[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Healthy aging is accompanied by a decline in spatial working memory that is related to functional cerebral changes within the spatial working memory network. In the last decade, important findings were presented concerning the location (e.g., prefrontal), kind (e.g., ‘underactivation,’ ‘overactivation’), and meaning (e.g., functional deficits, compensation) of these changes. Less is known about how functional connections between specific brain regions are affected by age and how these changes are related to behavioral performance. To address these issues, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine retrieval-related brain activation and functional connectivity in 18 younger individuals and 18 older individuals. We assessed working memory with a modified version of the Corsi Block-Tapping test, which requires the storage and reproduction of spatial target sequences. Analyses of group differences in brain activation and functional connectivity included comparisons between younger individuals, older individuals, older high-performers, and older low-performers. In addition, we conducted a functional connectivity analysis by using a seed region approach. In comparison to younger individuals, older individuals showed lower right-hemispheric dorsolateral prefrontal activation and lower functional connectivity between the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the bilateral orbitofrontal cortex. Older high-performers showed higher right dorsolateral and anterior prefrontal cortex activation than older low-performers, as well as higher functional connectivity between these brain regions. The present results suggest age-related reductions of prefrontal activation during spatial working memory retrieval. Moreover, task-related functional connectivity appears to be lower in older adults. Performance accuracy in older adults is associated with right dorsolateral and anterior prefrontal cortex activation, and with the functional connection between these regions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Healthy aging is accompanied by working memory-related functional cerebral changes. Depending on performance accuracy and the level of working memory demands, older adults show task-related patterns of either increased or decreased activation compared to younger adults. Controversies remain concerning the interpretation of these changes and whether they already manifest in earlier decades of life. To address these issues, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to examine brain activation during spatial working memory retrieval in 45 healthy individuals between 20 and 68 years of age. Participants performed a modified version of the Corsi Block-Tapping test (CBT). The CBT requires the storage and subsequent reproduction of spatial target sequences and allows modulating working memory load by a variation of sequence length. Results revealed that activation intensity at the lowest CBT load level increased with increasing age and positively correlated with the number of errors. At higher CBT load levels, activation intensity decreased with increasing age together with a disproportional accuracy decline on the behavioral level. Moreover, results suggests that younger individuals showed higher activation intensity at high CBT load than at low CBT load switching to the opposite pattern at an age of about 40 years. Consistent with the assumptions of the Compensation-Related Utilization of Neural Circuits Hypothesis (CRUNCH), the present results reveal specific age-related alterations in left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activation in response to increasing task load. Specifically, the results point toward increasing neural inefficiency with age at low task load and a progressive limitation of resources with age at higher task load. The present findings argue for an increasing functional cerebral dysfunction over a time span of 50 years that may partly be compensated on the behavioral level until a resource ceiling is approached.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstractness and modality of interpersonal communication have a considerable impact on comprehension. They are relevant for determining thoughts and constituting internal models of the environment. Whereas concrete object-related information can be represented in mind irrespective of language, abstract concepts require a representation in speech. Consequently, modality-independent processing of abstract information can be expected. Here we investigated the neural correlates of abstractness (abstract vs. concrete) and modality (speech vs. gestures), to identify an abstractness-specific supramodal neural network. During fMRI data acquisition 20 participants were presented with videos of an actor either speaking sentences with an abstract-social [AS] or concrete-object-related content [CS], or performing meaningful abstract-social emblematic [AG] or concrete-object-related tool-use gestures [CG]. Gestures were accompanied by a foreign language to increase the comparability between conditions and to frame the communication context of the gesture videos. Participants performed a content judgment task referring to the person vs. object-relatedness of the utterances. The behavioral data suggest a comparable comprehension of contents communicated by speech or gesture. Furthermore, we found common neural processing for abstract information independent of modality (AS>CS ∩ AG>CG) in a left hemispheric network including the left inferior frontal gyrus, temporal pole and medial frontal cortex. Modality specific activations were found in bilateral occipital, parietal and temporal as well as right inferior frontal brain regions for gesture (G>S) and in left anterior temporal regions and the left angular gyrus for the processing of speech semantics (S>G). These data support the idea that abstract concepts are represented in a supramodal manner. Consequently, gestures referring to abstract concepts are processed in a predominantly left hemispheric language related neural network.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We used Electroencephalography (EEG) to investigate the processing difference between co-speech emblematic gestures (EM) and tool-use gestures (TU). We found that TU shows beta power decrease against EM in a foreign language condition (Russian) but this effect is missing in the native language condition (German). With regard to the beta power effect, we reasoned that beta power decrease is a neural marker for recruitment of the sensorimotor system. However, with regard to the missing beta effect in the German condition, we suggested two proposals: on the one hand, it may suggest that semantic integration process of gesture and speech could also be related to beta power oscillations; on the other, the missing power could be considered as an indication of a shared and interactive neuronal network by both sensorimotor system and higher-level semantic system.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The impact of aging on the negative priming (NP) effect has been subject of many studies using behavioral measures. Results are inconsistent and corresponding neural data do not exist. We were interested in, whether or not processing of NP is altered in older in comparison to young adults (YA) on behavioral and neural level. Eighteen young and eighteen older healthy adults performed a location-based NP paradigm during fMRI. YA behaviorally showed a NP effect and NP associated fronto-striatal activation, which is in accordance with the inhibitory model of NP. In older subjects no significant behavioral NP effect and no NP-related activation in predefined brain regions could be found. This is discussed in context of the "loss of efficiency" hypothesis. One possible source for the lack of NP-related activation is a reduction of gray matter (GM) volume in older subjects as shown using voxel based morphometry (VBM).
