[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CYP3A4 has an important role in the metabolisms of many drugs used in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) therapy; still, there are practically no publications about the role of CYP3A4 polymorphisms in ALL pharmacogenomics. We genotyped eight common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 genes in 511 children with ALL and investigated whether they influenced the survival of the patients. We involved additional 127 SNPs in 34 candidate genes and searched for interactions with respect to the survival rates. Significant association between the survival rates and the common rs2246709 SNP in the CYP3A4 gene was observed. The gender of the patients and the rs1076991 in the MTHFD1 gene strongly influenced this effect. We calculated new risk assessments involving the gender-rs2246709 interaction and showed that they significantly outperformed the earlier risk-group assessments at every time point. If this finding is confirmed in other populations, it can have a considerable prognostic significance.The Pharmacogenomics Journal advance online publication, 30 September 2014; doi:10.1038/tpj.2014.60.
The Pharmacogenomics Journal 09/2014; 15(3). DOI:10.1038/tpj.2014.60 · 4.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX) plays an important role in the consolidation therapy of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in many treatment regimens worldwide. However, there is a large interpatient variability in the pharmacokinetics and toxicity of the drug. We investigated the influence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes of the folate metabolic pathway, transporter molecules and transcription proteins on the pharmacokinetics and toxicity of MTX and 7-hydroxy-methotrexate (7-OH-MTX). 63 SNPs of 14 genes were genotyped and a total of 463 HD-MTX courses (administered according to the ALL-BFM 95 and ALL IC-BFM 2002 protocols) were analysed. Haematological, hepatic and renal toxicities, estimated by routine laboratory parameters were evaluated. Random forest and regression trees were used for variable selection and model building. Linear mixed models were established to prove the significance of the selected variables. SNPs (rs4948502, rs4948496, rs4948487) of the ARID5B gene were associated with the serum levels of MTX (P < 0·02), serum levels and area under the curve of 7-OH-MTX (P < 0·02) and with hypoproteinaemia (P = 0·004). SLCO1B1 rs4149056 also showed a significant association with serum MTX levels (P < 0·001). Our findings confirm the association of novel genetic variations in folate-related and ARID5B genes with the serum MTX levels and acute toxicity.
British Journal of Haematology 04/2014; 166(3). DOI:10.1111/bjh.12886 · 4.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study we investigated whether polymorphisms in the folate pathway influenced the risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) or the survival rate of the patients. For this we selected and genotyped 67 SNPs in 15 genes in the folate pathway in 543 children with ALL and 529 controls. The results were evaluated by gender adjusted logistic regression and by the Bayesian network based Bayesian multilevel analysis of relevance (BN-BMLA) methods. Bayesian structure based odds ratios for the relevant variables and interactions were also calculated. Altogether 9 SNPs in 8 genes were associated with altered susceptibility to ALL. After correction for multiple testing, two associations remained significant. The genotype distribution of the MTHFD1 rs1076991 differed significantly between the ALL and control population. Analyzing the subtypes of the disease the GG genotype increased only the risk of B-cell ALL (p = 3.52×10(-4); OR = 2.00). The GG genotype of the rs3776455 SNP in the MTRR gene was associated with a significantly reduced risk to ALL (p = 1.21×10(-3); OR = 0.55), which resulted mainly from the reduced risk to B-cell and hyperdiploid-ALL. The TC genotype of the rs9909104 SNP in the SHMT1 gene was associated with a lower survival rate comparing it to the TT genotype (80.2% vs. 88.8%; p = 0.01). The BN-BMLA confirmed the main findings of the frequentist-based analysis and showed structural interactional maps and the probabilities of the different structural association types of the relevant SNPs especially in the hyperdiploid-ALL, involving additional SNPs in genes like TYMS, DHFR and GGH. We also investigated the statistical interactions and redundancies using structural model properties. These results gave further evidence that polymorphisms in the folate pathway could influence the ALL risk and the effectiveness of the therapy. It was also shown that in gene association studies the BN-BMLA could be a useful supplementary to the traditional frequentist-based statistical method.
