[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To use a novel computational approach to examine the molecular pathways involved in cartilage breakdown and to use computer simulation to test possible interventions for reducing collagen release.
We constructed a computational model of the relevant molecular pathways using the Systems Biology Markup Language, a computer-readable format of a biochemical network. The model was constructed using our experimental data showing that interleukin-1 (IL-1) and oncostatin M (OSM) act synergistically to up-regulate collagenase protein levels and activity and initiate cartilage collagen breakdown. Simulations were performed using the COPASI software package.
The model predicted that simulated inhibition of JNK or p38 MAPK, and overexpression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 3 (TIMP-3) led to a reduction in collagen release. Overexpression of TIMP-1 was much less effective than that of TIMP-3 and led to a delay, rather than a reduction, in collagen release. Simulated interventions of receptor antagonists and inhibition of JAK-1, the first kinase in the OSM pathway, were ineffective. So, importantly, the model predicts that it is more effective to intervene at targets that are downstream, such as the JNK pathway, rather than those that are close to the cytokine signal. In vitro experiments confirmed the effectiveness of JNK inhibition.
Our study shows the value of computer modeling as a tool for examining possible interventions by which to reduce cartilage collagen breakdown. The model predicts that interventions that either prevent transcription or inhibit the activity of collagenases are promising strategies and should be investigated further in an experimental setting.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The bronchial epithelium is a source of mediators that may play a role in the airway inflammation and remodeling of post-transplant obliterative bronchiolitis (OB). Traditional strategies have failed to have an impact on OB. Recent studies have suggested a role for azithromycin in managing the condition. In this study we aimed to determine the effect of azithromycin on LPS-mediated epithelial release of factors relevant to airway neutrophilia and remodeling in a unique population of primary bronchial epithelial cells (PBECs) derived from stable lung allografts.
PBECs were established from bronchial brushings of stable lung transplant recipients and treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 0.1, 1 and 10 microg/ml) for 48 hours. Interleukin-8 (IL-8), granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein levels were measured by Luminex analyzer. PBECs were then incubated with LPS and azithromycin, and protein levels were again determined.
LPS caused a significant increase in IL-8 and GM-CSF at concentrations of 1 and 10 microg/ml, with no effect on VEGF release. Azithromycin caused a significant decrease in the LPS-stimulated IL-8 and GM-CSF release.
LPS upregulates release of IL-8 and GM-CSF from PBECs derived from stable lung allografts. Sub-microbicidal concentrations of azithromycin attenuate this and may, therefore, alleviate infection-driven neutrophilic airway inflammation and remodeling in the allograft airway.
The Journal of heart and lung transplantation: the official publication of the International Society for Heart Transplantation 12/2008; 27(11):1210-6. · 3.54 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Obliterative bronchiolitis (OB), the major cause of chronic lung allograft dysfunction, is characterized by airway neutrophilia, inflammation, and remodeling, with progressive fibroproliferation and obliteration of small airways that ultimately leads to patient death. Statins have potential anti-inflammatory effects and have been demonstrated to confer a survival advantage in lung transplant patients. We postulated that the beneficial effects of simvastatin in lung transplantation are in part due to inhibition of the epithelial production of key mediators of neutrophil chemotaxis, inflammation, and airway remodeling. Our objective was to assess the effect of simvastatin on a unique population of primary bronchial epithelial cells (PBECs) derived from stable lung allografts, with specific reference to airway neutrophilia and remodeling. PBEC cultures were stimulated with IL-17 or transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta, with and without simvastatin. Supernatant levels of factors critical to driving airway neutrophilia and remodeling were measured. IL-17 upregulated IL-8, IL-6, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and VEGF, whereas TGF-beta increased IL-6, GM-CSF, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, and MMP-9. Simvastatin attenuated effects of both IL-17 and TGF-beta. We have demonstrated the ability of simvastatin to attenuate release of airway neutrophilic and remodeling mediators and to inhibit their upregulation by TGF-beta and IL-17. These data illustrate the potential of simvastatin to alleviate neutrophilic airway inflammation and remodeling in the transplanted lung and may have additional relevance to other neutrophilic airway conditions, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To characterise the catabolic response of osteoarthritic chondrocytes to Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands.
