Akt/PKB and inactivation of GSK-3 and Mdm2.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 07/2008; 105(22):7785-90. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have shown previously that MDM2 promotes the degradation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 through a ubiquitin-independent proteolytic pathway. Here we report that the MDM2 analog, MDMX, also displays a similar activity. MDMX directly bound to p21 and mediated its proteasomal degradation. Although the MDMX effect was independent of MDM2, they synergistically promoted p21 degradation when coexpressed in cells. This degradation appears to be mediated by the 26S proteasome, as MDMX and p21 bound to S2, one of the subunits of the 19S component of the 26S proteasome, in vivo. Conversely, knockdown of MDMX induced the level of endogenous p21 proteins that no longer cofractionated with 26S proteasome, resulting in G(1) arrest. The level of p21 was low at early S phase but markedly induced by knocking down either MDMX or MDM2 in human cells. Ablation of p21 rescued the G(1) arrest caused by double depletion of MDM2 and MDMX in p53-null cells. These results demonstrate that MDMX and MDM2 independently and cooperatively regulate the proteasome-mediated degradation of p21 at the G(1) and early S phases.
Molecular and cellular biology 03/2008; 28(4):1218-29. · 6.06 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Mdm2 protein is the major regulator of the tumor suppressor protein p53. We show that the p53 protein associates both with the N-terminal and with the central domain of Mdm2. The central p53-binding site of Mdm2 encompasses amino acids 235-300. Binding of p53 to the central domain is significantly enhanced after phosphorylation of the central domain of Mdm2. The N-terminal and central domains of Mdm2 act synergistically in binding to p53. p53 mutants that have mutations in the tetramerization domain and that fail to oligomerize do not show such an enhancement of binding in the presence of the other binding site.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/2006; 281(39):28575-83. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Mdm2 oncoprotein regulates abundance and activity of the p53 tumor suppressor protein. For efficient degradation of p53, Mdm2 needs to be phosphorylated at several contiguous residues within the central conserved domain. We show that glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) phosphorylated the Mdm2 protein in vitro and in vivo in the central domain. Inhibition of GSK-3 rescued p53 from degradation in an Mdm2-dependent manner while its association with Mdm2 was not affected. Likewise, inhibition of GSK-3 did not alter localization of p53 and Mdm2 or the interaction of Mdm2 and MdmX. Ionizing radiation, which leads to p53 accumulation, directed phosphorylation of GSK-3 at serine 9, which preceded and overlapped with the increase in p53 levels. Moreover, expression of a GSK-3 mutant where serine 9 was replaced with an alanine reduced the accumulation of p53 and induction of its target p21(WAF-1). We therefore conclude that inhibition of GSK-3 contributes to hypophosphorylation of Mdm2 in response to ionizing rays, and in consequence to p53 stabilization.
Molecular and Cellular Biology 09/2005; 25(16):7170-80. · 5.37 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Murine double-minute clone 2 protein (MDM2) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that regulates the turnover of several cellular factors including the p53 tumor suppressor protein. As part of the mechanism of p53 induction in response to DNA damage, a cluster of serine residues within the central acidic domain of MDM2 become hypophosphorylated, leading to attenuation of MDM2-mediated p53 destruction. In the present study, we identify the protein kinase CK1delta as a major cellular activity that phosphorylates MDM2. Amino acid substitution, coupled with phosphopeptide analyses, indicates that several serine residues in the acidic domain, including Ser-240, Ser-242, and Ser-246, as well as Ser-383 in the C-terminal region, are phosphorylated by CK1delta in vitro. We also show, through expression of a dominant negative mutant of CK1delta or treatment of cells with IC261, a CK1delta-selective inhibitor, that MDM2 is phosphorylated by CK1delta in cultured cells. These data establish the identity of a key signaling molecule that promotes the phosphorylation of a major regulatory region in MDM2 under normal growth conditions.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The stability of the tumor suppressor protein p53 is regulated via the ubiquitin-proteasome-dependent proteolytic pathway. Like most substrates of this pathway, p53 is modified by the attachment of polyubiquitin chains prior to proteasome-mediated degradation. However, the mechanism(s) involved in the delivery of polyubiquitylated p53 molecules to the proteasome are currently unclear. Here, we show that the human DNA repair protein hHR23 binds to polyubiquitylated p53 via its carboxyl-terminal ubiquitin-associated (Uba) domain shielding p53 from deubiquitylation in vitro and in vivo. In addition, downregulation of hHR23 expression within cells by RNA interference results in accumulation of p53. Since the Ubl domain of hHR23 has been shown to interact with the 26S proteasome, we propose that hHR23 is intrinsically involved in the delivery of polyubiquitylated p53 molecules to the proteasome. In this model, the Uba domain of hHR23 binds to polyubiquitin chains formed on p53 and protects them from deubiquitylation, while the Ubl domain delivers the polyubiquitylated p53 molecules to the proteasome.
Molecular and Cellular Biology 01/2004; 23(24):8960-9. · 5.37 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Mdm2 protein mediates ubiquitylation and degradation of p53 and is a key regulator of this tumor suppressor. More recently, it has been shown that Mdm2 is highly phosphorylated within its central acidic domain. In order to address the issue of how these modifications might regulate Mdm2 function, putative phosphorylation sites within this domain were substituted, individually or in pairs, with alanine residues. Mutants with serine-to-alanine substitutions between residues 244 and 260 abolished or at least reduced the capacity of Mdm2 to promote p53 degradation. In each case, loss of degradation function was independent of the ability to bind to p53 or p14ARF. Moreover, each of the Mdm2 mutants completely retained the capacity to act as a ubiquitin ligase in vivo. Thus, ubiquitylation and degradation can be uncoupled. Two-dimensional phosphopeptide mapping coupled with the use of phospho-specific antibodies revealed that Mdm2 is phosphorylated physiologically at several sites within this region, consistent with the idea that phosphorylation is important for Mdm2 activity. Strikingly, treatment of cells with ionizing radiation resulted in a significant decrease in the phosphorylation of residues that are important for p53 turnover. This hypophosphorylation preceded p53 accumulation. These findings indicate that Mdm2 contributes an additional function toward the degradation of p53 that is distinct from its ubiquitin ligase activity and is regulated by phosphorylation. Our model suggests that hypophosphorylation of Mdm2 in response to ionizing irradiation inactivates this novel function, thereby contributing to p53 stabilization.
Molecular and Cellular Biology 10/2002; 22(17):6170-82. · 5.37 Impact Factor