[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite the fact that metastases are the leading cause of colorectal cancer deaths, little is known about the underlying molecular changes in these advanced disease stages. Few have studied the overall gene expression levels in metastases from colorectal carcinomas, and so far, none has investigated the peritoneal carcinomatoses by use of DNA microarrays. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to investigate and compare the gene expression patterns of primary carcinomas (n = 18), liver metastases (n = 4), and carcinomatoses (n = 4), relative to normal samples from the large bowel.
Transcriptome profiles of colorectal cancer metastases independent of tumor site, as well as separate profiles associated with primary carcinomas, liver metastases, or peritoneal carcinomatoses, were assessed by use of Bayesian statistics. Gains of chromosome arm 5p are common in peritoneal carcinomatoses and several candidate genes (including PTGER4, SKP2, and ZNF622) mapping to this region were overexpressed in the tumors. Expression signatures stratified on TP53 mutation status were identified across all tumors regardless of stage. Furthermore, the gene expression levels for the in vivo tumors were compared with an in vitro model consisting of cell lines representing all three tumor stages established from one patient.
By statistical analysis of gene expression data from primary colorectal carcinomas, liver metastases, and carcinomatoses, we are able to identify genetic patterns associated with the different stages of tumorigenesis.
Molecular Cancer 02/2007; 6:2. · 5.13 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Loss of TP53 function through gene mutation is a critical event in the development and progression of many tumour types including colorectal cancer (CRC). In vitro studies have found considerable heterogeneity amongst different TP53 mutants in terms of their transactivating abilities. The aim of this work was to evaluate whether TP53 mutations classified as functionally inactive (< or=20% of wildtype transactivation ability) had different prognostic and predictive values in CRC compared with mutations that retained significant activity.
TP53 mutations within a large, international database of CRC (n = 3583) were classified according to functional status for transactivation.
Inactive TP53 mutations were found in 29% of all CRCs and were more frequent in rectal (32%) than proximal colon (22%) tumours (P < 0.001). Higher frequencies of inactive TP53 mutations were also seen in advanced stage tumours (P = 0.0003) and in tumours with the poor prognostic features of vascular (P = 0.006) and lymphatic invasion (P = 0.002). Inactive TP53 mutations were associated with significantly worse outcome only in patients with Dukes' stage D tumours (RR = 1.71, 95%CI 1.25-2.33, P < 0.001). Patients with Dukes' C stage tumours appeared to gain a survival benefit from 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy regardless of TP53 functional status for transactivation ability.
Mutations that inactivate the transactivational ability of TP53 are more frequent in advanced CRC and are associated with worse prognosis in this stage of disease.
Annals of Oncology 05/2006; 17(5):842-7. · 7.38 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Molecular markers that could stratify prostate cancer patients according to risk of disease progression would allow a significant improvement in the management of this clinically heterogeneous disease. In the present study, we analyzed the genetic profile of a consecutive series of 51 clinically confined prostate carcinomas and 27 benign prostatic hyperplasias using comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). We then added our findings to the existing literature data in order to perform a meta-analysis on a total of 294 prostate cancers with detailed CGH and clinicopathological information, using multivariate statistical methods that included principal component, hierarchical clustering, time of occurrence, and regression analyses. Whereas several genomic imbalances were shared by organ-confined, locally invasive, and metastatic prostate cancers, 6q and 10q losses and 7q and 8q gains were significantly more frequent in patients with extra-prostatic disease. Regression analysis indicated that 8q gain and 13q loss were the best predictors of locally invasive disease, whereas 8q gain and 6q and 10q losses were associated with metastatic disease. We propose a genetic pathway of prostate carcinogenesis with two distinct initiating events, namely, 8p and 13q losses. These primary imbalances are then preferentially followed by 8q gain and 6q, 16q, and 18q losses, which in turn are followed by a set of late events that make recurrent and metastatic prostate cancers genetically more complex. We conclude that significant differences exist in the genetic profile of organ-confined, locally invasive, and advanced prostate cancer and that genetic features may carry prognostic information independently of Gleason grade.