PLoS ONE 08/2013; 8(8):e69843. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0069843 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
We carried out a candidate gene association study in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) to identify possible genetic risk factors in a Hungarian population.
The results were evaluated with traditional statistical methods and with our newly developed Bayesian network based Bayesian multilevel analysis of relevance (BN-BMLA) method. We collected genomic DNA and clinical data from 543 children, who underwent chemotherapy due to ALL, and 529 healthy controls. Altogether 66 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 19 candidate genes were genotyped.
With logistic regression, we identified 6 SNPs in the ARID5B and IKZF1 genes associated with increased risk to B-cell ALL, and two SNPs in the STAT3 gene, which decreased the risk to hyperdiploid ALL. Because the associated SNPs were in linkage in each gene, these associations corresponded to one signal per gene. The odds ratio (OR) associated with the tag SNPs were: OR = 1.69, P = 2.22x10(-7) for rs4132601 (IKZF1), OR = 1.53, P = 1.95x10(-5) for rs10821936 (ARID5B) and OR = 0.64, P = 2.32x10(-4) for rs12949918 (STAT3). With the BN-BMLA we confirmed the findings of the frequentist-based method and received additional information about the nature of the relations between the SNPs and the disease. E.g. the rs10821936 in ARID5B and rs17405722 in STAT3 showed a weak interaction, and in case of T-cell lineage sample group, the gender showed a weak interaction with three SNPs in three genes. In the hyperdiploid patient group the BN-BMLA detected a strong interaction among SNPs in the NOTCH1, STAT1, STAT3 and BCL2 genes. Evaluating the survival rate of the patients with ALL, the BN-BMLA showed that besides risk groups and subtypes, genetic variations in the BAX and CEBPA genes might also influence the probability of survival of the patients.
In the present study we confirmed the roles of genetic variations in ARID5B and IKZF1 in the susceptibility to B-cell ALL. With the newly developed BN-BMLA method several gene-gene, gene-phenotype and phenotype-phenotype connections were revealed. We showed several advantageous features of the new method, and suggested that in gene association studies the BN-BMLA might be a useful supplementary to the traditional frequentist-based statistical method.
BMC Medical Genomics 09/2012; 5(1):42. DOI:10.1186/1755-8794-5-42 · 2.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Galectins are potent immune regulators, with galectin-8 acting as a pro-apoptotic effector on synovial fluid cells and thymocytes and stimulator on T-cells. To set a proof-of-principle example for risk assessment in autoimmunity, and for a mutation affecting physiological galectin sensor functions, a polymorphism in the coding region of the galectin-8 gene (rs2737713; F19Y) was studied for its association with two autoimmune disorders, i.e. rheumatoid arthritis and myasthenia gravis.
A case-control analysis and a related quantitative trait-association study were performed to investigate the association of this polymorphism in patients (myasthenia gravis 149, rheumatoid arthritis 214 and 134 as primary and repetitive cohorts, respectively) and 365 ethnically matched (Caucasian) healthy controls. Distribution was also investigated in patients grouped according to their antibody status and age at disease onset. Comparative testing for lectin activity was carried out in ELISA/ELLA-based binding tests with both wild-type and F19Y mutant galectin-8 from peripheral blood mononuclear cell lysates of healthy individuals with different genotypes as well as with recombinant wild-type and F19Y mutant galectin-8 proteins.
A strong association was found for rheumatoid arthritis, and a mild one with myasthenia gravis. Furthermore, the presence of the sequence deviation also correlated with age at disease onset in the case of rheumatoid arthritis. The F19Y substitution did not appear to affect carbohydrate binding in solid-phase assays markedly.
