[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cord blood transplantation is being used with increasing frequency for patients with high-risk hematologic malignancies. Myeloablative preparative regimens provide antitumor efficacy and facilitate engraftment but are associated with higher morbidity and nonrelapse mortality rates than nonablative regimens. We evaluated 3 sequential myeloablative regimens in the cord blood transplant setting. Regimen 1 (melphalan, fludarabine, and thiotepa) produced prompt engraftment and minimal engraftment failure but was associated with a high nonrelapse mortality rate. Regimen 2 (busulfan and fludarabine) was very well tolerated but was associated with a high rate of engraftment failure and relapse. Regimen 3 (busulfan, clofarabine, fludarabine, and low-dose total body irradiation given 9 days after the chemotherapy) was associated with a low rate of engraftment failure but was logistically difficult to administer. Finally, regimen 3 that included the total body irradiation given immediately after the chemotherapy was well tolerated, with prompt engraftment and tumor control. This latter regimen appears to be effective in preliminary studies and warrants further evaluation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: No highly effective salvage therapy exists for patients with relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Inotuzumab ozogamicin (IO) is a CD22 monoclonal antibody attached to calicheamycin that targets B lymphocytes in early stages of development, successfully inducing remission in patients with multiply relapsed ALL. METHODS: We describe our findings in 26 patients who received allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT) after treatment with IO between September 2010 and October 2011. RESULTS: Patients with a median age of 33 years (range, 5-70 years) received an allogeneic matched sibling donor (n = 9), matched- or 1-antigen mismatched unrelated donor (n = 16), or cord blood donor SCT (n = 1) while in complete remission (n = 23) or with active disease (n = 3). At the time of SCT, 15 patients were in complete remission without evidence of minimal residual disease (MRD) measured by multiparameter flow cytometry. Patients were heavily pretreated, including 5 patients who had received previous allogeneic SCT. Patients received a median of 3 courses of IO (range, 1-5 courses) before SCT. Seven patients are alive at a median follow-up of 13 months (range, 5-16 months), with 1-year event-free and overall survival (OS) of 22% and 20%, respectively. Patients without MRD at time of SCT had a markedly better 1-year OS of 42%. The cumulative incidence of nonrelapse mortality (NRM) at 6 months and 1 year were 40% and 60%, respectively, with 5 deaths attributed to venoocclusive disease (VOD). CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with IO allows more patients to undergo transplantation while in remission, with favorable overall survival in patients without MRD who undergo transplantation. Reduction in hepatic toxicity is needed to improve overall results.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background Poor engraftment due to low cell doses restricts the usefulness of umbilical-cord-blood transplantation. We hypothesized that engraftment would be improved by transplanting cord blood that was expanded ex vivo with mesenchymal stromal cells. Methods We studied engraftment results in 31 adults with hematologic cancers who received transplants of 2 cord-blood units, 1 of which contained cord blood that was expanded ex vivo in cocultures with allogeneic mesenchymal stromal cells. The results in these patients were compared with those in 80 historical controls who received 2 units of unmanipulated cord blood. Results Coculture with mesenchymal stromal cells led to an expansion of total nucleated cells by a median factor of 12.2 and of CD34+ cells by a median factor of 30.1. With transplantation of 1 unit each of expanded and unmanipulated cord blood, patients received a median of 8.34×10(7) total nucleated cells per kilogram of body weight and 1.81×10(6) CD34+ cells per kilogram - doses higher than in our previous transplantations of 2 units of unmanipulated cord blood. In patients in whom engraftment occurred, the median time to neutrophil engraftment was 15 days in the recipients of expanded cord blood, as compared with 24 days in controls who received unmanipulated cord blood only (P<0.001); the median time to platelet engraftment was 42 days and 49 days, respectively (P=0.03). On day 26, the cumulative incidence of neutrophil engraftment was 88% with expansion versus 53% without expansion (P<0.001); on day 60, the cumulative incidence of platelet engraftment was 71% and 31%, respectively (P<0.001). Conclusions Transplantation of cord-blood cells expanded with mesenchymal stromal cells appeared to be safe and effective. Expanded cord blood in combination with unmanipulated cord blood significantly improved engraftment, as compared with unmanipulated cord blood only. (Funded by the National Cancer Institute and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00498316 .).