Genes Chromosomes and Cancer 03/2006; 45(2):154-63. · 3.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To identify chromosomal aberrations that differentiate among the Dukes' stages of colorectal cancer (CRC) as well as those that are responsible for the progression into liver metastases, we performed a meta-analysis of data obtained from 31 comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) studies comprising a total of 859 CRCs. Individual copy number profiles for 373 primary tumors and 102 liver metastases were recorded and several statistical analyses, such as frequency, multivariate logistic regression, and trend tests, were performed. In addition, time of occurrence analysis was applied for the first time to copy number changes identified by CGH, and each genomic imbalance was thereby classified as an early or late event in colorectal tumorigenesis. By combining data from the different statistical tests, we present a novel genetic pathway for CRC progression that distinguishes the Dukes' stages and identifies early and late events in both primary carcinomas and liver metastases. Results from the combined analyses suggest that losses at 17p and 18 and gains of 8q, 13q, and 20 occur early in the establishment of primary CRCs, whereas loss of 4p is associated with the transition from Dukes' A to B-D. Deletion of 8p and gains of 7p and 17q are correlated with the transition from primary tumor to liver metastasis, whereas losses of 14q and gains of 1q, 11, 12p, and 19 are late events. We supplement these findings with a list of potential target genes for the specific alterations from a publicly available microarray expression dataset of CRC.
Genes Chromosomes and Cancer 02/2006; 45(1):31-41. · 3.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: TP53 mutations play an important role in the development of several cancers and are present in 20-40% of all breast carcinomas, contributing to increased genomic instability. In order to address the relationship of mutated TP53 to genomic complexity, the present study analysed 61 breast carcinomas for TP53 mutations and compared mutation status with the pattern of genomic imbalances as assessed by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). Twenty per cent of the present series of breast carcinomas harboured TP53 mutations. An increasing number of abnormalities, as identified by CGH (higher genomic complexity), correlated significantly with mutant TP53. Among the chromosome arms most commonly altered (in more than 20% of the tumours), loss of 8p and gain of 8q were associated with TP53 mutations, whereas loss of 16q was associated with wild-type TP53. By performing supervised hierarchical clustering analysis of the CGH data, a cluster of chromosome imbalances was observed that showed differences between wild-type and mutant TP53 cases. Among these, loss of chromosome arm 5q revealed the strongest correlation with altered TP53. To investigate further the most commonly deleted region of 5q, gene expression patterns from two publicly available microarray data sets of breast carcinomas were evaluated statistically. The expression data sets identified potential target genes, including genes involved in ubiquitination and the known TP53 target CSPG2. The genomic complexity of breast carcinomas as assessed by CGH is associated with TP53 mutation status; breast cancers with TP53 mutations display more complex genomes than do those with wild-type TP53. The pattern of genomic imbalances associated with mutant TP53 is non-random, with loss of chromosome arm 5q being particularly closely associated with TP53 mutations.
The Journal of Pathology 10/2005; 207(1):14-9. · 7.59 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An unselected series of 310 colorectal carcinomas, stratified according to microsatellite instability (MSI) and DNA ploidy, was examined for mutations and/or promoter hypermethylation of five components of the WNT signaling cascade [APC, CTNNB1 (encoding beta-catenin), AXIN2, TCF4, and WISP3] and three genes indirectly affecting this pathway [CDH1 (encoding E-cadherin), PTEN, and TP53]. APC and TP53 mutations were each present more often in microsatellite-stable (MSS) tumors than in those with MSI (P < .001 for both). We confirmed that the aneuploid MSS tumors frequently contained TP53 mutations (P < .001), whereas tumors with APC mutations and/or promoter hypermethylation revealed no associations to ploidy. Mutations in APC upstream of codons 1020 to 1169, encoding the beta-catenin binding site, were found in 15/144 mutated tumors and these patients seemed to have poor clinical outcome (P = .096). Frameshift mutations in AXIN2, PTEN, TCF4, and WISP3 were found in 20%, 17%, 46%, and 28% of the MSI tumors, respectively. More than half of the tumors with heterozygote mutations in AXIN2 were concurrently mutated in APC. The present study showed that more than 90% of all samples had alteration in one or more of the genes investigated, adding further evidence to the vital importance of activated WNT signaling in colorectal carcinogenesis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In cancer biology, cell lines are often used