Masaru Mezawa

Nihon University, Edo, Tōkyō, Japan

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Publications (25)42.03 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Effects of Osteogenic Transcription Factors and Proto-oncogene on Bone Sialoprotein Gene Transcription H. TAKAI, M. MEZAWA, Y. NAKAYAMA, and Y. OGATA, Department of Periodontology, Nihon University School of Dentistry at Matsudo, Chiba, Japan Objective: Runt homeodomain protein 2 (Runx2), distalless 5 (Dlx5) and Smad1 are transcription factors that play critical roles in controlling the differentiation of osteoblasts and mineralization of bone. Proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase, Src, is an enzyme encoded by the Src gene. The normal cellular gene is called cellular-Src (c-Src). Bone sialoprotein (BSP) is a member of Small Integrin Binding Ligand, N-linked Glycoprotein (SIBLING) family that is characterized by its ability to mediate cell attachment through an RGD sequence and to bind hydroxyapatite through polyglutamic acid sequences. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of osteogenic transcription factors and proto-oncogene on BSP gene expression. Method: To determine the molecular mechanism of Runx2, Dlx5, Smad1 and c-Src effects on BSP transcription, we conducted Northern blot and transient transfection analyses with chimeric constructs of the rat BSP gene promoter linked to a luciferase reporter gene using ROS17/2.8. Results: When we used Runx2, Dlx5 or c-Src overexpression plasmids for the transfection, BSP and Runx2 mRNA levels were increased in ROS17/2.8. However, overexpression of Smad1 did not induce BSP and Runx2 mRNA. Transient transfection analyses were performed using chimeric constructs of the rat BSP gene promoter linked to a luciferase reporter gene. Transfection of ROS17/2.8 with Runx2, Dlx5 or c-Src overexpression plasmid increased the luciferase activities of the constructs, pLUC3 (-116 to +60), pLUC4 (-425 to +60) and pLUC5 (-801 to +60). However, Smad1 overexpression had no effect on the luciferase activities. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that overexpression of Runx2, Dlx5 or c-Src stimulates BSP transcription, and suggest that Runx2, Dlx5 and c-Src might be crucial transcriptional regulators of mineralization and bone formation.
    IADR General Session and Exhibition 2014; 06/2014
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    ABSTRACT: Estrogen is one of the steroid hormones essential for skeletal development. The estrogen receptor (ER) is a transcription factor and a member of the steroid receptor superfamily. There are two different forms of the ER, usually referred to as α and β, each encoded by a separate gene. Hormone-activated ERs form dimers, since the two forms are coexpressed in many cell types. Bone sialoprotein (BSP) is a tissue-specific acidic glycoprotein that is expressed by differentiated osteoblasts, odontoblasts and cementoblasts during the initial formation of mineralized tissue. To determine the molecular basis of the tissue-specific expression of BSP and its regulation by estrogen and the ER, we have analyzed the effects of β-estradiol and ERα on BSP gene transcription. ERα protein levels were increased after ERα overexpression in ROS17/2.8 cells. While BSP mRNA levels were increased by ERα overexpression, the endogenous and overexpressed BSP mRNA levels were not changed by β-estradiol (10(-8)M, 24h). Luciferase activities of different sized BSP promoter constructs (pLUC3~6) were increased by ERα overexpression, whereas basal and induced luciferase activities by ERα overexpression were not influenced by β-estradiol. Effects of ERα overexpression were abrogated by 2bp mutations in either the cAMP response element (CRE) or activator protein 1 (AP1)/glucocorticoid response element (GRE). Gel shift analyses showed that ERα overexpression increased binding to the CRE and AP1/GRE elements. Notably, the CRE-protein complexes were disrupted by ERα, CREB and phospho-CREB antibodies. The AP1/GRE-protein complexes were supershifted by the c-Fos antibody. These studies demonstrate that ERα stimulates BSP gene transcription in a ligand-independent manner by targeting the CRE and AP1/GRE elements in the rat BSP gene promoter.