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 10/2012; 6:270. DOI:10.3389/fnhum.2012.00270 · 2.99 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prolonged response times are observed with targets having been presented as distractors immediately before, called negative priming effect. Among others, inhibitory and retrieval processes have been suggested underlying this behavioral effect. As those processes would involve different neural activation patterns, a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study including 28 subjects was conducted. Two tasks were used to investigate stimulus repetition effects. One task focused on target location, the other on target identity. Both tasks are known to elicit the expected response time effects. However, there is less agreement about the relationship of those tasks with the explanatory accounts under consideration. Based on within-subject comparisons we found clear differences between the experimental repetition conditions and the neutral control condition on neural level for both tasks. Hemodynamic fronto-striatal activation patterns occurred for the location-based task favoring the selective inhibition account. Hippocampal activation found for the identity-based task suggests an assignment to the retrieval account; however, this task lacked a behavioral effect.
PLoS ONE 05/2012; 7(5):e36089. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0036089 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: According to recent theoretical approaches dispositional anxiety is fundamentally linked to neural mechanisms of cognitive control (Braver et al., 2007; Eysenck et al., 2007). The present study was conducted to further investigate this topic by focusing on the relation between trait anxiety, conflict-processing and dynamic adjustments in attentional allocation. Participants completed a modified version of the face-word Stroop task while an electroencephalogram was recorded. We analyzed behavioral and electrophysiological correlates of conflict processing and conflict-driven modulations in target and distractor processing. Anxiety was not related to general conflict-sensitivity but to individual differences in conflict-driven adjustments in attentional allocation: following a high level of stimulus-response conflict, highly anxious participants allocated more attentional resources to the processing of predominantly task-relevant information and withdrew attention from the processing of predominantly task-irrelevant information. Thus, trait anxiety appears to be closely related to individual differences in dynamic adjustments of attentional control.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Whereas the role of the hippocampus for spatial learning and long-term memory is largely undisputed, there is less evidence for a participation of hippocampal structures in spatial working memory operations. In an fMRI study (functional magnetic resonance imaging), we therefore examined the role of the hippocampus during spatial working memory performance. Nineteen healthy volunteers performed a modified version of the Corsi Block-Tapping test (CBT) during fMRI. The CBT is a neuropsychological instrument that is widely used in clinical settings. It requires the storage and subsequent reproduction of spatial target sequences. Brain activity during CBT performance has rarely been examined in the past, at least not the hemodynamic correlates. In a baseline condition, participants processed a number of subsequently presented targets as in the CBT condition. The only difference was that targets did not change their location. As compared to baseline activity, the right hippocampus showed more activation during the CBT condition. In addition, whole-brain analysis showed working memory related frontal and parietal brain activation. The results indicate that hippocampal structures contribute to serial working memory encoding of spatial locations in the human brain.
Brain research 10/2010; 1354:91-9. DOI:10.1016/j.brainres.2010.07.065 · 2.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, it has been assumed that high- and low-trait-anxious subjects differ in the way they use fundamental cognitive control mechanisms. The present study was designed to further elucidate this topic by focusing on trial-to-trial adjustments in neuronal correlates of conflict processing. An electroencephalogram was recorded while subjects (N = 71) performed a gender discrimination version of the Stroop task. The conflict-related N400 of the ERP was influenced by an interaction between trait anxiety and previous trial context: An additional negative-going deflection in the N400 range was observed when the target-distractor pairing of the directly preceding trial was incongruent, but only in highly anxious subjects. Thus, highly anxious subjects appear to more strongly engage neuronal modules involved in conflict monitoring when previously exposed to a high stimulus-response conflict. These results indicate that trait anxiety is crucially linked to the way the cognitive system dynamically adapts to recent demands.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Executive working memory operations are related to prefrontal regions in the healthy brain. Moreover, neuroimaging data provide evidence for a functional dissociation of ventrolateral and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Most authors either suggest a modality-specific or a function-specific prefrontal cortex organization. In the present study we particularly aimed at the identification of different prefrontal cerebral areas that are involved in executive inhibitory processes during spatial working memory encoding. In an fMRI study (functional magnetic resonance imaging) we examined the neural correlates of spatial working memory processing by varying the amount of executive demands of the task. Twenty healthy volunteers performed the Corsi Block-Tapping test (CBT) during fMRI. The CBT requires the storage and reproduction of spatial target sequences. In a second condition, we presented an adapted version of the Block-Suppression-Test (BST). The BST is based on the original CBT but additionally requires the active suppression of visual distraction within the target sequences. In comparison to the CBT performance, particularly the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA 9) showed more activity during the BST condition. Our results show that the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex plays a crucial role for executive controlled inhibition of spatial distraction. Furthermore, our findings are in line with the processing model of a functional dorsolateral-ventrolateral prefrontal cortex organization.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The quality of averaged gradient artifact subtraction from EEG recorded during fMRI is highly dependent on the accuracy of gradient artifact sampling. Even small sampling shifts (e.g. a single datapoint at 5kHz) increase the variance of the sampled gradient artifacts because of very steep slopes in the signal time course. Hence, although principally gradient artifacts are invariant signals because of their technical origin, variance attributed to sampling errors attenuates the effect of artifact removal. Recently, it has been shown that synchronizing the EEG-amplifier clock to the MR-scanner control-device clock improves artifact reduction by subtraction.
