L de Leij

Universitair Medisch Centrum Groningen, Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands

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Publications (99)399.53 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: B-cells, triggered via their surface B-cell receptor (BcR), start an apoptotic program known as activation-induced cell death (AICD), and it is widely believed that this phenomenon plays a role in the restriction and focusing of the immune response. Although both ceramide and caspases have been proposed to be involved in AICD, the contribution of either and the exact molecular events through which AICD commences are still unknown. Here we show that in Ramos B-cells, BcR-triggered cell death is associated with an early rise of C16 ceramide that derives from activation of the de novo pathway, as demonstrated using a specific inhibitor of ceramide synthase, fumonisin B1 (FB1), and using pulse labeling with the metabolic sphingolipid precursor, palmitate. There was no evidence for activation of sphingomyelinases or hydrolysis of sphingomyelin. Importantly, FB1 inhibited several specific apoptotic hallmarks such as poly(A)DP-ribose polymerase cleavage and DNA fragmentation. Electron microscopy revealed morphological evidence of mitochondrial damage, suggesting the involvement of mitochondria in BcR-triggered apoptosis, and this was inhibited by FB1. Moreover, a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential was observed in Ramos cells after BcR cross-linking, which was inhibited by the addition of FB1. Interestingly, benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-dl-Asp, a broad spectrum caspase inhibitor did not inhibit BcR-induced mitochondrial membrane permeability transition but did block DNA fragmentation. These results suggest a crucial role for de novo generated C16 ceramide in the execution of AICD, and they further suggest an ordered and more specific sequence of biochemical events in which de novo generated C16 ceramide is involved in mitochondrial damage resulting in a downstream activation of caspases and apoptosis.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/2001; 276(17):13606-14. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: During surgery, incision of the skin under aseptic conditions is performed. Despite the absence of noxious agents, an inflammatory response may be induced. We studied the local inflammatory response in human skin as a result of surgical intervention, under aseptic conditions. Elective standardized vascular surgery served as a model. A series of skin biopsies was taken from the wound edge at different time points after first incision. Biopsies, directly taken at first incision were considered to represent normal skin. Additional biopsies were taken at 30 min after the start of surgery and just before closure of the wound, maximally 270 min after surgery. Kinetics of recruitment of cells, expression of adhesion molecules and the presence of pro-inflammatory cytokines was studied. Granulocytes were observed at first at 30 min after incision of the skin and their number increased in time. This granulocyte infiltration is paralleled by E-selectin expression on endothelial cells, which also was observed at first at 30 min after surgery with a further increase in number in time. Incision of the skin did not change P-selectin, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, TNFalpha, IL1alpha, IL1beta, IL6 and IL8 expression. These results show that incision of the skin under aseptic conditions during elective standardized vascular surgery induces local nonspecific cellular inflammation.
    Acta Histochemica 05/2001; 103(2):139-49. · 1.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ep-CAM is a new type of cell adhesion molecule (CAM) which does not structurally resemble the members of the four major families (cadherins, integrins, selectins, and CAMs of the immunoglobulin superfamily) and mediates Ca(2+)-independent, homophilic adhesions. The extracellular domain of Ep-CAM consists of a cysteine-rich region, containing two type II epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like repeats, followed by a cysteine-poor region. We generated mutated Ep-CAM forms with various deletions in the extracellular domain. These deletion mutants, together with monoclonal antibodies recognizing different epitopes in the extracellular domain, were used to investigate the role of the EGF-like repeats in the formation of intercellular contacts mediated by Ep-CAM molecules. We established that both EGF-like repeats are required for the formation of Ep-CAM-mediated homophilic adhesions, including the accumulation of Ep-CAM molecules at the cell-cell boundaries, and the anchorage of the Ep-CAM adhesion complex to F-actin via alpha-actinin. Deletion of either EGF-like repeat was sufficient to inhibit the adhesion properties of the molecule. The first EGF-like repeat of Ep-CAM is required for reciprocal interactions between Ep-CAM molecules on adjacent cells, as was demonstrated with blocking antibodies. The second EGF-like repeat was mainly required for lateral interactions between Ep-CAM molecules. Lateral interactions between Ep-CAM molecules result in the formation of tetramers, which might be the first and necessary step in the formation of Ep-CAM-mediated intercellular contacts.