    Gene 02/2014; · 2.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), a potent mitogen in many cell types including osteoblasts, is a member of the heparin-binding growth factor family. Bone sialoprotein (BSP) is a sulfated and phosphorylated glycoprotein, found almost exclusively in mineralized connective tissues. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of FGF2 on human BSP gene transcription. Method: We conducted Northern hybridization, real-time PCR, transient transfection analyses with chimeric constructs of the human BSP gene promoter linked to a luciferase reporter gene, and gel mobility shift assay. Total RNA was extracted from human osteoblast-like Saos2 cells which were incubated with FGF2 (10 ng/mL) for 3 h to 24 h. Result: FGF2 increased the levels of Runx2 and BSP mRNA at 3 and 12 h. Treatment of Saos2 cells with FGF2 (10 ng/mL, 12 h) induced the luciferase activities of constructs between -84LUC to -927LUC including the human BSP gene promoter. Gel mobility shift analyses showed that FGF2 increased nuclear protein binding to FGF2 response element (FRE) and activator protein 1 (AP1) binding site. Antibodies against Dlx5, Msx2, Runx2 and Smad1 blocked FRE-protein complex formation, and antibodies against CREB1, c-Jun and Fra2 interrupted AP1-protein complex formation. These results indicate that FGF2 increases BSP transcription by targeting the FRE and AP1 elements in the proximal promoter of the human BSP gene. Moreover, the transcription factors Dlx5, Msx2, Runx2, Smad1, CREB1, c-Jun and Fra2 could be key regulators of the effects of FGF2 on BSP gene transcription. Conclusion: We have characterized a region of the human BSP gene promoter that is required for FGF2-mediated transcription. This region contains FRE and AP1, which are required for the FGF2 response. Furthermore, Dlx5, Msx2, Runx2, Smad1, CREB1, c-Jun and Fra2 transcription factors appear to be key regulators of FGF2 effects on human BSP gene transcription.
    IADR Asia/Pacific Region (APR) Regional Meeting and Co-Annual Scientific Meeting of IADR Divisions 2013; 08/2013
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    Odontology 01/2013; · 1.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Runt homeodomain protein 2 (Runx2), distalless 5 (Dlx5) and Smad1 are transcription factors that play critical roles in controlling the differentiation of osteoblasts and mineralization of bone. Proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase, Src, is an enzyme encoded by the Src gene. The normal cellular gene is called cellular-Src (c-Src). Bone sialoprotein (BSP), a protein implicated in the initial mineralization of newly formed bone, is an early phenotypic marker of differentiated osteoblasts. In this study, we used overexpression plasmids with Runx2, Dlx5, Smad1 or c-Src inserts to search for the effects of these transcription factors and proto-oncogene on BSP gene expression using rat osteoblast-like ROS 17/2.8. When we used Runx2, Dlx5 or c-Src overexpression plasmids for the transfection, BSP and Runx2 mRNA levels were increased in ROS 17/2.8 cells. However, overexpression of Smad1 did not induce BSP and Runx2 mRNA. Transient transfection analyses were performed using chimeric constructs of the rat BSP gene promoter linked to a luciferase reporter gene. Transfection of ROS 17/2.8 cells with Runx2, Dlx5 or c-Src overexpression plasmid increased the luciferase activities of the constructs, pLUC3 (-116 to +60), pLUC4 (-425 to +60) and pLUC5 (-801 to +60). However, Smad1 overexpression had no effect on the luciferase activities. These results demonstrate that overexpression of Runx2, Dlx5 or c-Src stimulates BSP transcription, and suggest that Runx2, Dlx5 and c-Src might be crucial transcriptional regulators of mineralization and bone formation. (J Oral Sci 55, 209-215, 2013).
    Journal of Oral Science 01/2013; 55(3):209-15.