This is the first report of an association between a galectin-based polymorphism leading to a mutant protein and autoimmune diseases, with evidence for antagonistic pleiotropy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Histamine as an inflammatory mediator plays an important role in chronic allergic and asthmatic conditions. However, the role of genetic polymorphisms of the histamine receptor HRH4 (histamine receptor H4) gene in asthma susceptibility and endophenotypes has not been studied yet. Our aim was to investigate the possible association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the HRH4 gene and asthma or some endophenotypes of asthma. Methods: Twenty-one SNPs of the HRH4 gene were genotyped in 313 asthmatic patients and 360 controls using Sequenom® iPLEX® Gold Genotyping Technology. Results: Genotype distribution of three HRH4 SNPs, namely rs17187619 [p = 0.002; odds ratio, OR (95% confidence interval, CI) = 2.4 (4.1-1.4)], rs527790 [p = 0.0002; OR (95% CI) = 3.3 (6.1-1.8)] and rs487202 [p = 0.00007; OR (95% CI) = 3.5 (6.6-1.9)] differed significantly between patients with or without infection-induced asthma. Haplotypes, which included the rs4800573-rs527790 CC allele combination, were found to be associated with infection-induced asthma [p = 0.0009, OR (95% CI) = 0.5 (0.4-0.8)]. The rs487202-rs574913 CA haplotype was more frequent among patients with infection-induced asthma [p = 0.0006, OR (95% CI) = 1.9 (1.3-2.6)]. None of the SNPs contributed directly to the risk of asthma. Conclusions: Our results suggest that genetic variation in the HRH4 gene might influence the pathogenesis of infection-induced asthma.
International Archives of Allergy and Immunology 05/2012; 159(2):109-20. DOI:10.1159/000335919 · 2.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genetic studies indicate high number of potential factors related to asthma. Based on earlier linkage analyses we selected the 11q13 and 14q22 asthma susceptibility regions, for which we designed a partial genome screening study using 145 SNPs in 1201 individuals (436 asthmatic children and 765 controls). The results were evaluated with traditional frequentist methods and we applied a new statistical method, called Bayesian network based Bayesian multilevel analysis of relevance (BN-BMLA). This method uses Bayesian network representation to provide detailed characterization of the relevance of factors, such as joint significance, the type of dependency, and multi-target aspects. We estimated posteriors for these relations within the Bayesian statistical framework, in order to estimate the posteriors whether a variable is directly relevant or its association is only mediated.
With frequentist methods one SNP (rs3751464 in the FRMD6 gene) provided evidence for an association with asthma (OR = 1.43(1.2–1.8); p = 3×10−4). The possible role of the FRMD6 gene in asthma was also confirmed in an animal model and human asthmatics.
In the BN-BMLA analysis altogether 5 SNPs in 4 genes were found relevant in connection with asthma phenotype: PRPF19 on chromosome 11, and FRMD6, PTGER2 and PTGDR on chromosome 14. In a subsequent step a partial dataset containing rhinitis and further clinical parameters was used, which allowed the analysis of relevance of SNPs for asthma and multiple targets. These analyses suggested that SNPs in the AHNAK and MS4A2 genes were indirectly associated with asthma. This paper indicates that BN-BMLA explores the relevant factors more comprehensively than traditional statistical methods and extends the scope of strong relevance based methods to include partial relevance, global characterization of relevance and multi-target relevance.