Induction of the collagenases, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)1 and MMP13, by TLR ligands was assessed in chondrocytes by real-time reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR. TLR signalling pathway activation and their involvement in collagenase induction were confirmed by immunoblotting and use of pathway inhibitors and siRNA. TLR expression was compared in the femoral head cartilage of normal controls and patients with osteoarthritis (OA) by real-time RT-PCR.
Ligands for TLR6/2 and TLR3 showed the greatest upregulation of MMP1 and MMP13 respectively, although all TLR ligands upregulated these MMPs. MMP1 and MMP13 induction by TLR3 and TLR1/2 or TLR6/2 ligands were dependent on Trif and MyD88, respectively. These inductions were dependent upon the nuclear factor (NF)kappaB pathway, but were differentially inhibited by various mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitors, with MMP13 induction most reliant on the extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway. In addition, ligands for TLR1/2 and TLR6/2, but not TLR3, induced significant collagenolysis in a cartilage resorption assay. Finally, TLR2 was significantly downregulated and TLR3 upregulated in OA, compared to normal, cartilage.
Activation of chondrocyte TLRs leads to differential collagenase gene activation. Treatment of chondrocytes with TLR1/2 or TLR6/2 ligands resulted in collagen resorption. The modulated expression of chondrocyte TLR2 and TLR3 in OA cartilage, compared to normal, may reflect a response to repair cartilage or prevent further extracellular matrix destruction. These data suggest modulation of TLR-mediated signalling as a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of OA.
Annals of the rheumatic diseases 03/2008; 67(11):1633-41. · 8.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cyclosporin-induced gingival overgrowth arises from an alteration in collagen homeostasis and is enhanced by inflammatory changes in the gingival tissues. The aim of this study was to investigate the interaction among interleukin-1, oncostatin M, cyclosporin and nifedipine in promoting the up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase by gingival fibroblasts.
Fibroblast cultures (n = 5) were obtained from healthy controls and from patients with cyclosporin-induced gingival overgrowth, and cells were harvested between the fourth and ninth passages. Cells were stimulated with interleukin-1 and oncostatin M, alone or in combination, and with different concentrations of cyclosporin (0-2000 ng/mL) and nifedipine (0-200 ng/mL). MMP-1 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 production was determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. A CyQuant cell proliferation assay was used to determine the DNA concentration in the sample.
Fibroblasts obtained from patients with cyclosporin-induced gingival overgrowth produced significantly lower levels of MMP-1 than control fibroblasts (p < 0.001); tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 levels were significantly lower (p < 0.05), and the ratio of MMP-1 to tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 was reduced, in the conditioned medium of patients with cyclosporin-induced gingival overgrowth compared with controls. Interleukin-1 and oncostatin M produced a significant increase in the up-regulation of MMP-1, which was reversed when cyclosporin and nifedipine were added to the cell cultures (p < 0.05).
Pro-inflammatory cytokines significantly up-regulate MMP-1 in cultured gingival fibroblasts. Up-regulation is attenuated by both cyclosporin and nifedipine. The interaction may account for the synergism between inflammation and cyclosporin-induced gingival overgrowth.
Journal of Periodontal Research 12/2007; 42(6):580-8. · 1.99 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interleukin-6 (IL-6) exerts multiple effects on chondrocytes and fibroblasts within the joint and is associated with disease activity in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Although these cells express the ubiquitous signalling receptor for all IL-6-related cytokines, gp130, they do not express a cognate IL-6 receptor. Consequently, IL-6 responses within these cells occur via IL-6 trans-signalling relying on the presence of a soluble receptor (sIL-6R). Levels of sIL-6R in vivo are governed by either proteolytic cleavage (PC) of cognate receptor or by differential sIL-6R mRNA splicing (DS). The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution of both isoforms to clinical parameters associated with IL-6 signalling in JIA.
IL-6, sIL-6R and DS-sIL-6R were measured by ELISA in serum and synovial fluid (SF) samples from 86 JIA patients. These data were related to indicators of inflammation-erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) and compared between patients stratified by subtype, age and disease duration.
SF IL-6 significantly correlated with general indicators of activity (ESR and CRP) and SF PC-sIL-6R to a lesser degree with CRP. When the IL-6:sIL-6R ratio was calculated as an indicator of the potential for IL-6 signalling within the joint, 33% of SF samples showed a ratio >1 indicating saturation of sIL-6R by IL-6. Mean DS-sIL-6R levels were 0.71 ng/ml, whereas PC-sIL-6R levels constituted the majority of sIL-6R at 20.89 ng/ml.