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    ABSTRACT: Protamine is a small, arginine-rich, nuclear protein that replaces histone late in the haploid phase of spermatogenesis and is believed to be essential for sperm head condensation and DNA stabilization. Protamine has many biological activities and has roles in hematopoiesis, immune responses, the nervous system and bone metabolism. Bone sialoprotein (BSP) is a mineralized connective tissue-specific protein expressed in differentiated osteoblasts that appears to function in the initial mineralization of bone. Protamine (71.35 ng/ml) increased BSP mRNA levels by 6 h in osteoblast-like ROS 17/2.8 cells. In a transient transfection assay, protamine (71.35 ng/ml) increased luciferase activity of the construct (-116 to +60) in ROS 17/2.8 cells and rat bone marrow stromal cells. Luciferase activities induced by protamine were blocked by protein kinase A, tyrosine kinase and ERK1/2 inhibitors. Introduction of 2 bp mutations to the luciferase constructs showed that the effects of protamine were mediated by a cAMP response element (CRE), a fibroblast growth factor 2 response element (FRE) and a homeodomain protein-binding site (HOX). Gel shift analyses showed that protamine (71.35 ng/ml) increased the nuclear protein binding to CRE, FRE and HOX. CREB, phospho-CREB, c-Fos, c-Jun, JunD and Fra2 antibodies disrupted the formation of CRE-protein complexes. Dlx5, Msx2, Runx2 and Smad1 antibodies disrupted FRE- and HOX-protein complex formations. These studies demonstrate that protamine induces BSP transcription by targeting CRE, FRE and HOX sites in the proximal promoter of the rat BSP gene. Moreover, phospho-CREB, c-Fos, c-Jun, JunD, Fra2, Dlx5, Msx2, Runx2 and Smadl transcription factors appear to be key regulators of protamine effects on BSP transcription.
    Gene 12/2012; · 2.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to analyze the enzyme activity in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and its association with clinical parameters, especially bleeding on probing (BOP), and thus reconsider the significance and accuracy of recording BOP. A total of 184 patients who had entered supportive periodontal therapy were selected and GCF was collected from 401 sites before recording the clinical parameters, probing pocket depth (PPD), BOP, clinical attachment level, gingival index and plaque index. The enzyme activity of neutrophil elastase and aspartate aminotransferase and amount of protein in GCF were also analyzed. In the clinical parameters for biochemical data, amount of GCF showed the most correlation. A cut-off value for BOP and PPD were determined by the ROC curve and Youden index. Analysis was performed with all clinical parameters and biochemical data. Of the 401 sites, 51 were less than the cut-off value and were BOP-negative. On the other hand, 29 sites had values more than the cut-off value, with 14 BOP-negative sites and 15 BOP-positive sites. A conclusion is as follows: twenty-nine sites with values more than the cut-off value were diagnosed as sites requiring periodontal management, however, 14 of these were BOP-negative. These results suggest that combining other biochemical tests with examination of BOP and PPD may improve the validity of periodontal disease diagnosis. In future studies, it will be essential to find a marker that can precisely detect periodontal disease activity, and to develop a diagnostic tool for chair-side use.
    Odontology 11/2012; · 1.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: Protamines are small, arginine-rich, nuclear proteins that replace histones late in the haploid phase of spermatogenesis and are essential for sperm head condensation and DNA stabilization. Protamine is a highly cationic peptide. Protamine sulfate is a drug that reverses the anticoagulant effects of heparin by binding to it. Bone sialoprotein (BSP) is thought to function in bone mineralization, and is selectively expressed by differentiated osteoblasts. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of protamine on BSP gene transcription. Methods: To determine the molecular basis of the transcriptional regulation of BSP gene by protamine, we conducted Northern hybridization, real-time PCR, transient transfection analyses with chimeric constructs of the rat BSP gene promoter linked to a luciferase reporter gene, and gel shift assays using rat osteoblast-like ROS 17/2.8 cells. Results: BSP mRNA levels were increased by protamine (71.35 ng/ml) at 12 h. In transient transfection analyses, protamine (71.35 ng/ml, 12 h) increased luciferase activity of the construct, pLUC3, which encompasses nucleotides -116 to +60, as well as longer constructs. Introduction of 2 bp mutations to the luciferase constructs showed that the effects of protamine were mediated by a FGF2 response element (FRE) and a homeodomain protein-binding site (HOX). Luciferase activities induced by protamine were blocked by tyrosine kinase and protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitors, and partially inhibited by PKC inhibitor. Gel shift analyses showed that protamine increased the nuclear proteins binding to FRE and HOX at 6 h. The addition of antibodies (Runx2, Dlx5, Msx2 and Smad1) disrupted the formation of the FRE-protein complexes, whereas the HOX-protein complexes formation did not change by Runx2 antibody. Conclusions: These studies demonstrate that protamine stimulates BSP transcription by targeting FRE and HOX elements in the proximal promoter of the rat BSP gene.