PLoS ONE 03/2012; 7(3):e33573. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0033573 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this report was to estimate long-term outcome and prognostic factors in children and adolescents with osteosarcoma. To evaluate the efficacy of surgery and multiagent chemotherapy for treating osteosarcoma, we reviewed 122 cases (65 males, 57 females, mean age 13.8 ± 3.6 years) treated at the Second Department of Pediatrics in Budapest between 1988 and 2006. Demographic parameters, tumor-related and treatment-related variables, response, overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) were analyzed. The 5-year OS and EFS were 68% and 61.5%, respectively. OS of patients without metastasis was 79%, while OS with early metastasis was 17%. Survival of patients with amputation (n=30) was not significantly different from that of patients with limb-salvage surgery (n=82), but all patients without radical surgery died. Gender and histological classification had no prognostic significance. Patients with localized tumors in extremities had increased survival compared to those with axial skeleton tumors (p=0.013). Poor histological response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (rate of survivor tumor cells >10%) was associated with decreased survival (p=0.018). Patients under 14 years had better EFS than patients over 14 years (p=0.008). Our results demonstrate that younger patients with localized osteosarcoma of the extremities who receive limb-salvage surgery and chemotherapy have an excellent survival.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the last few years, it has been recognized that the unbalanced regulation of survival and apoptosis of bronchial inflammatory cells is a key component in the development of asthma. Baculoviral IAP repeat containing 5 (BIRC5) (also known as survivin) is an important anti-apoptotic protein that has been implicated in many cancer types, and recent studies provide evidence for its role in controlling inflammatory disorders as well. Our aim was to investigate at both genetic and transcriptional levels if BIRC5 has an impact on asthma development. We found that induced sputum samples of patients with bronchial asthma contained elevated levels of BIRC5 mRNA compared with healthy subjects and its level was in correlation with sputum eosinophil percentages. Furthermore, in a case-control study examining single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the BIRC5 regulatory regions, the minor alleles of rs8073903 and rs8073069 were found to be significantly associated with asthma and especially non-allergic asthma phenotypes, which associations were more prominent among women. Two marker haplotype analyses further strengthen the impact of these two polymorphisms on both asthma and non-allergic asthma. In the female cohort, rs1508147 was also significantly associated with increased risk of non-allergic asthma. Additionally, with linear regression analysis, we showed that rs9904341 was significantly correlated with both absolute and relative serum eosinophil levels. In conclusion, our results suggest that possibly by inhibition of the eosinophil apoptosis, BIRC5 might be an important regulator of the asthmatic processes and we provide some evidence that its effect might be affected by SNPs located in the gene regulatory regions.
International Immunology 02/2012; 24(5):293-301. DOI:10.1093/intimm/dxs007 · 2.54 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Air pollution and subsequent increased oxidative stress have long been recognized as contributing factors for asthma phenotypes. Individual susceptibility to oxidative stress is determined by genetic variations of the antioxidant defence system. In this study, we analysed the association between environmental nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) exposure and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in NFE2L2 and KEAP1 genes and their common impact on asthma risk. We genotyped 12 SNPs in a case-control study of 307 patients diagnosed with asthma and 344 controls. NO(2) concentration was collected from the period preceding the development of asthma symptoms. Multiple logistic regression was applied to evaluate the effects of the studied genetic variations on asthma outcomes in interaction with NO(2) exposure. Our data showed that genotypes of rs2588882 and rs6721961 in the regulatory regions of the NFE2L2 gene were inversely associated with infection-induced asthma (odds ratio (OR) = 0.290, p = 0.0015, and OR = 0.437, p = 0.007, respectively). Furthermore, case-only analyses revealed significant differences for these SNPs between asthma patients that lived in modestly or highly polluted environment (OR = 0.43 (0.23-0.82), p = 0.01, and OR = 0.51, p = 0.02, respectively, in a dominant model). In conclusion, our results throw some new light upon the impact of NFE2L2 polymorphisms on infection-induced asthma risk and their effect in gene-environment interactions.
Journal of community genetics 12/2011; 3(1):25-33. DOI:10.1007/s12687-011-0075-8
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autoimmune myasthenia gravis is a T-cell-dependent, antibody-mediated, rare neuromuscular disorder. Interleukin-4, acting via interleukin-4 receptor alpha, plays a pivotal role in B-cell differentiation and antibody production and has been implicated to influence disease progression in experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis. Polymorphisms of the interleukin-4 receptor alpha gene have been shown to be associated with various autoimmune diseases. We compared the distribution of three polymorphisms of the interleukin-4 receptor alpha gene (S503P, rs1805015, Q576R, rs1801275, I75V, rs1805010), all affecting interleukin-4 signaling, in two cohorts of myasthenia gravis patients with ethnically matched controls. Although the distribution of the S503P and Q576R polymorphisms did not differ significantly between the groups, the frequency of the GG rare homozygote genotype of the I75V polymorphism was significantly higher in patients with myasthenia gravis. Our data suggest that the reduced responsiveness to interleukin-4 because the I75V polymorphism may contribute to the pathogenesis of myasthenia gravis.