    Molecular and Cellular Biology 05/2001; 21(7):2570-80. · 5.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This paper describes a bi-specific antibody, which was called BIS20x3. It retargets CD3varepsilon-positive cells (T-cells) to CD20-positive cells and was obtained by hybrid-hybridoma fusion. BIS20x3 could be isolated readily from quadroma culture supernatant and retained all the signalling characteristics associated with both of its chains. Cross-linking of BIS20x3 on Ramos cells leads to DNA fragmentation percentages similar to those obtained after Rituximab-cross-linking. Cross-linking of BIS20x3 on T-cells using cross-linking F(ab')2-fragments induced T-cell activation. Indirect cross-linking of T-cell-bound BIS20x3 via Ramos cells hyper-activated the T-cells. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that BIS20x3 effectively re-targets T-cells to B-cells, leading to high B-cell cytotoxicity. The results presented in this paper show that BIS20x3 is fully functional in retargeting T-cells to B-cells and suggest that B-cell lymphomas may represent ideal targets for T-cell retargeting bi-specific antibodies, because the retargeted T-cell is maximally stimulated in the presence of B-cells. Additionally, since B-cells may up-regulate CD95/ Fas expression upon binding of CD20-directed antibodies, B-cells will become even more sensitive for T-cell mediated killing via CD95L/ Fas L, and therefore supports the intention to use T-cell retargeting bi-specific antibodies recognizing CD20 on B-cell malignancies as a treatment modality for these diseases.
    British Journal of Cancer 05/2001; 84(8):1115-21. · 5.08 Impact Factor
  • Transplantation Proceedings 01/2001; 33(1-2):1076-7. · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To test the hypothesis that during the luteal phase of the ovarian cycle, as compared with the follicular phase, the peripheral immune response is shifted toward a type-2 response. Prospective study. Academic research setting. Women with regular menstrual cycles. Blood samples were collected between days 6 and 9 of the menstrual cycle and 6-9 days after the LH surge. Intracellular cytokine production of interferon (IFN)-gamma, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, and IL-10 after in vitro stimulation of lymphocytes as well as total white blood cell (WBC) count, differential WBC count, and plasma 17 beta-E(2) and P concentrations. Mean plasma 17 beta-E(2) and P concentrations, WBC count, and mean granulocyte, monocyte, and lymphocyte counts were significantly increased in the luteal phase as compared with the follicular phase of the ovarian cycle. Production of type-1 cytokines (IFN-gamma and IL-2) and production of the type-2 cytokine IL-10 did not vary between the phases of the ovarian cycle. Production of the type-2 cytokine IL-4, however, was significantly increased in the luteal phase as compared with the follicular phase of the ovarian cycle. During the luteal phase of the ovarian cycle, the immune response is shifted toward a Th2-type response, as reflected by increased IL-4 production in this phase of the cycle. These results may suggest that increased levels of P and 17 beta-E(2) in the luteal phase of the ovarian cycle play a role in the deviation of the immune response toward a type-2 response.
    Fertility and Sterility 12/2000; 74(5):1008-13. · 4.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A versatile expression vector is described for the rapid construction and evaluation of bispecific scFvs and scFv-based fusion proteins. An important feature of this vector is the presence of two multiple cloning sites (MCS) separated by an in frame linker sequence. The first MCS was specifically designed to contain unique SfiI and NotI restriction enzyme sites that can be used for directional and in frame insertion of scFvs (or potentially any molecule) selected from established phage-display systems. Using this new vector, a functional bs-(scFv)(2) (2C11-MOC31) was constructed for retargeted T-cell cytotoxicity towards EGP2 positive tumor cells. The vector was also used for grafting of a number of promising biological effector principles onto scFv MOC31, including the prodrug converting enzyme cytosine deaminase, the anti-angiogenic factor angiostatin, and the thrombogenic molecule tissue factor. We aimed at producing biologically active fusion proteins by directing them through the endoplasmic reticulum-based protein folding machinery of eukaryotic cells (COS-7) using a kappa light chain leader, thereby taking advantage of the associated quality control mechanisms that allow only fully folded and processed fusion proteins to be secreted into the medium. Supernatants derived from fusion protein transfected COS-7 cells, which were transiently transfected at low transfection rates, were directly assayed for the biological and/or targeting activity of the excreted fusion proteins without any prior purification steps. This procedure might help to identify those fusion proteins that have favourable characteristics like stability and biological activity in the presence of serum and at low protein concentrations. Targeted delivery of all effector principles was subsequently assessed in an in vitro model system. The method we devised is both rapid and versatile and can be useful to construct and identify series of new chimeric proteins with enhanced therapeutic potential in human cancer therapy.