    06/2012
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: Interleukin-11 (IL-11) is a stromal cell-derived cytokine that belongs to the interleukin-6 family of cytokines. IL-11 has many biological activities and has roles in hematopoiesis, immune responses, nervous system and bone metabolism. Bone sialoprotein (BSP) is a mineralized tissue-specific protein that is highly expressed during the initial mineralization of bone. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of IL-11 on BSP gene transcription. Methods: To determine the molecular basis of the transcriptional regulation of BSP gene by IL-11, we conducted Northern blot, real-time PCR, transient transfection analyses with chimeric constructs of the human BSP gene promoter linked to a luciferase reporter gene, and gel mobility shift assays using human osteoblast-like Saos2 cells. Results: BSP mRNA levels were induced by IL-11 (20 ng/ml) at 3 h, and further increased at 12 h. IL-11 (20 ng/ml, 12 h) increased luciferase activities of the constructs, -184LUC and -868LUC, which encompassing nucleotides -184 to +60 and -868 to +60, transfected into Saos2 cells. Transcriptional stimulations by IL-11 were partially inhibited in the constructs that included 2bp mutations in the cAMP response element 1 (CRE1; -79 to -72) and CRE2 (-674 to -667). When mutations were made in pairs of CRE1 and CRE2 in -868LUC, the effect of IL-11 on luciferase activity was almost totally abrogated. Transcriptional activities induced by IL-11 were inhibited by protein kinase A, tyrosine kinase, ERK1/2 and PI3-kinase inhibitors. Gel mobility shift analyses showed that IL-11 increased nuclear proteins binding to CRE1 and CRE2. Phospho-CREB1, JunD and Fra2 antibodies disrupted the formation of CRE1 and CRE2 proteins complexes. Conclusions: These data demonstrate that IL-11 stimulates BSP gene transcription via CRE1 and CRE2 elements in the human BSP gene promoter.
    06/2012
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    ABSTRACT: Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (A. actinomycetemcomitans) is believed to be associated with aggressive periodontitis characterized by a rapid bone loss. A. actinomycetemcomitans lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has a similar structure to Escherichia coli LPS, and they are Toll-like receptor 4 agonists. Bone sialoprotein (BSP) is an early marker of osteoblast differentiation. To investigate the effects of A. actinomycetemcomitans LPS on bone formation, we targeted BSP as a marker for osteogenic differentiation and bone formation. BSP mRNA levels were decreased by 0.1 µg/ml and increased by 0.01 µg/ml A. actinomycetemcomitans LPS at 6 h in osteoblast-like ROS17/2.8 cells. In transient transfection analyses, 0.1 µg/ml decreased and 0.01 µg/ml A. actinomycetemcomitans LPS increased luciferase activities of the construct (-116 to +60). Introduction of 2 bp mutations to the constructs showed that the effects of A. actinomycetemcomitans LPS were mediated by a cAMP response element (CRE), a FGF2 response element (FRE), and a homeodomain protein-binding site (HOX). Tyrosine kinase, ERK1/2, and PI3-kinase/Akt participated in the effects of both 0.1 and 0.01 µg/ml A. actinomycetemcomitans LPS. The results of gel shift showed that 0.1 µg/ml decreased while 0.01 µg/ml A. actinomycetemcomitans LPS increased CRE-, FRE-, and HOX-binding protein complexes formation at 6 h, and revealed that 0.01 µg/ml A. actinomycetemcomitans LPS induced BSP transcription through CREB1, JunD, Fra2, c-Fos, Runx2, Dlx5, and Smad1 targeting those response elements. These studies therefore indicated that 0.1 µg/ml suppressed and 0.01 µg/ml A. actinomycetemcomitans LPS increased BSP gene transcription mediated through CRE, FRE, and HOX elements in the rat BSP gene promoter.