IL-6 trans-signalling within the joints of JIA patients is predominantly governed by the presence of PC-sIL-6R, and the data provided suggest that synovial levels of IL-6 and sIL-6R would be sufficient to drive IL-6 responses in chondrocytes and synovial fibroblasts.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have previously reported the up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinase 10 (MMP-10) following treatment with the procatabolic stimulus of interleukin-1 (IL-1) and oncostatin M (OSM) in chondrocytes. Although MMP-10 is closely related to MMP-3, little is known about the role of MMP-10 in cartilage catabolism. The purpose of this study was to determine whether MMP-10 is expressed in connective tissue cells and to assess how it may contribute to cartilage collagenolysis.
MMP gene expression was assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction using RNA from human articular chondrocytes and synovial fibroblasts stimulated with IL-1 plus OSM or tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) plus OSM. Synovial fluid levels of MMP-10 were determined by specific immunoassay. Recombinant procollagenases were used in activation studies. Immunohistochemistry assessed MMP-10 expression in diseased joint tissues.
MMP-10 expression was confirmed in both chondrocytes and synovial fibroblasts following stimulation with either IL-1 plus OSM or TNFalpha plus OSM, and MMP-10 was detected in synovial fluid samples from patients with various arthropathies. Exogenous MMP-10 significantly enhanced collagenolysis from IL-1 plus OSM-stimulated cartilage, and MMP-10 activated proMMP-1, proMMP-8, and proMMP-13. Immunohistochemistry revealed the presence of MMP-10 in the synovium and cartilage of an IL-1 plus OSM-induced model of arthritis as well as in samples of diseased human tissues.
We confirm that both synovial fibroblasts and articular chondrocytes express MMP-10 following treatment with procatabolic stimuli. Furthermore, the detectable levels of synovial fluid MMP-10 and the histologic detection of this proteinase in diseased joint tissues strongly implicate MMP-10 in the cartilage degradome during arthritis. The ability of MMP-10 to superactivate procollagenases that are relevant to cartilage degradation suggests that this activation represents an important mechanism by which this MMP contributes to tissue destruction in arthritis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To develop a proteomics approach to study changes in the secreted protein levels of primary human chondrocytes after stimulation by the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1 and oncostatin M.
Using both the primary human articular and bovine nasal chondrocyte-conditioned mediums, methods were investigated to enable the separation of proteins by two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis. Differentially regulated proteins were identified using tandem electrospray mass spectrometery.
We discovered that proteoglycans and glycosylaminoglycans (GAGs) secreted by chondrocytes significantly interfered with 2D gel focusing. Several different methods for GAG removal were attempted including enzymic digestion, cetyl pyridinium chloride precipitation and anion exchange in high salt. The anion exchange proved to be the most effective. Even from these initial gels, we were able to identify eight proteins produced by human chondrocytes: matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, MMP-3, YKL40, cyclophilin A, beta2-microglobulin, transthyretin, S100A11, peroxidine 1 and cofilin. MMP-1, MMP-3, YKL40 and cyclophilin A were all identified as processed, smaller peptide fragments.
We were able to develop a novel sample preparation protocol to allow the reproducible sample preparation of secreted proteins from human chondrocytes. From the initial data, we were able to show that at least some of the proteins produced were cleaved to smaller fragments as a result of proteolysis. Therefore, this technique provides valuable information about protein processing which gene-based arrays do not.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Retinoic acid (RetA) and oncostatin M (OSM) have both been shown to mediate potent effects with respect to extracellular matrix integrity. This study assesses the effects of a RetA + OSM combination on cartilage catabolism.
Animal and human cartilage samples were used to assess the ability of RetA + OSM to promote the release of collagen and proteoglycan fragments, which was determined by measuring glycosaminoglycan and hydroxyproline, respectively. Total collagenolytic and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP) inhibitory activities were determined by bioassay, whilst gene expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and TIMP-1 were determined by northern blotting. Immunohistochemistry was used to assess the presence of MMP-1 and -13 in resorbing cartilage explants.
Both agents alone induced proteoglycan release from bovine cartilage, whilst RetA-induced collagen release was variable. Reproducible and synergistic collagenolysis was observed with RetA + OSM, which appeared to be due to MMP-13. Similar collagen release was observed from porcine cartilage. Conversely, no collagen release was seen with human articular cartilage. In primary human chondrocytes, RetA + OSM failed to induce MMP-1 or -13 but caused a significant increase in TIMP-1 expression.
