T.V. Dormitorio

Auburn University, Auburn, AL, United States

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Publications (29)30.45 Total impact

  • Teresa V Dormitorio, Joseph J Giambrone, Kenneth S Macklin
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    ABSTRACT: A broiler farm in North Alabama suffered a mild infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) outbreak, as determined by clinical disease and PCR. The poultry integrator sought help to control further outbreaks in subsequent flocks. Samples were collected from various areas of the poultry houses on the farm over an 8-wk period. The first sampling was conducted 8 days after the infected farm was depopulated; the second was conducted 2 days prior to subsequent flock placement; and the third was conducted when the new flock was 5 wk of age. Samples were examined for ILT virus (ILTV) DNA by real-time PCR and virus isolation in embryos. The infected houses were cleaned, disinfected, heated, litter composted, and curtains replaced after the first sampling and prior to placement of the next flock. Samples from all periods were positive for ILTV DNA. However, the number of positive samples and crossing point values indicated a decrease in the amount of viral DNA, while virus isolation in embryos was successful only on the first sampling. The subsequent flock was vaccinated against ILTV by in ovo route using a commercial recombinant vaccine. Cleaning and sanitation after the disease outbreak reduced the amount of ILTV on the farm and together with in ovo vaccination of the new flock may have prevented a recurrence of another ILT outbreak.
    Avian Diseases 12/2013; 57(4):803-7. · 1.73 Impact Factor
  • Kejun Guo, Teresa Dormitorio, Shan-Cia Ou, Joseph Giambrone
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    ABSTRACT: A two-step SYBR-Green I-based real-time PCR with melting curve analysis was developed to detect and differentiate the avian reovirus (ARV) sigmaC gene in field and vaccine ARVs. Three primer sets were used to amplify the sigmaC gene from its 5', center, and 3' regions and analyze the melting point temperatures of nine ARVs. By combining the melting curves of the three ARV sigmaC gene regions, melting curve analysis could accurately distinguish the ARVs of different subtypes, and the results were consistent with phylogenetic analysis. The ARV sigmaC gene polymorphisms from different strains were also used to explain the differences in melting point temperatures. Compared with traditional subtyping methods, the current melting curve analysis provided an accurate test for separating ARVs, thereby making it a useful method for the improved selection of ARV vaccines.
    Avian Diseases 06/2012; 56(2):369-76. · 1.73 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Kejun Guo, Teresa V Dormitorio, Shan-Chia Ou, Joseph J Giambrone
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    ABSTRACT: Avian reoviruses (ARVs) are an important cause of economic losses in commercial poultry. A TaqMan real-time RT-PCR assay for detecting of ARVs was developed. The primer-probe set was from the conserved region of ARV S4 genome segment. Real-time RT-PCR detected ARV strains including CO8 and ss412 strains, which belonged to different serological subgroups, and the test had no cross-reaction with other avian viruses. The detection limit of this assay was 5 ARV genome copies per 5 μl and was 150 times more sensitive than traditional RT-PCR. Statistical analyses indicated excellent reproducibility. For ARV strain 2408, a titer of 50% embryo infection dose and 50% tissue culture infectious dose equivalent to 3.9 ± 0.8, and 2.9 ± 0.3 ARV genome copies, respectively. This test was rapid, specific, and sensitive for the detection of ARVs and will be useful in veterinary diagnostic laboratories and for the quantitation of vaccine viruses for pharmaceutical companies.