Human immunology 11/2011; 73(2):193-5. DOI:10.1016/j.humimm.2011.11.001 · 2.14 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anthracyclines are potent cytostatic drugs, the correct dosage being critical to avoid possible cardiac side effects. ABCC1 [ATP-binding cassette, sub-family C, member 1; also denoted as MRP1 (multidrug resistance-associated protein 1)] is expressed in the heart and takes part in the detoxification and protection of cells from the toxic effects of xenobiotics, including anthracyclines. Our objective was to search for associations between LV (left ventricular) function and single-nucleotide polymorphisms of the ABCC1 gene in children receiving anthracycline chemotherapy. Data of 235 paediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia was analysed. Patients were followed-up by echocardiography (median follow-up 6.3 years). Nine polymorphisms in the ABCC1 gene were genotyped. The ABCC1 rs3743527TT genotype and rs3743527TT–rs246221TC/TT genotype combination were associated with lower LVFS (left ventricular fractional shortening) after chemotherapy. The results suggest that genetic variants in the ABCC1 gene influence anthracycline-induced LV dysfunction.
Cell Biology International 09/2011; 36(1):79-86. DOI:10.1042/CBI20110264 · 1.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this report was to estimate long-term outcome and prognostic factors in children and adolescents with osteosarcoma. A large group of osteosarcoma patients were analyzed at our national oncology center.
To evaluate the efficacy of surgery and multiagent chemotherapy for treating osteosarcoma, we reviewed 122 cases (65 male, 57 female, mean age 13.8 ± 3.6 years) treated at the Second Department of Pediatrics in Budapest between 1988 and 2006. Demographic parameters, tumor-related and treatment-related variables, response, overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) were analyzed.
The 5-year OS was 68% and 5-year EFS was 62%. OS of patients without metastasis was 79%, while OS with early metastasis was 17%. Survival of patients with amputation (n = 30) was not significantly different from patients with limb-salvage surgery (n = 82), but all patients without radical surgery died. Gender and histological classification had no prognostic significance. Patients with localized tumors in extremities had increased survival compared to patients with axial skeleton tumors (P = 0.013). Poor histological response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (rate of survivor tumor cells >10%) was associated with decreased survival (P = 0.018). Patients under 14 years had better EFS than patients over 14 years (P = 0.008).
Our results demonstrate that younger patients with localized osteosarcoma of the extremities who receive limb-salvage surgery and chemotherapy have an excellent survival.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia is the major pediatric cancer in developed countries. To date most association studies of acute lymphoblastic leukemia have been based on the candidate gene approach and have evaluated a restricted number of polymorphisms. Such studies have served to highlight difficulties in conducting statistically and methodologically rigorous investigations into acute lymphoblastic leukemia risk. Recent genome-wide association studies of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia have provided robust evidence that common variation at four genetic loci confers a modest increase in risk. The accumulated experience to date and relative lack of success of initial efforts to identify novel acute lymphoblastic leukemia predisposition loci emphasize the need for alternative study designs and methods. The International Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia Genetics Consortium includes 12 research groups in Europe, Asia, the Middle East and the Americas engaged in studying the genetics of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The initial goal of this consortium is to identify and characterize low-penetrance susceptibility variants for acute lymphoblastic leukemia through association-based analyses. Efforts to develop genome-wide association studies of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, in terms of both sample size and single nucleotide polymorphism coverage, and to increase the number of single nucleotide polymorphisms taken forward to large-scale replication should lead to the identification of additional novel risk variants for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Ethnic differences in the risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia are well recognized and thus in assessing the interplay between inherited and non-genetic risk factors, analyses using different population cohorts with different incidence rates are likely to be highly informative. Given that the frequency of many acute lymphoblastic leukemia subgroups is small, identifying differential effects will realistically only be possible through multi-center pooled analyses. Here, we review the rationale for identifying genetic risk variants for acute lymphoblastic leukemia and our proposed strategy for establishing the International Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia Genetics Consortium.