New England Journal of Medicine 12/2012; 367(24):2305-2315. · 51.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: For patients with ALL who relapse following allo-SCT, only a second SCT provides a realistic chance for long-term disease remission. We retrospectively analyzed the outcomes of 31 patients with relapsed ALL after a prior allo-SCT, who received a second SCT (SCT2) at our center. With a median follow-up of 3 years, 1- and 3-year PFS was 23 and 11% and 1- and 3 year OS rates were 23 and 11%. Twelve patients (39%) were transplanted with active disease, of whom 75% attained a CR. We found a significant relationship between the time to treatment failure following first allograft (SCT1) and PFS following SCT2 (P=0.02, hazard ratio=0.93/month). In summary, a second transplant remains a potential treatment option for achieving response in a highly refractory patient population. While long-term survival is limited, a significant proportion of patients remains disease-free for up to 1 year following SCT2, providing a window of time to administer preventive interventions. Notably, our four long-term survivors received novel therapies with their second transplant underscoring the need for a fundamental change in the methods for SCT2 to improve outcome.Bone Marrow Transplantation advance online publication, 22 October 2012; doi:10.1038/bmt.2012.195.
Bone marrow transplantation 10/2012; · 3.00 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We developed a new high-dose combination of infusional gemcitabine with busulfan and melphalan for lymphoid tumors. Gemcitabine dose was escalated by extending infusions at a fixed rate of 10 mg/m(2)/min in sequential cohorts, in daily, 3-dose or 2-dose schedules. Each gemcitabine dose immediately preceded busulfan (adjusted targeting area under the curve 4,000 μM/min(-1)/day × 4 days) or melphalan (60 mg/m(2)/day × 2 days). We enrolled 133 patients (80 Hodgkin lymphoma [HL], 46 non-Hodgkin lymphoma [NHL], 7 myeloma), median 3 prior regimens; primary refractory disease in 63% HL/45% NHL and positron emission tomography positive tumors at transplantation in 50% patients. Two patients died from early posttransplantation infections. The major toxicity was mucositis. The daily and 3-dose schedules caused substantial cutaneous toxicity. In contrast, the 2-dose schedule was better tolerated, which allowed us to extend the infusions from 15 to 270 minutes. Pretransplantation values of C-reactive protein, B-type natriuretic peptide, ferritin, or haptoglobin did not correlate with toxicity. Overall response and complete response rates were 87%/62% (HL), 100%/69% B large-cell lymphoma (B-LCL), 66%/66% (T-NHL), and 71%/57% (myeloma). At median follow-up of 24 months (range, 3-63 months), the event-free/overall survival rates were 54%/72% (HL), 60%/89% (B-LCL), 70%/70% (T-NHL), and 43%/43% (myeloma). In conclusion, gemcitabine/busulfan/melphalan is a feasible regimen with substantial activity against a range of lymphoid malignancies. This regimen merits further evaluation in phase II and III trials.
Biology of blood and marrow transplantation: journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation 05/2012; 18(11):1677-86. · 3.15 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Unrelated cord blood transplant (CBT) is an alternative treatment option for patients who lack a matched donor. However, the optimal type and intensity of the preparative regimen remains unclear. We evaluated the toxicity and outcomes of a conditioning regimen consisting of melphalan 140 mg/m(2) (day - 8), thiotepa 10 mg/kg (day - 7), fludarabine 160 mg/m(2) over 4 days (days - 6 to - 3) and rabbit antithymocyte globulin (ATG) 1.25 mg/kg (day - 4) and 1.75 mg/kg (day - 3) (FMT). Forty-seven patients with advanced hematologic malignancies with a median age of 23 years (30 adults and 17 children) were treated. Sixty percent of patients were in remission at transplant. Ninety-one percent of the patients engrafted neutrophils after a median of 22 days, and all but one of the patients achieving donor engraftment had hematopoietic recovery with 100% cord blood-derived cells. Grade 3 gastrointestinal toxicity was the major non-hematopoietic toxicity, occurring in 32% of patients. Cumulative incidence of day-100 grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) and chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) was 53% and 34%, respectively, and non-relapse mortality at day 100 and 2 years was 11% and 40%. Two-year disease-free and overall survival rates were 31% and 44%, respectively. These results suggest that FMT is a feasible conditioning regimen for patients undergoing CBT.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The introduction of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) has revolutionized therapy for patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) who have the Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome. A retrospective analysis was conducted on 102 adults and 11 children who received a first-matched related (n = 60), matched unrelated (n = 40), mismatched cord blood (n = 12), or haploidentical (n = 1) allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for Ph-positive (Ph+) ALL in first complete remission (n = 71), second complete remission (n = 11), or with active disease (n = 31) between 1990 and 2009. Sixty-seven patients received TKI with upfront ALL therapy, and 32 patients received TKI maintenance following HSCT. With median follow-up of 5 years among survivors (range: 1.1-20.4 years), overall survival (OS) was significantly better for patients transplanted in first remission compared with HSCT in advanced disease: 43% versus 16%, P = .002. Disease stage and age at time of HSCT, the development of acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD), and decade of HSCT were found to significantly impact OS, progression-free survival (PFS), and nonrelapse mortality (NRM) in multivariate analyses. Allogeneic HSCT provides durable remission for patients with Ph+ ALL in first remission. Neither TKI use pre- nor post-HSCT were found to significantly impact transplant outcomes in univariate and multivariate analyses.