    Journal of virological methods 10/2011; 177(1):75-9. · 2.13 Impact Factor
  • T.V. Dormitorio, J.J. Giambrone, Kejun Guo
    Annual Poultry Science Meeting, Denver, Colorado; 07/2010
  • Kejun Guo, T.V. Dormitorio, J.J. Giambrone
    Annual Southern Conference on Avian Diseases, Atlanta, Georgia; 01/2010
  • T V Dormitorio, J J Giambrone, K Guo, G R Hepp
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    ABSTRACT: Careful selection and observance of standard field and laboratory protocols are critical for successful detection and characterization of avian influenza viruses (AIV) from wild birds. Cloacal swabs were collected from hunter-killed or nesting waterfowl and shorebirds from wildlife refuges in Alabama, Georgia, and Florida during 2006 to 2008. Swab samples were inoculated into embryonated eggs followed by hemagglutination (HA) test to determine the presence of hemagglutinating agents. Antigen capture-ELISA (AC-ELISA) and real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RRT-PCR) were used to detect AIV from both allantoic fluids (AF) and swab specimens of HA-positive samples. Hemagglutination inhibition test was used to detect Newcastle disease virus, another hemagglutinating virus common in wild birds. The HA-positive AF were sent to the National Veterinary Services Laboratory for subtyping of the isolates. Out of 825 samples tested, 19 AIV and 3 avian paramyxovirus subtypes were identified by the National Veterinary Services Laboratory. Without egg passage, AC-ELISA did not detect virus, whereas matrix gene of 13 AIV were detected using RRT-PCR. When testing was done on AF, 14 were positive for influenza A by AC-ELISA and 20 by RRT-PCR. Antigen capture-ELISA did not detect influenza A when the HA titer was lower than 125, whereas RRT-PCR detected AIV from AF with HA titer as low as 4. The highest isolation rate was from Florida, where out of 109 samples analyzed, 14 AIV were detected by RRT-PCR from AF. Real-time reverse transcription-PCR was more sensitive, specific, and cost-effective than AC-ELISA. However, to avoid false-negative results, testing should be performed on AF and not directly from cloacal swabs. Our procedures to detect AIV directly from cloacal swabs need further optimization for improved sensitivity.
    Poultry Science 10/2009; 88(9):1825-31. · 1.52 Impact Factor
  • T V Dormitorio, J J Giambrone, K Guo, G R Hepp
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    ABSTRACT: Cloacal swabs were taken from migratory hunter-killed, nonmigratory, nesting waterfowl and migratory shorebirds from wildlife refuges in Alabama, Georgia, and Florida during 2006 to 2008. Samples were processed in embryonated eggs followed by hemagglutination (HA), Directigen, and real-time reverse transcription-PCR tests. Sequence analysis of the hemagglutinin (H) gene of the H10N7 Alabama isolate revealed that it was closely related (98%) to recent isolates from Delaware and Canada, but only 90% related to an H10N7 isolated 30 yr ago. Four isolates had 94 to 97% similarity to published H1N1 isolates including one from swine. No H5 or H7 isolates were found. One sample was highly pathogenic in embryos, produced a high HA titer, and was positive for both avian influenza (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus or avian paramyxovirus (APMV)-1. In recent (2008) sampling, more (14%) AIV, APMV, or both were isolated than in 2006 to 2007 (1% isolation rate). The higher isolation rate during 2008 may be attributed to optimized sample collection, storage in dry ice, new egg incubator, healthier eggs, time or habitat for isolation, species sampled, migratory status of birds, and more experience with detection procedures. An additional egg passage resulted in increased viral titer; however, no HA-negative samples became HA positive. The chance of transmission of APMV or low-nonpathogenic AIV from wild waterfowl to commercial poultry is possible. However, the chance of transmission of H5 or H7 AIV isolates from waterfowl to commercial farms in Alabama, Georgia, or Florida is unlikely. Therefore, continual testing of these birds is justified to ensure that H5 or H7 AIV are not transmitted to commercial poultry.
    Poultry Science 05/2009; 88(4):851-5. · 1.52 Impact Factor
  • Kejun Guo, T.V. Dormitorio, J.J. Giambrone
    Annual Southern Conference on Avian Diseases, Atlanta, Georgia; 01/2009
  • Kejun Guo, T.V. Dormitorio, J.J. Giambrone
    Annual Southern Conference on Avian Diseases, Atlanta, Georgia; 01/2008
  • T V Dormitorio, J J Giambrone, K Guo, D J Jackwood
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    ABSTRACT: Two infectious bursal disease viruses (IBDVs 1174 and V1) were isolated from IBDV-vaccinated broiler flocks in California and Georgia. These flocks had a history of subclinical immunosuppression. These isolates are commonly used in IBDV progeny challenge studies at Auburn, AL, as well as vaccine manufacturer's vaccine efficacy studies, because they come from populated poultry-producing states, and are requested by poultry veterinarians from those states. Nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) generated viral genome products for sequencing. A 491-bp segment from the VP2 gene, covering the hypervariable region, from each isolate was analyzed and compared with previously sequenced isolates. Sequence analysis showed that they were more closely related to the Delaware (Del) E antigenic variant than they are to the Animal Health Plant Inspection Service (APHIS) standard, both at the nucleotide level (96%, 97%) and at the amino acid level (94%, 97%). Both isolates had the glutamine to lysine shift in amino acid 249 which has been reported to be critical in binding the virus neutralizing Mab B69. Phenotypic studies showed that both isolates produced rapid atrophy of the bursae and weight loss, without the edematous bursal phase, in 2-wk-old commercial broilers having antibody against IBDV. A progeny challenge study showed both isolates produced more atrophy of the bursae (less percentage of protection) than the Del E isolate. Molecular and phenotypic data of these important IBDV isolates help in the improved detection and control of this continually changing and important viral pathogen of chickens.