These novel observations show that the combination of RetA + OSM has profound effects on cartilage matrix turnover, but these effects are species-specific. A better understanding of the mechanism by which this combination differentially regulates MMP and TIMP expression in human chondrocytes could provide valuable insight into new therapeutic strategies aimed at the prevention of cartilage destruction.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To measure gelatinase activities in paired synovial fluid (SF) and serum of patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), and to assess how these activities relate to clinical and laboratory measures of disease activity.
A quantitative protein substrate zymography method was adapted and validated for use with serum and SF. Bands of activity were measured by densitometry and correlated with standard laboratory indicators of inflammation: erythrocyte sedimentation rate and platelet count.
Gelatinase activity was found consistently in patients with JIA, with reproducible, quantified bands of activity corresponding to pro-matrix metalloproteinase-9 (pro-MMP-9), including the neutrophil associated lipocalin complex, and pro- and active forms of MMP-2. Both active MMP-2 and pro-MMP-9 were higher in JIA serum than in controls, though no differences were seen between patients grouped according to age, disease duration, or JIA subtype. However, SF MMP-9 correlated significantly with the laboratory indicators of inflammation, as did the relative level of active MMP-2.
Both MMP-2 and MMP-9 gelatinolytic activities are raised during active JIA and associated with inflammatory activity regardless of age and disease duration, supporting a role for MMPs in the breakdown of joint components from early in disease. These MMPs may be specific markers of active joint destruction linked to inflammatory JIA, MMP-9 as a product of infiltrating cells, and the activation of MMP-2 produced within the joint.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 05/2006; 65(4):501-7. · 9.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To identify the genes up-regulated by interleukin-1 (IL-1) in combination with oncostatin M (OSM) in chondrocytes that may be involved in mechanisms of cartilage repair and degradation.
Gene microarray and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) experiments were performed using RNA from SW1353 chondrocytes and primary human articular chondrocytes. Sections prepared from murine joints, injected with adenovirus vectors overexpressing IL-1 and/or OSM, were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for selected proteins.
The combination of IL-1 and OSM markedly up-regulated the expression of various genes, including matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), cytokines, chemokines, extracellular matrix components, and genes involved in signal transduction. Real-time PCR confirmed a synergistic induction of several MMPs, activin A, pentraxin 3 (PTX-3), and IL-8. The in vivo findings further indicated that stimulation with IL-1 plus OSM induced protein expression of activin A, PTX-3, and KC (the murine homolog of IL-8), as compared with the changes induced by individual cytokine treatment and unstimulated controls.
The results confirm that the potent proinflammatory cytokine combination of IL-1 plus OSM synergistically and coordinately up-regulates many genes and several MMPs. Moreover, chondrocytes exhibit a potential repair response following this procatabolic stimulus such that the repair mechanisms are ultimately overwhelmed by degradative processes in the cartilage. This gene-profiling study provides insight into the complex processes that mediate joint disease in the inflammatory arthritides through the coordinated expression of multiple genes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The synergistic degradation of cartilage by oncostatin M (OSM) in combination with either interleukin 1 (IL1) or tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) has been previously demonstrated using bovine nasal cartilage (BNC).
(a) To investigate if human nasal cartilage (HNC) responds in the same way as BNC to these cytokine combinations, particularly in collagen degradation. (b) To compare the response of human nasal and articular cartilages.
Collagen release was assessed by measuring the hydroxyproline content of culture supernatants and proteoglycan release by the dimethylmethylene blue assay. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, MMP-13, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 release were measured by specific enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), and collagenolytic activity was measured by a bioassay using radiolabelled collagen.
OSM in combination with either IL1 or TNFalpha acted synergistically to induce collagenolysis from HNC, with a maximum of 79% collagen release. This degradation strongly correlated with MMP-1 and MMP-13 levels and collagenolytic activity.
Collagen release from human cartilage is marked and implicates both MMP-1 and MMP-13 in the synergistic degradation of human cartilage by OSM in combination with either IL1 or TNFalpha. HNC responds in the same way as BNC, thus validating the bovine cartilage degradation assay as a model relevant to human disease.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 03/2006; 65(2):184-90. · 9.11 Impact Factor