    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 04/2012; 113(9):2822-34. · 3.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Interleukin-11 (IL-11) is a stromal cell-derived cytokine that belongs to the interleukin-6 family of cytokines. IL-11 has many biological activities and has roles in hematopoiesis, immune responses, the nervous system and bone metabolism. Bone sialoprotein (BSP) is a mineralized tissue-specific protein expressed in differentiated osteoblasts that appears to function in the initial mineralization of bone. IL-11 (20 ng/ml) increased BSP mRNA and protein levels at 12h in osteoblast-like ROS 17/2.8 cells. In a transient transfection assay, IL-11 (20 ng/ml) increased luciferase activity of the construct (-116 to +60) in ROS 17/2.8 cells and rat bone marrow stromal cells. Introduction of 2 bp mutations to the luciferase constructs showed that the effects of IL-11 were mediated by a cAMP response element (CRE), a fibroblast growth factor 2 response element (FRE) and a homeodomain protein-binding site (HOX). Luciferase activities induced by IL-11 were blocked by protein kinase A inhibitor, tyrosine kinase inhibitor and ERK1/2 inhibitor. Gel shift analyses showed that IL-11 (20 ng/ml) increased nuclear protein binding to CRE, FRE and HOX. CREB1, phospho-CREB1, c-Fos, c-Jun, JunD and Fra2 antibodies disrupted the formation of CRE-protein complexes. Dlx5, Msx2, Runx2 and Smad1 antibodies disrupted FRE- and HOX-protein complex formations. These studies demonstrate that IL-11 stimulates BSP transcription by targeting CRE, FRE and HOX sites in the proximal promoter of the rat BSP gene. Moreover, phospho-CREB1, c-Fos, c-Jun, JunD, Fra2, Dlx5, Msx2, Runx2 and Smadl transcription factors appear to be key regulators of IL-11 effects on BSP transcription.
    Gene 01/2011; 476(1-2):46-55. · 2.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bone sialoprotein (BSP) is a noncollagenous protein of the extracellular matrix in mineralized connective tissues that has been implicated in the nucleation of hydroxyapatite. Forskolin (FSK), an activator of adenylate cyclase, increased the intracellular cAMP level, which stimulates the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts. Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) is a potent mitogen in many cell types, including osteoblasts. In human prostate cancer DU145 cells, FSK (1 μM) and FGF2 (10 ng/ml) increased BSP and Runx2 mRNA and protein levels at 3 and 12h, respectively. Transient transfection analyses were performed using chimeric constructs of the human BSP gene promoter linked to a luciferase reporter gene. Treatment of DU145 cells with FSK (1 μM) and FGF2 (10 ng/ml) increased the luciferase activities of constructs between -60LUC to -927LUC and -108LUC to -927LUC, including the human BSP gene promoter. Effects of FSK and FGF2 abrogated in constructs included 2bp mutations in the two cAMP response elements (CRE1 and CRE2). Luciferase activities induced by FSK and FGF2 were blocked by protein kinase A and tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Gel mobility shift analyses showed that FSK and FGF2 increased the binding of CRE1 and CRE2. CRE1-protein complexes were supershifted by phospho-CREB1 and c-Fos antibodies, and disrupted by CREB1, c-Jun, JunD, Fra2, p300, Runx2, Dlx5 and Smad1 antibodies. CRE2-protein complexes were disrupted by CREB1, phospho-CREB1, c-Fos, c-Jun, JunD, Fra2, p300, Runx2, Dlx5 and Smad1 antibodies. These studies demonstrate that FSK and FGF2 stimulate BSP transcription in DU145 human prostate cancer cells by targeting the CRE1 and CRE2 elements in the human BSP gene promoter.
    Gene 10/2010; 471(1-2):1-12. · 2.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Amelogenins are hydrophobic proteins that are the major component of developing enamel. Enamel matrix derivative has been used for periodontal regeneration. Bone sialoprotein is an early phenotypic marker of osteoblast differentiation. In this study, we examined the ability of porcine amelogenins to regulate bone sialoprotein transcription. To determine the molecular basis of the transcriptional regulation of the bone sialoprotein gene by amelogenins, we conducted northern hybridization, transient transfection analyses and gel mobility shift assays using the osteoblast-like ROS 17/2.8 cells. Amelogenins (100 ng/mL) up-regulated bone sialoprotein mRNA at 3 h, with maximal mRNA expression occurring at 12 h (25 and 20 kDa) and 6 h (13 and 6 kDa). Amelogenins (100 ng/mL, 12 h) increased luciferase activities in pLUC3 (nucleotides -116 to +60), and 6 kDa amelogenin up-regulated pLUC4 (nucleotides -425 to +60) activity. The tyrosine kinase inhibitor inhibited amelogenin-induced luciferase activities, whereas the protein kinase A inhibitor abolished 25 kDa amelogenin-induced bone sialoprotein transcription. The effects of amelogenins were abrogated by 2-bp mutations in the fibroblast growth factor 2 response element (FRE). Gel-shift assays with radiolabeled FRE, homeodomain-protein binding site (HOX) and transforming growth factor-beta1 activation element (TAE) double-strand oligonucleotides revealed increased binding of nuclear proteins from amelogenin-stimulated ROS 17/2.8 cells at 3 h (25 and 13 kDa) and 6 h (20 and 6 kDa). These results demonstrate that porcine 25 kDa amelogenin and its proteolytic derivatives stimulate bone sialoprotein transcription by targeting FRE, HOX and TAE in the bone sialoprotein gene promoter, and that full-length amelogenin and amelogenin cleavage products are able to regulate bone sialoprotein transcription via different signaling pathways.