    Avian Diseases 07/2007; 51(2):597-600. · 1.73 Impact Factor
  • Kejun Guo, T.V. Dormitorio, J.J. Giambrone
    Annual Poultry Science Association Meeting, San Antonio, Texas; 07/2007
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    ABSTRACT: SUMMARY Reoviruses are an important cause of suboptimum performance in commercial broilers worldwide. Integrators use the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay against the S1133 antigen for monitoring serum of breeders for indicating pullet vaccine success. However, without correlating serology to reovirus challenge, it is difficult to determine whether titers reflect protective immunity. We developed a broiler challenge test against 2 common reovirus isolates (2408 and S1133) to evaluate the efficacy of reovirus pullet vaccine programs. Two reovirus serologic and challenge studies were undertaken using chicks from broiler integrators from the southeastern United States. Breeder flocks, from which the chicks were obtained, received at least 1 live and 2 inactivated reovirus vaccines during their pullet phase. One-day-old progeny were collected from 6 breeder flocks. At 1 d of age, 20 chicks from each broiler flock were bled, and serum was analyzed for antibodies. At 3 to 4 d of age, 20 progeny per flock were challenged with the 2408 reovirus by intratracheal route. At 10 to 14 d of age, another 20 birds per flock were challenged with the S1133 reovirus by footpad. Twenty birds per flock were used as nonchallenged controls. At 3 wk of age, all birds were killed and weighed. Percentage of protection was calculated for each flock based on the absence of gross lesions. Flocks with at least 50% protection were considered well protected. Most flocks were well protected against both viruses. The percentage of protection correlated with day-old enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay titers. Chicks from younger hens had higher titers and the best protection against challenge. Producers, whose hen flocks were monitored herein, were doing a good job of immunizing pullets against reovirus. They are now using reovirus progeny challenge studies along with breeder antibody titers to determine vaccination success of their pullets.
    The Journal of Applied Poultry Research 06/2007; 16(2). · 0.85 Impact Factor
  • T V Dormitorio, J J Giambrone, F J Hoerr
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    ABSTRACT: This article reviews transmissible proventriculitis in poultry from 1971 to 2006. The disease is important in commercial broilers worldwide, resulting in reduced profits. The aetiology of this disease is unknown and different clinical presentations often result in a confused or complicated diagnosis. The lesion of enlarged proventriculus is often referred to as proventriculitis. However, the term proventriculitis can only be used correctly when there is microscopic evidence of inflammation of the proventriculus glands. Infectious and non-infectious causes of proventriculitis, with major emphasis on the infectious or transmissible causes, are reviewed.
    Avian Pathology 05/2007; 36(2):87-91. · 1.73 Impact Factor
  • Kejun Guo, T.V. Dormitorio, J.J. Giambrone
    Annual Southern Conference on Avian Diseases, Atlanta, Gerogia; 01/2007
  • T.V. Dormitorio, J.J. Giambrone, Kejun Guo
    Annual Southern Conference on Avian Diseases, Atlanta, Georgia; 01/2007
  • T.V. Dormitorio, J.J. Giambrone, Kejun Guo
    Annual Poultry Science Association Meeting, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada; 07/2006
  • Kejun Guo, T.V. Dormitorio, J.J. Giambrone
    Annual Poultry Science Association meeting, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada; 07/2006
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the effect of in ovo administered reovirus vaccines on the immune responses of specific-pathogen-free chickens. T-cell mitogenic responses to concanavalin A were numerically lower at 9 and 12 days of age and significantly lower at 6 days of age in birds vaccinated with a commercial reovirus vaccine compared with unvaccinated birds or birds vaccinated with an experimental reovirus-antibody complex vaccine. There were no significant differences in proportions of subpopulations of helper (CD4+CD8-) or cytotoxic (CD4-CD8+) T cells except at 12 days of age, when the percentages of CD4-CD8+ cells in the two vaccinated groups were statistically higher than in the nonvaccinated group. B-cell populations were not different among vaccine groups except at 9 days of age, when the vaccinated groups had the highest level of B cells. This commercial reovirus vaccine should not be given in ovo to embryos having little or no maternal antibody, otherwise immunosuppression may occur in the chicks. The addition of the antibody complex to the vaccine prevented this T-cell immunosuppression.