    Journal of Immunological Methods 05/2000; 237(1-2):131-45. · 2.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cationic liposomes belong to the family of non-viral vectors for gene delivery. Despite several drawbacks, such as low efficiency compared to viruses and inactivation by serum, cationic liposomes remain a promising tool for gene therapy. Therefore further investigation of the mechanism of transfection and improvement of formulations are warranted. In a comparative study, we investigated the effect of serum on the ability of SAINT, a novel synthetic amphiphile, and Lipofectin to mediate transfection in vitro, employing a variety of cell lines. In all cell types, SAINT-mediated transfection was not significantly affected by the presence of serum, in contrast to Lipofectin-mediated transfection. Intriguingly, the extent of complex association was enhanced in the presence of serum, while cell association of the Lipofectin complex was approximately two-fold higher than that of SAINT. These data imply that transfection efficiency and the amount of cell-associated complex are not related. However, when the helper lipid dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE) was substituted for cholesterol, SAINT-mediated transfection was reduced in the presence of serum. This indicates that lipoplex composition rather than the cationic lipid per se codetermines the effect of serum. Also, the presence of serum decreased cytotoxicity, while no correlation could be demonstrated between toxicity and transfection efficiency. The binding of serum proteins to either complex was identical, both in terms of protein identity and relative amounts. We propose that serum, in conjunction with cell-specific factors and lipoplex composition, determines complex (in)stability, which is crucial for effective gene delivery and expression.
    The Journal of Gene Medicine 01/2000; 2(6):465-76. · 2.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the immunomodulatory impact of low-dose recombinant human interleukin-6 (rhIL-6), we examined 15 patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma or malignant melanoma receiving rhIL-6 as an antitumor agent in a phase II trial. RhIL-6 (150 micrograms) was administered subcutaneously (s.c.) once daily for 42 consecutive days. Immunologic parameters were measured throughout therapy and at follow-up. No changes in white blood cell counts were noted. Lymphocyte subsets did not alter, nor did their expression of CD25 and HLA-DR. Immunoglobulins were unaffected. Levels of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and IL-1 beta remained below detection limits. Theoretically, subtle immunologic alterations might have been masked by increases in plasma volume, known to occur after start of therapy. Using previously published data concerning plasma volume changes in these patients, part of immunologic data were corrected for concurrent hemodilution, showing a 39% +/- 17% increase in monocytes (mean change +/- SEM [standard error of mean]; p < 0.03) within 1 week of therapy, while lymphocytes tended to increase. However, the absence of appreciable increases in cell activation markers and in monokine levels indicates insufficient immune activation, probably underlying the lack of objective antitumor responses (6 x stable, 9 x progressive disease) in these patients. In conclusion, the immunomodulatory impact of rhIL-6, if present at all, remains very limited.
    Journla of Immunotherapy 07/1999; 22(4):363-70. · 3.46 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Immunotherapy - J IMMUNOTHER. 01/1999; 22(4):363-370.
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    ABSTRACT: The tumour-associated antigen epithelial glycoprotein-2 (EGP-2) is a promising target for detection and treatment of a variety of human carcinomas. Antibodies to this antigen have been successfully used in patients for imaging of small-cell lung cancer and for adjuvant treatment of minimal residual disease of colon cancer. We describe here the isolation and complete characterization of high-affinity single-chain variable fragments (scFv) to the EGP-2 antigen. First, the binding kinetics of four murine whole antibodies directed to EGP-2 (17-1A, 323/A3, MOC-31 and MOC-161) were determined using surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The MOC-31 antibody has the lowest apparent off-rate, followed by MOC-161 and 323/A3. The V-genes of the two MOC hybridomas were cloned as scFv in a phage display vector and antigen-binding phage were selected by panning on recombinant antigen. The scFvs compete with the original hybridoma antibodies for binding to antigen and specifically bind to human carcinomas in immunohistochemistry. MOC-31 scFv has an off-rate which is better than those of the bivalent 17-1A and 323/A3 whole antibodies, providing it with an essential characteristic for tumour retention in vivo. The availability of these high-affinity anti-EGP-2 antibody fragments and of their encoding V-genes creates a variety of possibilities for their future use as tumour-targeting vehicles.