Biology of blood and marrow transplantation: journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation 08/2011; 18(4):584-92. · 3.15 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although a combination of i.v. busulfan (Bu) and fludarabine (Flu) is a safe, reduced-toxicity conditioning program for acute myelogenous leukemia/myelodysplastic syndromes (AML/MDS), recurrent leukemia posttransplantation remains a problem. To enhance the conditioning regimen's antileukemic effect, we decided to supplant Flu with clofarabine (Clo), and assayed the interactions of these nucleoside analogs alone and in combination with Bu in Bu-resistant human cell lines in vitro. We found pronounced synergy between each nucleoside and the alkylator but even more enhanced cytotoxic synergy when the nucleoside analogs were combined prior to exposing the cells to Bu. We then designed a 4-arm clinical trial in patients with myeloid leukemia undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT). Patients were adaptively randomized as follows: Arm I-Clo:Flu 10:30 mg/m(2), Arm II-20:20 mg/m(2), Arm III-30:10 mg/m(2), and Arm IV-single-agent Clo at 40 mg/m(2). The nucleoside analog(s) were/was infused over 1 hour once daily for 4 days, followed on each day by Bu, infused over 3 hours to a pharmacokinetically targeted daily area under the curve (AUC) of 6000 μMol-min ± 10%. Fifty-one patients have been enrolled with a minimum follow-up exceeding 100 days. There were 32 males and 19 females, with a median age of 45 years (range: 6-59). Nine patients had chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) (BC: 2, second AP: 3, and tyrosine-kinase inhibitor refractory first chronic phase [CP]: 4). Forty-two patients had AML: 14 were induction failures, 8 in first chemotherapy-refractory relapse, 7 in untreated relapse, 3 in second or subsequent relapse, 4 were in second complete remission (CR), and 3 in second CR without platelet recovery (CRp), 2 were in high-risk CR1. Finally, 1 patient was in first CRp. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis was tacrolimus and mini-methorexate (MTX), and those who had an unrelated or 1 antigen-mismatched donor received low-dose rabbit-ATG (Thymoglobulin™). All patients engrafted. Forty-one patients had active leukemia at the time of transplant, and 35 achieved CR (85%). Twenty of the 42 AML patients and 5 of 9 CML patients are alive with a projected median overall survival (OS) of 23 months. Marrow and blood (T cell) chimerism studies at day +100 revealed that both in the lower-dose Clo groups (groups 1+2) and the higher-dose Clo groups (groups 3+4), the patients had a median of 100% donor (T cell)-derived DNA. There has been no secondary graft failure. In the first 100 days, 1 patient died of pneumonia, and 1 of liver GVHD. We conclude that (1) Clo ± Flu with i.v. Bu as pretransplant conditioning is safe in high-risk myeloid leukemia patients; (2) clofarabine is sufficiently immunosuppressive to support allo-SCT in myeloid leukemia; and (3) the median OS of 23 months in this high-risk patient population is encouraging. Additional studies to evaluate the antileukemic efficacy of Clo ± Flu with i.v. Bu as pretransplant conditioning therapy are warranted.
Biology of blood and marrow transplantation: journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation 10/2010; 17(6):893-900. · 3.15 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Haploidentical SCT (HaploSCT) has been most commonly performed using a myeloablative, TBI-based preparative regimen; however, the toxicity with this approach remains very high. We studied the feasibility of a reduced-intensity conditioning regimen in a phase II clinical trial using fludarabine, melphalan and thiotepa and antithymocyte globulin (ATG) for patients with advanced hematological malignancies undergoing T-cell depleted HaploSCT. Twenty-eight patients were entered in the study. Engraftment with donor-derived hematopoiesis was achieved in 78% of patients after a median of 13 days. Six patients experienced primary graft failure, three out of four tested patients had donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies (DSA) (P=0.001). Toxicity included mostly infections. A total of 21 out of 22 patients with AML/myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) achieved remission after transplant (16 with relapsed/refractory AML). Five out of the 12 patients (42%) with AML/MDS with <15% BM blasts survived long term as compared with none with more advanced disease (P=0.03). HaploSCT with this fludarabine, melphalan and thiotepa and ATG RIC is an effective, well-tolerated conditioning regimen for patients with AML/MDS with low disease burden at the time of transplant and allowed a high rate of engraftment in patients without DSA. Patients with overt relapse fared poorly and require novel treatment strategies.
Bone marrow transplantation 09/2009; 45(3):429-36. · 3.00 Impact Factor