    Journal of Periodontal Research 10/2010; 45(5):602-11. · 1.99 Impact Factor
  • M. MEZAWA, H. TAKAI, Y. OGATA
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is produced by mesenchymal cells and released by platelets following aggregation and is synthesized by osteoblasts. Bone sialoprotein (BSP) is thought to function in the initial mineralization of bone, selectively expressed by differentiated osteoblast. Methods: To determine the molecular mechanism of PDGF-BB effects on BSP transcription, we conducted Western blot, Northern blot, real-time PCR, transient transfection analyses with chimeric constructs of the human BSP gene promoter linked to a luciferase reporter gene and gel shift assay. Results: We have analyzed the effects of PDGF-BB on osteoblast-like Saos2 and ROS17/2.8 cells. PDGF-BB (5 ng/ml) increased BSP mRNA and protein levels at 12 h in Saos2 cells, and induced BSP mRNA expression at 3 h, reached maximal at 12 h in ROS17/2.8 cells. Treatment of Saos2 cells with PDGF-BB (5 ng/ml, 12 h) increased luciferase activities of all constructs between -184LUC to -2672LUC including the human BSP gene promoter. Effects of PDGF-BB abrogated in constructs included 2 bp mutations in the two cAMP response elements (CRE1 and CRE2), activator protein 1 (AP1) and shear stress response element 1 (SSRE1). Luciferase activities induced by PDGF-BB were blocked by protein kinase A inhibitor H89 and tyrosine kinase inhibitor herbimycin A. Gel mobility shift analyses showed that PDGF-BB increased binding of CRE1, CRE2, AP1 and SSRE1 elements. CRE1- and CRE2-protein complexes were supershifted by CREB1 and phospho-CREB1 antibodies. Notably, AP1-protein complexes were supershifted by c-Fos and JunD, and disrupted by CREB1, phospho-CREB1, c-Jun and Fra2 antibodies. Conclusions: These studies, therefore, demonstrate that PDGF-BB stimulates human BSP transcription by targeting the CRE1, CRE2, AP1 and SSRE1 elements in the human BSP gene promoter.
    IADR General Session 2010; 07/2010
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    ABSTRACT: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a major mediator of inflammatory response. Periodontopathic bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis LPS has quite different character from Escherichia coli LPS. E. coli LPS is agonist for Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), whereas P. gingivalis LPS worked as antagonist for TLR4. Bone sialoprotein (BSP) is an early marker of osteoblast differentiation. To investigate the effects of P. gingivalis LPS on BSP transcription, we used rat osteoblast-like ROS17/2.8 cells. BSP mRNA levels were decreased by 0.1 microg/ml and increased by 0.01 microg/ml P. gingivalis LPS at 12 h. Results of luciferase assays showed that 0.1 microg/ml decreased and 0.01 microg/ml P. gingivalis LPS increased BSP transcription in -116 to +60 BSP construct. The effects of P. gingivalis LPS were abrogated by double mutations in cAMP response element (CRE) and FGF2 response element (FRE). Tyrosine kinase inhibitor herbimycin A, ERK1/2 inhibitor and antioxidant N-acetylcystein inhibited effects of P. gingivalis LPS. Protein kinase A inhibitor and PI3-kinase/Akt inhibitor only abolished the effect of 0.01 microg/ml P. gingivalis LPS. Furthermore, 0.1 microg/ml LPS decreased the CRE- and FRE-protein complexes formation, whereas 0.01 microg/ml P. gingivalis LPS increased the nuclear protein binding to CRE and FRE. ChIP assays revealed increased binding of CREB1, JunD, Fra2, Runx2, Dlx5, and Smad1 to a chromatin fragment containing the CRE and FRE by 0.01 microg/ml P. gingivalis LPS. These studies therefore indicated that 0.1 microg/ml suppressed, and 0.01 microg/ml P. gingivalis LPS increased BSP gene transcription mediated through CRE and FRE elements in the rat BSP gene promoter.