    British Journal of Cancer 01/1999; 78(11):1407-16. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The recently identified FHIT gene encompasses the FRA3B region and the breakpoint of a constitutive t(3;8) occurring in a family with hereditary renal cell cancer. Occurrence of aberrant transcripts in different types of tumours has led to the suggestion that FHIT might play a critical role in the development of various types of cancer. We have analyzed the gene and its transcripts in lung cancers and renal cell cancer-derived cell lines. A lung adenocarcinoma cell line, GLC-A2, appeared to have a homozygous deletion in intron 5 of FHIT. RT-PCR analysis revealed a normal-sized PCR product in all of the cell lines, including GLC-A2. A number of them had an additional aberrant product. Analysis of a great number of control cell lines and tissues showed that the majority of these also had aberrant PCR products in addition to a normal-sized PCR product. Different specimens of the same cell type showed variable additional RT-PCR products. Normal-sized PCR products had a sequence identical to the FHIT sequence. PCR products longer than normal had insertions of different sizes at different positions. With three exceptions, PCR products shorter than normal represented FHIT sequences missing one or more entire exons. Thus, the presence of aberrant transcripts is not cancer-specific. Conceivably, sequences responsible for the instability of the FRA3B region are being transcribed into FHIT pre-mRNA and may cause the abnormal splicing and processing of the transcripts. Genes Chromosom. Cancer 19:220–227, 1997. © 1997 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Genes Chromosomes and Cancer 12/1998; 19(4):220 - 227. · 3.55 Impact Factor
  • Clinical Transplantation 07/1998; 12(3):145-58. · 1.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We describe the construction of a recombinant bispecific antibody fragment in the diabody format with specificity for both the well-established human pancarcinoma associated target antigen EGP2 (epithelial glycoprotein 2, also known as the CO17-1A antigen or KSA) and the CD3epsilon chain of human TCR/CD3 complex. The murine anti-EGP2 (MOC31) single chain variable fragment (scFv) and the humanized anti-CD3 (Ucht1v9) scFv were cast into a diabody format (designated Dia5v9) using a short 5 amino acid Gly-Ser linker between immunoglobulin heavy-chain and light-chain variable domains. Purification of the poly-histidine tagged Dia5v9 was achieved from extracts of protease deficient Escherichia coli by IMAC chromatography. The Dia5v9 diabody showed strong binding to both EGP2 and CD3 in transfected cells. The in vitro efficacy of Dia5v9 in mediating tumor cell lysis by interleukin-2 activated human T cells appeared to be similar to that of the hybrid-hybridoma-derived BsF(ab')2 Bis1 (anti-EGP2/anti-CD3) in a standard 4-hr 51Cr-release assay. This small and partially humanized recombinant bispecific antibody fragment may be valuable for T-cell-based immunotherapeutical treatment protocols, retargeting activated peripheral blood T lymphocytes to lyse various human carcinomas in vivo.
    International Journal of Cancer 04/1998; 76(2):232-9. · 6.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Costimulatory signals provided by T cells are required for B cells to produce specific antibody to T-dependent antigen. We have investigated the suitability of using the CD40 culture system for the proliferation and differentiation of Ag-specific human B cells using cytomegalovirus (CMV) or tetanus toxoid (TT) as antigen. We modified the CD40 culture system (CD32-transfected L cells, anti-CD40, and IL-4) by applying a sequential cytokine stimulation and compared total B-cell cultures with antigen-specific B cells preselected by panning. The detection of specific antibody became possible when antigen-selected B cells were cultured for 7 days in the CD40 system to induce clonal expansion, followed by the addition of IL-2 and IL-10 for an additional 7 days to induce plasma-cell differentiation. We conclude that our initial inability to detect specific antibody in the CD40 system is due to overgrowth of nonspecific B-cell clones and that selection of antigen-specific B cells by panning overcomes this problem. Induction of antigen-specific antibody production was found to be optimal when the initial contact with antigen during panning was limited to between 1 to 24 hours.