In order to investigate the synchronized measurement of combined EEG-fMRI, we used simulated EEG by measuring function generator signals in the MR-scanner. Only the usage of known signals allows an assessment of the improvement in accuracy of artifact recording by synchronized compared to non-synchronized measurement, since the signal is identical in both conditions.
After averaged gradient artifact subtraction synchronized recorded signals were apparently less distorted than non-synchronized recorded signals. Spectral analyses revealed that especially artifact frequencies above 50Hz had less power in restored synchronized compared to restored non-synchronized recorded signals. Computed total signal variances were not always less in restored synchronized compared to restored non-synchronized recorded signals.
Taken together, synchronizing simultaneous EEG-fMRI measurement is a useful enhancement for averaged gradient artifact subtraction although post-correction filtering is still necessary.
Our results support the recent finding that synchronization improves the quality of averaged gradient artifact subtraction. However, quantitatively we could not verify a systematic benefit of recording electrical signals during fMRI synchronously rather than non-synchronously to the MR-scanner control-device clock.
Clinical neurophysiology: official journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology 11/2008; 119(12):2703-11. DOI:10.1016/j.clinph.2008.09.018 · 3.10 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Theta increases with workload and is associated with numerous processes including working memory, problem solving, encoding, or self monitoring. These processes, in turn, involve numerous structures of the brain. However, the relationship between regional brain activity and the occurrence of theta remains unclear. In the present study, simultaneous EEG-fMRI recordings were used to investigate the functional topography of theta. EEG-theta was enhanced by mental arithmetic-induced workload. For the EEG-constrained fMRI analysis, theta-reference time-series were extracted from the EEG, reflecting the strength of theta occurrence during the time course of the experiment. Theta occurrence was mainly associated with activation of the insular cortex, hippocampus, superior temporal areas, cingulate cortex, superior parietal, and frontal areas. Though observation of temporal and insular activation is in accord with the theory that theta specifically reflects encoding processes, the involvement of several other brain regions implies that surface-recorded theta represents comprehensive functional brain states rather than specific processes in the brain. The results provide further evidence for the concept that emergent theta band oscillations represent dynamic functional binding of widely distributed cortical assemblies, essential for cognitive processing. This binding process may form the source of surface-recorded EEG theta.
Human Brain Mapping 08/2007; 28(8):793-803. DOI:10.1002/hbm.20309 · 5.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent work has demonstrated the feasibility of simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Virtually no systematic comparisons between EEG recorded inside and outside the MR scanner have been conducted, and it is unknown if different kinds of frequency mix, topography, and domain-specific processing are uniformly recordable within the scanner environment. The aim of the study was to investigate several typical EEG waveforms in the same subjects inside the magnet during fMRI and outside the MR examination room. We examined whether uniform artifact subtraction allows the extraction of these different EEG waveforms inside the scanner during EPI scanning to the same extent as outside the scanner. Three well-established experiments were conducted, eliciting steady state visual evoked potentials (SSVEP), lateralized readiness potentials (LRP), and frontal theta enhancement induced by mental addition. All waveforms could be extracted from the EEG recorded during fMRI. Substantially no differences in these waveforms of interest were found between gradient-switching and intermediate epochs during fMRI (only the SSVEP-experiment was designed for a comparison of gradient-with intermediate epochs), or between waveforms recorded inside the scanner during EPI scanning and outside the MR examination room (all experiments). However, non-specific amplitude differences were found between inside and outside recorded EEG at lateral electrodes, which were not in any interaction with the effects of interest. The source of these differences requires further exploration. The high concordance of activation patterns with published results demonstrates that EPI-images could be acquired during EEG recording without significant distortion.