    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 07/2010; 110(4):823-33. · 3.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Inorganic polyphosphate (poly(P)) is a biopolymer existing in almost all cells and tissues. The biological functions of poly(P) in micro-organisms have been extensively investigated in studies of poly(P) in eukaryotic cells, especially osteoblasts, and are increasing. Bone sialoprotein (BSP) is thought to function in bone mineralization, and is selectively expressed by differentiated osteoblasts. In this study, application of sodium phosphate glass type 25 (SPG25, 12.5 and 125 microM) increased BSP mRNA levels at 12 h in osteoblast-like ROS 17/2.8 cells. In transient transfection assay, 12.5 and 125 microM SPG25 increased luciferase activities of the constructs pLUC3 (-116 to +60), pLUC4 (-425 to +60), pLUC5 (-801 to +60) and pLUC6 (-938 to +60). Introduction of 2 bp mutations to the luciferase constructs showed that the effects of SPG25 were mediated by a FGF2 response element (FRE) and a homeodomain protein binding site (HOX). Luciferase activities induced by SPG25 were blocked by tyrosine kinase inhibitor herbimycine A, MAP kinase kinase inhibitor U0126, PI3-kinase/Akt inhibitor LY249002 and inorganic phosphate transport inhibitor foscarnet. Gel shift analyses showed that both 12.5 and 125 microM SPG25 increased nuclear protein binding to FRE and HOX elements. These studies demonstrate that SPG25 stimulates BSP transcription by targeting FRE and HOX elements in the proximal promoter of the rat BSP gene.
    Gene 03/2010; 452(2):79-86. · 2.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bone sialoprotein (BSP) is a major non-collagenous, extracellular matrix glycoprotein associated with mineralized tissues. Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) is recognized as a potent mitogen for a variety of mesenchymal cells. FGF2 produced by osteoblasts accumulates in the bone matrix and acts as an autocrine/paracrine regulator of osteoblasts. We previously reported that FGF2 regulates BSP gene transcription through the FGF2 response element (FRE) and activator protein 1 (AP1) binding site overlapping with the glucocorticoid response element in the rat BSP gene promoter. In the present study, FGF2 (10 ng/ml) increased BSP and Runx2 mRNA levels at 6 h in MCF7 human breast cancer cells. Transient transfection analyses were performed using chimeric constructs of the human BSP gene promoter linked to a luciferase reporter gene. Treatment of MCF7 cells with FGF2 (10 ng/ml) increased the luciferase activity of the constructs between -84LUC and -927LUC. Gel mobility shift analyses showed that FGF2 increased the binding of AP1 and CRE2. The CRE2- and AP1-protein complexes were disrupted by antibodies against CREB1, c-Fos, c-Jun, Fra2, p300 and Runx2. These studies demonstrate that FGF2 stimulates BSP transcription in MCF7 human breast cancer cells by targeting the AP1 and CRE2 elements in the human BSP gene promoter.
    Journal of Oral Science 01/2010; 52(1):125-32.
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    ABSTRACT: Parathyroid hormone (PTH) regulates serum calcium and inorganic phosphate levels through its actions on kidney and bone. Bone sialoprotein (BSP) is an early marker of osteoblast differentiation and bone metabolism. We here report that two cAMP response elements (CRE) in the human BSP gene promoter are target of PTH. In human osteoblast-like Saos2 cells, PTH (human 1-34 PTH, 10 nM) increased BSP mRNA and protein levels at 3 h. From transient transfection assays, 2- to 2.5-fold increase in transcription by PTH was observed at 3 and 6 h in -184, -211, -428, -868, and -927 luciferase constructs that included the human BSP gene promoter. Effect of PTH was abrogated by 2 bp mutations in either the CRE1 (-79 to -72) or CRE2 (-674 to -667). Luciferase activities induced by PTH were blocked by protein kinase A inhibitor H89 and tyrosine kinase inhibitor herbimycin A. Gel shift analyses showed that PTH increased binding of nuclear proteins to the CRE1 and CRE2 elements. The CRE1-protein and CRE2-protein complexes were disrupted by CRE binding protein 1 (CREB1) antibodies and supershifted by phospho-CREB1 antibody. ChIP assays detected binding of CREB1 and phospho-CREB1 to a chromatin fragment containing CRE1 and CRE2, and increased binding of phospho-CREB1 to the both sites. These studies demonstrate that PTH stimulates human BSP gene transcription by targeting the two CREs in the promoter of the human BSP gene.