instead of primary tumors because of their widespread availability and close reflection of the in vivo state. Cancer is a genetic disease, commonly caused by small- and large-scale DNA rearrangements. Therefore, it is essential to know the genomic profiles of tumor cell lines to enable their correct and efficient use as experimental tools. Here, we present a comprehensive study of the genomic profiles of 20 colon cancer cell lines combining conventional karyotyping (G-banding), comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), and multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (M-FISH). Major differences between the microsatellite instability (MSI) and chromosome instability (CIN) cell lines are shown; the CIN cell lines exhibited complex karyotypes involving many chromosomes (mean: 8.5 copy number changes), whereas the MSI cell lines showed considerably fewer aberrations (mean: 2.6). The 3 techniques complement each other to provide a detailed picture of the numerical and structural chromosomal changes that characterize cancer cells. Therefore, 7 of the cell lines (Colo320, EB, Fri, IS2, IS3, SW480, and V9P) are here completely karyotyped for the first time and, among these, 5 have not previously been cytogenetically described. By hierarchical cluster analysis, we show that the cell lines are representative models for primary carcinomas at the genome level. We also present the genomic profiles of an experimental model for tumor progression, including 3 cell lines (IS1, IS2, and IS3) established from a primary carcinoma, its corresponding liver- and peritoneal metastasis from the same patient. To address the question of clonality, we compared the genome of 3 common cell lines grown in 2 laboratories. Finally, we compared all our results with previously published CGH data and karyotypes of colorectal cell lines. In conclusion, the large variation in genetic complexity of the cell lines highlights the importance of a comprehensive reference of genomic profiles for investigators engaged in functional studies using these research tools.
Cancer Genetics and Cytogenetics 01/2005; 155(2):119-31. · 1.93 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common causes of cancer-related deaths in the Western world, and despite the fact that metastases are usually the ultimate cause of deaths, the knowledge of the genetics of advanced stages of this disease is limited. In order to identify potential genetic abnormalities underlying the development of local and distant metastases in CRC patients, we have, by comparative genomic hybridization, compared the DNA copy number profiles of 10 primary carcinomas, 14 local recurrences, 7 peritoneal carcinomatoses, and 42 liver metastases from 61 CRC patients.
The median number of aberrations among the primary carcinomas, local recurrences, carcinomatoses, and liver metastases was 10, 6, 13, and 14, respectively. Several genetic imbalances, such as gains of 7, 8q, 13q, and 20, and losses of 4q, 8p, 17p, and 18, were common in all groups. In contrast, gains of 5p and 12p were more common in the carcinomatoses than in other stages of the disease. With hierarchical cluster analysis, liver metastases could be divided into two main subgroups according to clusters of chromosome changes.
Each stage of CRC progression is characterized by a particular genetic profile, and both carcinomatoses and liver metastases are more genetically complex than local recurrences and primary carcinomas. This is the first genome profiling of local recurrences and carcinomatoses, and gains of 5p and 12p seem to be particularly important for the spread of the CRC cells within the peritoneal cavity.
Molecular Cancer 03/2004; 3:6. · 5.13 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine several genetic changes in primary colorectal carcinomas (CRCs) from patients with 10 years of follow-up and associate the findings with clinicopathologic variables.
DNA from 220 CRCs were analyzed for allelic imbalances at 12 loci on chromosome arms 1p, 14q, 17p, 18q, and 20q, and the microsatellite instability (MSI) status was determined. The clinical significance of the tumor protein 53 (TP53) mutations was re-evaluated.
Patients with tumors containing 17p or 18q deletions had shorter survival than those without these alterations (P =.021, P =.008, respectively). This was also significant for the Dukes' B group (P =.025, P =.010, respectively). Furthermore, patients with tumors showing losses of both chromosome arms revealed an even poorer disease outcome than those with either 17p or 18q loss. Patients with low increase in 20q copy number in their tumors had longer survival compared with those without changes (P =.009) or those with a high increase of copy number (P =.037). This was also evident for the Dukes' C group (P =.018, P =.030, respectively). MSI was seemingly a beneficial marker for survival (P =.071). A significant association between mutations affecting the L3 zinc-binding domain of TP53 and survival was confirmed in this cohort after 10 years of follow-up, and also was found to apply for patients in the Dukes' B group. Several associations were found among genetic and pathologic data.