    Developmental Immunology 02/1998; 6(3-4):261-71.
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    ABSTRACT: The recently identified FHIT gene encompasses the FRA3B region and the breakpoint of a constitutive t(3;8) occurring in a family with hereditary renal cell cancer. Occurrence of aberrant transcripts in different types of tumours has led to the suggestion that FHIT might play a critical role in the development of various types of cancer. We have analyzed the gene and its transcripts in lung cancers and renal cell cancer-derived cell lines. A lung adenocarcinoma cell line, GLC-A2, appeared to have a homozygous deletion in intron 5 of FHIT. RT-PCR analysis revealed a normal-sized PCR product in all of the cell lines: Including GLC-A2. A number of them had an additional aberrant product. Analysis of a great number of control cell lines and tissues showed that the majority of these also had aberrant PCR products in addition to a normal-sized PCR product. Different specimens of the same cell type showed variable additional RT-PCR products. Normal-sized PCR products had a sequence identical to the FHIT sequence. PCR products longer than normal had insertions of different sizes at different positions. With three exceptions, PCR products shorter than normal represented FHIT sequences missing one or more entire exons. Thus, the presence of aberrant transcripts is not cancer-specific. Conceivably, sequence responsible for the instability of the FRA3B region are being transcribed into FHIT pre-mRNA and may cause the abnormal splicing and processing of the transcripts.
    Genes Chromosomes and Cancer 09/1997; 19(4):220-7. · 3.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The presence of tumour cells in the circulation may predict disease recurrence and metastasis. To improve on existing methods of cytological or immunocytological detection, we have developed a sensitive and quantitative technique for the detection of carcinoma cells in blood, using the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) identifying transcripts of the pancarcinoma-associated tumour marker EGP-2 (KSA or 17-1A antigen). The amount of EGP2 mRNA was quantified using an internal recombinant competitor RNA standard with known concentration and which is both reversely transcribed and co-amplified in the same reaction, allowing for a reliable assessment of the initial amount of EGP2 mRNA in the sample. Calibration studies, seeding blood with MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells, showed that the assay can detect ten tumour cells among 1.0 x 10(6) leucocytes. The PCR assay revealed that normal bone marrow expresses low levels of EGP2 mRNA, although immunocytochemistry with the anti-EGP2 MAb MOC31 could not identify any positively stained cell. Analyses using this RT-PCR assay may prove to have applications to the assessment of circulating tumour cells in clinical samples.
    British Journal of Cancer 02/1997; 76(1):29-35. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The bispecific monoclonal antibody (bsAb) BIS-1 combines a monoclonal-antibody(mAb)-defined specificity for the CD3 complex, as present on all T lymphocytes, with a mAb-defined specificity for the pancarcinoma/epithelium associated glycoprotein EGP-2. In vitro studies indicate that BIS-1 can direct T lymphocytes to kill EGP-2-positive tumour target cells. T cell pre-activation is necessary for this activity and can be obtained either via incubation of isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells with CD3 mAb, followed by short culturing in recombinant interleukin-2-containing medium, or via costimulation with CD5- and CD28-based bsAb. Clinical application of BIS-1 was started in a pilot study in which carcinoma patients suffering from malignant ascites or intrapleural effusion were treated. In this study, ex vivo activated autologous lymphocytes were applied locally, i.e. intraperitoneally or intrapleurally, in the presence of BIS-1. Local inflammation and antitumour activity were observed, whereas no or only minor systemic toxicity was seen in these patients. Intravenous administration of BIS-1 F(ab')2 in combination with subcutaneously given recombinant interleukin-2 (i.v. bsAb/rIL-2 treatment) induced transient but considerable toxicity including peripheral vasoconstriction, dyspnoea and fever with a maximal tolerated dose of 5-8 micrograms/kg. High plasma concentrations of the inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha and interferon gamma were observed at this dose. Whereas bsAb-dictated antitumour activity could be demonstrated to be present in blood samples of these patients in an in vitro assay, no clear clinical responses were observed. In a rat model it was found that i.v. bsAb/rIL-2 treatment of EGP-2-positive tumours was effective when a low systemic tumour burden was present, suggesting that systemic bsAb/rIL-2 treatment might be effective in situations of minimal residual disease.
    Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy 01/1997; 45(3-4):203-6. · 3.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To minimize interleukin-2-related toxicity while retaining its efficacy, a treatment schedule utilizing subcutaneous IL-2 was evaluated in a phase II setting. Eighty unselected, consecutive patients with metastatic or recurrent renal cell carcinoma (RCC), mean age 58 years (range, 21 to 76), received IL-2 on an outpatient basis, 5 days per week for 4 or 6 consecutive weeks. During the first 5-day cycle, a dose of 18 million IU IL-2 was administered once a day; during subsequent cycles the dose in the first two days was reduced to 9 million IU. Two 6-week or three 4-week courses were given maximally. Patients who had completed at least one full course were considered evaluable. To circumvent flu-like symptoms, all patients received a maximum oral dose of 3 g acetaminophen daily. Seventy-seven patients were assessable for response. Three (4%) complete responses (CR) and 6 (8%) partial responses (PR) were observed, and 44 (57%) patients had stable disease (SD). Response durations were 64, 29, 29+ months for the CR and 2, 6, 8, 11, 32, 47 months for the PR. The median length of survival of all patients was 12 months, whereas the median survival of responders and non-responders was 35+ and 10+ months, respectively (P < 0.001). Side effects included fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, and transient inflammation and induration at the injection sites. These complications were acceptable, even in the patients with concomitant disease, and completely disappeared after cessation of IL-2. Subcutaneous IL-2 mediates antitumor responses, has limited side effects and is also suitable for elderly RCC patients with concomitant disease.
    Cancer Biotherapy and Radiopharmaceuticals 10/1996; 11(5):289-95. · 1.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Monoclonal antibodies against peptidases of Lactococcus lactis were isolated and characterized: PEPN1-4 against a lysyl aminopeptidase PepN, PEPT1-5 against a tripeptidase PepT and PEPD1-3 against a dipeptidase PepD. These monoclonal antibodies reacted specifically with their respective antigens in crude cell extracts of Lc. lactis subspp. cremoris and lactis. A number of monoclonal antibodies cross reacted with proteins of other (lactic acid) bacteria. PEPT1, 2, 4 and 5 cross reacted weakly with a 35 kDa protein in Lactobacillus delbrueckii, while PEPT1 and PEPT2 reacted with proteins in the cell-free extract of Streptococcus thermophilus and Clostridium fervidus. Of the four isolated monoclonal antibodies against PEPN, only PEPN3 cross reacted weakly with a 90 kDa protein in Escherichia coli cell-free extract, and the other three antibody species against PEPN3 cross reacted with 80 kDa proteins of Lb. casei, Lb. delbrueckii, and Str. bovis, but not of Esch. coli. Of the three monoclonal antibodies against PepD, only PEPD1 and PEPD2 cross reacted with 40 kDa proteins of Lb. casei, Lb. delbrueckii and Str. bovis. All PEPN, PEPD and PEPT antibodies reacted with components in cell-free extracts of eleven different Lc. lactis strains, indicating that the peptidases of these strains were very similar to those of Lc. lactis subsp. cremoris WG2. However, Lc. lactis subsp. hordniae appeared to differ from the other Lc. lactis subspecies since only PEPT1, 2 and 5 reacted with a protein in the cell-free extract. Immunogold labelling of Lc. lactis WG2 with the isolated monoclonal antibodies revealed that PepN, PepD and PepT were located intracellularly. The intracellular location of these peptidases is discussed in relation to the supply of essential amino acids and peptides.
    J Dairy Res 06/1996; 63(2):245-56. · 1.37 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
399.53 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1985–2001
    • Universitair Medisch Centrum Groningen
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands
  • 1984–1998
    • University of Groningen
      • • Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      Groningen, Province of Groningen, Netherlands
  • 1988
    • Mater Misericordiae University Hospital
      Dublin, Leinster, Ireland