    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 02/2009; 106(4):618-25. · 3.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is produced by mesenchymal cells and released by platelets following aggregation and is synthesized by osteoblasts. In bone, PDGF stimulates proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts. PDGF also increases bone resorption, most likely by increasing the number of osteoclasts. Bone sialoprotein (BSP) is thought to function in the initial mineralization of bone, selectively expressed by differentiated osteoblast. To determine the molecular mechanisms PDGF regulation of human BSP gene transcription, we have analyzed the effects of PDGF-BB on osteoblast-like Saos2 and ROS17/2.8 cells. PDGF-BB (5 ng/ml) increased BSP mRNA and protein levels at 12 h in Saos2 cells, and induced BSP mRNA expression at 3 h, reached maximal at 12 h in ROS17/2.8 cells. Transient transfection analyses were performed using chimeric constructs of the human BSP gene promoter linked to a luciferase reporter gene. Treatment of Saos2 cells with PDGF-BB (5 ng/ml, 12 h) increased luciferase activities of all constructs between -184LUC to -2672LUC including the human BSP gene promoter. Effects of PDGF-BB abrogated in constructs included 2 bp mutations in the two cAMP response elements (CRE1 and CRE2), activator protein 1(3) (AP1(3)) and shear stress response element 1 (SSRE1). Luciferase activities induced by PDGF-BB were blocked by protein kinase A inhibitor H89 and tyrosine kinase inhibitor herbimycin A. Gel mobility shift analyses showed that PDGF-BB increased binding of CRE1, CRE2, AP1(3) and SSRE1 elements. CRE1- and CRE2-protein complexes were supershifted by CREB1 and phospho-CREB1 antibodies. Notably, AP1(3)-protein complexes were supershifted by c-Fos and JunD, and disrupted by CREB1, phospho-CREB1, c-Jun and Fra2 antibodies. These studies, therefore, demonstrate that PDGF-BB stimulates human BSP transcription by targeting the CRE1, CRE2, AP1(3) and SSRE1 elements in the human BSP gene promoter.
    Gene 02/2009; 435(1-2):80-7. · 2.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tobacco smoking is a risk factor for periodontitis and osteoporosis. Nicotine is a major component of tobacco, and has been reported to inhibit proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts. Bone sialoprotein (BSP) is a mineralized tissue-specific protein expressed by differentiated osteoblasts that appears to function in the initial mineralization of bone. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of nicotine on bone metabolism. We used rat osteobast-like UMR106 and ROS 17/2.8 cells and rat stromal bone marrow RBMC-D8 cells. To determine the molecular basis of the transcriptional regulation of the BSP gene by nicotine, we conducted Northern hybridization, transient transfection analyses with chimeric constructs of the BSP gene promoter linked to a luciferase reporter gene and gel mobility shift assays. Nicotine (250 microg/mL) decreased the BSP mRNA levels at 12 and 24 h in UMR106 and ROS 17/2.8 cells. From transient transfection assays using various sized BSP promoter-luciferase constructs, nicotine decreased the luciferase activities of the construct, including the promoter sequence nucleotides -116 to +60, in UMR106 and RBMC-D8 cells. Nicotine decreased the nuclear protein binding to the cAMP response element (CRE), fibroblast growth factor 2 response element (FRE) and homeodomain protein-binding site (HOX) at 12 and 24 h. This study indicates that nicotine suppresses BSP transcription mediated through CRE, FRE and HOX elements in the proximal promoter of the rat BSP gene.
    Journal of Periodontal Research 12/2008; 44(5):657-63. · 1.99 Impact Factor