The present study indicates that 17p, 18q, and 20q genotypes, and TP53 mutation status add information in the subclassification of Dukes' B and C patients and may have impact on the choice of treatment.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 04/2003; 21(5):820-9. · 18.04 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The majority of genetic studies of colorectal carcinogenesis have focused on changes found in primary tumors. Despite the fact that liver metastases are a leading cause of colorectal cancer deaths, the molecular genetic basis of the advanced disease stages remains poorly understood. We performed comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) on 17 liver metastases from colorectal carcinomas and compared the quantitative profile with the qualitative profile previously obtained with chromosome banding. An average of 12.6 aberrations per tumor was found by CGH. Chromosome 18 and chromosome arms 4q, 8p, and 17p were most frequently lost, whereas chromosomes 7 and 20 and chromosome arms 6p, 8q, and 13q were most frequently gained. We compared the chromosome banding and CGH data after converting the karyotypes into net copy number gains and losses. Ten tumors showed agreement between the findings of the two techniques, whereas five tumors did not (in two cases, no mitotic cells were obtained for banding analysis). All five discordant cases had a "simple" abnormal or normal karyotype, but revealed multiple changes by CGH. A likely explanation for this discrepancy is that in vitro growth before G-banding selected against the cancer cells. Interestingly, by comparing the CGH profiles of the "complex" vs. the "simple"/normal karyotype groups, deletion of 8p and gain of 16q were seen more frequently in the former group. The liver metastases had the same aberrations as seen in primary colorectal carcinomas, summarized in a literature survey. However, these aberrations were seen more frequently in liver metastases, which may be attributable to increased genetic instability.
Genes Chromosomes and Cancer 03/2003; 36(2):189-97. · 3.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) and beta-catenin (encoded by CTNNB1) are important components in the WNT signalling pathway, a pathway altered in nearly all colorectal tumours. Conflicting results are reported on whether APC mutations are less common in tumours with a high degree of microsatellite instability (MSI-H) than in microsatellite stable (MSS) ones, and whether mutations in the regulatory domain of CTNNB1 substitute for APC mutations in the MSI-H tumours.
A consecutive series of 218 primary colorectal carcinomas, stratified by MSI status, were analysed for mutations in the APC gene (by the protein truncation test) and in the CTNNB1 gene (by single-strand conformation polymorphism).
APC mutations detected in 66% of the patients were significantly more frequent in the MSS and MSI-L (low) tumours than in the MSI-H tumour group (P < 0.001). The MSI-H tumours tended to have more frameshift mutations than the MSS/MSI-L tumours. The majority of the APC mutations were located in the mutation cluster region (MCR). Patients that had lost all beta-catenin binding sites of the APC gene showed a shorter survival time than patients who retained some or all of these binding sites (P = 0.045). Two mutations were found in the CTNNB1 gene, but neither of them was located in the regulatory domain in exon 3.
This study confirms that APC mutations are less frequent in MSI-H tumours than in MSS and MSI-L tumours. However, CTNNB1 mutations do not substitute for APC mutations in MSI-H tumours in these Norwegian patients.
Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 10/2002; 37(10):1184-93. · 2.16 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Progression of colorectal cancer may follow either of two main genetic routes: the chromosome- or microsatellite-instability pathways. Association between the patients' prognosis and microsatellite instability has been questioned. Improved survival has previously been found in patients with expression of HLA-DR antigens on their tumour cells. In this study, the expression of HLA-DR antigen was investigated by immunohistochemistry in 357 large bowel carcinomas stratified by microsatellite instability status. Sixteen per cent of the tumours showed strong HLA-DR expression and 35% had weak DR expression. We confirmed that patients with strong positive HLA-DR staining had improved survival (P<0.001) compared to patients with no HLA-DR expression. Strong epithelial HLA-DR staining was significantly associated with high level of microsatellite instability (P<0.001). In the subgroup of tumours with characteristics typical of the chromosomal instability phenotype, i.e. in microsatellite-stable tumours, the patients positive for the HLA-DR determinants showed better survival than those without HLA-DR expression. The protective effect of HLA-DR expression on survival was confirmed by multivariate analysis, both in the whole patient group and in the microsatellite-stable/microsatellite instability-low group. This might be explained by enhanced T-cell mediated anti-tumour immune responses against tumour cells in the HLA-DR positive tumours. The finding of better patient survival in the subgroup of strong HLA-DR positive microsatellite-stable tumours may have clinical implications for these patients.