    Avian Diseases 01/2004; 48(1):224-8. · 1.73 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Guo Y, J J Giambrone, T V Dormitorio, Hongzhuan Wu
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    ABSTRACT: An experimental vaccine was prepared by mixing commercial reovirus vaccine with antibody. Vaccines were inoculated into 18 day-old commercial broiler embryos at 0.1 of the recommended dose. At 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 days post in ovo vaccination (PIOV), serum was collected and antibody against reovirus analyzed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). At the same time, spleens were collected and vaccine virus detected by inoculating chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF). At day 15 PIOV, chickens were challenged with a virulent reovirus S1133 strain. At day 25 PIOV, birds were euthanized and weighed. Efficacy was based on safety, antibody reaction, and percent (%) protection. Reovirus vaccine alone (vac) or complexed with antibody (AB) did not affect hatchability, morbidity, and mortality. Best protection was with the 2 experimental vaccine groups (73% for vac+1/16 dilution of AB) and (64% for vac+1/4 dilution of AB) provided by the vaccine mixed with 1:16 dilution of antibody. No vaccine resulted in an increase in antibody; however, titers of all challenged groups rose after challenge. Vaccine virus was detectable at day 3 PIOV in group 3 (vac+1/16AB) and 4 (vac) chickens. In contrast, vaccine virus detection was delayed until day 9 PIOV in group 2 (vac+1/4AB) chickens. The experimental antibody complex vaccine servers as a good starting point for development as a commercial vaccine.
    Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances. 01/2003;
  • Z Y Guo, J J Giambrone, T V Dormitorio, Hongzhuan Wu
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    ABSTRACT: Two experiments determined the influence of an experimental reovirus-antibody complex vaccine on Mareks disease virus (MDV) vaccine when used in ovo. Designs were the same except that specific-pathogen-free (SPF) broiler eggs were used in Experiment 1 and commercial broiler eggs with maternal antibodies against reovirus were used in Experiment 2. At 18 days of incubation, embryos were separated into four groups and inoculated with either diluent, MDV vaccine, reovirus-antibody complex vaccine, or a combination of reovirus-antibody complex and MDV vaccine. At 5 days of age, half the chickens in each group were challenged with MDV. At 7 wk old, all were euthanatized, weighed, and examined. At 7 days of age, remaining chickens in each group were challenged with reovirus. At 21 days old, chickens were euthanatized and weighed. No vaccine adversely affected hatchability or posthatch mortality in SPF or commercial chickens. There were no significant differences in protection against reovirus challenge when vaccines were used separately or in combination, and lesion scores were nearly identical in all vaccinated groups in both experiments. However, percentage of protection against reovirus was lower in Experiment 2, indicating an adverse effect of maternal immunity on efficacy of the reovirus vaccine. There were no significant differences in protection against MDV when the vaccines were used separately or combined. Severity of MDV lesions was nearly identical in all vaccinated groups in both experiments. However, the combination of vaccines gave numerically lower protection against MDV than MDV vaccine alone. Use of a larger number of birds, as in field conditions, may result in statistically lower protection for the vaccine combination. Large field trials are needed to determine the potential of the reovirus-antibody complex vaccine.
    Avian Diseases 01/2003; 47(4):1362-7. · 1.73 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

125 Citations
30.45 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1994–2009
    • Auburn University
      • Department of Poultry Science
      Auburn, AL, United States
  • 2002
    • Tuskegee University
      • Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences
      Tuskegee, AL, United States