British Journal of Cancer 09/2002; 87(7):756-62. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Microsatellite instability (MSI) is the phenotype of colorectal carcinomas with defect mismatch repair. Genes with repetitive sequences within their coding regions are targets for mutations in these tumors. We have evaluated 2 novel candidate genes for potential involvement in development of MSI colorectal carcinomas and compared them with alterations in known target genes.
The MSI status was determined by multiplex polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) of 5-17 markers in a Norwegian series of 275 colorectal carcinomas. All MSI tumors were analyzed for gene mutations using fluorescence PCR followed by capillary electrophoresis. Two novel candidate genes, WNT1-inducible signaling pathway protein 3 (WISP-3) and caspase-1, and 9 known target genes were analyzed.
Thirteen percent of the tumors were MSI-high (H) and 12% were MSI-low (L). Thirty-three of 37 MSI-H vs. 1 of 34 MSI-L tumors showed mutations in the target genes (P < 0.001). WISP-3 was mutated in 31% of the MSI-H tumors. The frequencies of frameshift mutations in the known target genes were comparable with other studies.
The relative high frequency of mutation, higher than those seen for other known target genes, the predicted truncation of the protein product, and the homology with WISP-1 and WISP-2, 2 proteins induced downstream of WNT1 signaling, strongly suggest WISP-3 as a novel target in development of MSI-H colorectal carcinomas.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inactivating mutations have been found in the cell-cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin (CDH1), which acts as a tumor suppressor gene in different kinds of cancers, e.g. primarily diffuse gastric cancer and lobular breast cancer. In this study, we screened for germline alterations in familial gastric and colon cancer cases. In total, 20 gastric and 18 colon cancer patients with both familial gastric and colon cancer were tested for germline E-cadherin alterations by using PCR/SSCP, specific restriction digestion test and sequencing. No pathogenic mutations were identified in the gastric cancer patients. In two colon cancer patients, a missense mutation in exon 12, codon 592 (Ala592Thr) was found. This alteration segregated with diffuse gastric cancer and colon cancer in one of the families. The prevalence of this alteration in the general population and colon cancer cases was almost the same. However, the fact that this alteration (Ala592Thr) segregated with colon cancer and diffuse gastric cancer in one big family, suggests that this E-cadherin missense alteration, beside predisposing to diffuse gastric cancer, also may play a role in colorectal carcinogenesis.
International Journal of Molecular Medicine 11/2001; 8(4):439-43. · 1.96 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Loss of heterozygosity and allelic imbalance in tumors are usually detected by either radioactive labeling of PCR products with subsequent scoring of autoradiographs or by a semi-quantitative fluorescence-based protocol. Polymorphic microsatellite loci are the most common marker type used in these studies. Even though no consensus exists as to how to evaluate such data, results are often compared directly between studies applying the two different protocols. In the present study, we analyzed twice by each protocol three loci in 60 blood/tumor pairs, finding good correlation between the results obtained by the two methods. However, a higher sensitivity and the possibility to correct for stutter peaks were among several advantages inherent in the fluorescence labeling approach. In addition, we determined the cut-off level for allelic imbalance scoring by the fluorescent primer protocol, by repeated analysis of 485 constitutional heterozygous genotypes at 20 different dinucleotide repeat loci. Based on the standard deviation, we found that allelic imbalance should be scored whenever the peak height of one allele in tumor DNA is reduced to less than 0.84 of its value in constitutional DNA, relative to the other allele. Applying this cut-off value, more imbalances are detected than by the visual scoring of autoradiographs. Our data therefore suggest that a lower threshold value (0.75) must be used when results from both fluorescent and radioactive assays are compared.
Cancer Genetics and Cytogenetics 06/2001; 127(1):64-70. · 1.93 Impact Factor