Sang Hoon Park

Pusan National University, Tsau-liang-hai, Busan, South Korea

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Publications (107)166.87 Total impact

  • Ocean Science Journal 12/2015; 49(4):391-402. DOI:10.1007/s12601-014-0036-3
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    ABSTRACT: To analyze whether prompt and appropriate empirical antibiotic (AEA) use is associated with mortality in cirrhotic patients with bacteremia. A total of 102 episodes of bacteremia in 72 patients with cirrhosis were analyzed. AEA was defined as a using or starting an antibiotic appropriate to the isolated pathogen at the time of bacteremia. The primary endpoint was 30-d mortality. The mortality rate at 30 d was 30.4% (31/102 episodes). Use of AEA was associated with better survival at 30 d (76.5% vs 46.9%, P = 0.05), and inappropriate empirical antibiotic (IEA) use was an independent factor associated with increased mortality (OR = 3.24; 95%CI: 1.50-7.00; P = 0.003, adjusted for age, sex, Child-Pugh Class, gastrointestinal bleeding, presence of septic shock). IEA use was more frequent when the isolated pathogen was a multiresistant pathogen, and when infection was healthcare-related or hospital-acquired. AEA use was associated with increased survival of cirrhotic patients who developed bacteremia. Strategies for AEA use, tailored according to the local epidemiological patterns, are needed to improve survival of cirrhotic patients with bacteremia.
    03/2015; 21(12):3587-92. DOI:10.3748/wjg.v21.i12.3587
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between rotational axes of femur and tibia with the use of Linker. This study was carried out from August 2009 to February 2010 on 54 patients (106 knees), who were diagnosed with simultaneous bilateral total knee arthroplasty. With the use of postoperative computed tomography scans, it was investigated how much the rotational angle of femoral and tibial components matched. The tibial component was internally rotated for the femoral component at an angle of 0.8°. The femoral component was externally rotated for the surgical transepicondylar axis (TEA) at an angle of 1.6 (range: from 4.8° of internal rotation to 7.9° of external rotation, SD=2.2°), and the tibial component was externally rotated for the surgical TEA at an average angle of 0.9 (range: from 5.1° of internal rotation to 8.3° of external rotation, SD=3.1°). The femoro-tibial synchronizer helped to improve the orientation and positioning of both femoral component and tibial component, and also increase the correlation of the rotational axes of the two components.
    Yonsei Medical Journal 03/2015; 56(2):454-9. DOI:10.3349/ymj.2015.56.2.454 · 1.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The pain relief scale (PRS) is a method that measures the magnitude of change in pain intensity after treatment. The present study aimed to evaluate the correlation between PRS and changes in pain determined by the visual analogue scale (VAS) and numerical rating scale (NRS), to confirm the evidence supporting the use of PRS. Sixty patients with chronic spinal pain that had a VAS and NRS recorded during an initial examination were enrolled in the study. One week later, the patients received an epidural nerve block, then VAS, NRS, and PRS assessments were performed. Differences between VAS and NRS were compared to the PRS and scatter plots and correlation coefficient were generated. The differences and magnitude of decrease in the VAS and NRS raw data were converted to percentile values, and compared to the PRS. Both VAS and NRS values exhibited strong correlations (> 0.8) with PRS. Further, the differences between the VAS-PRS R (0.859) and NRS-PRS R (0.915) were statistically significant, (P = 0.0259). Compared to PRS, the VAS and NRS percentile scores exhibited higher correlation coefficients than scores based on the raw data differences. Furthermore, even when converted to a percentile, the NRS%-PRS R (0.968) was higher than the VAS%-PRS R (0.904), P = 0.0001. The results indicated that using the PRS together with NRS in pain assessment increased the objectivity of the assessment compared to using only VAS or NRS, and may have offset the limitations of VAS or NRS alone. Pain relief scale, numerical rating scale, visual analogue scale, pain measurement, pain intensity measurement, pain intensity scale.
    Pain physician 03/2015; 18(2):E195-200. · 4.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A 31-year-old male presented with severe back pain and paraparesis. Imaging studies demonstrated an extraosseous, extradural mass without bone invasion at the T11-T12 vertebral level, located dorsal to the thecal sac. The spinal cord was compressed ventrally. The lesion was completely excised after a T11-T12 laminectomy. Histopathological examination revealed a cavernous hemangioma. The patient's symptoms improved after excision of the lesion.
    The Journal of the Korean Orthopaedic Association 01/2015; 50(2):165. DOI:10.4055/jkoa.2015.50.2.165
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    ABSTRACT: There is a growing emphasis on quality management in endoscope reprocessing. Previous surveys conducted in 2002 and 2004 were not practitioner-oriented. Therefore, this survey is significant for being the first to target actual participants in endoscope reprocessing in Korea. This survey comprised 33 self-filled questions, and was personally delivered to nurses and nursing auxiliaries in the endoscopy departments of eight hospitals belonging to the society. The anonymous responses were collected after 1 week either by post or in person by committee members. The survey included 100 participants. In the questionnaire addressing compliance rates with the reprocessing guideline, the majority (98.9%) had a high compliance rate compared to 27% of respondents in 2002 and 50% in 2004. The lowest rate of compliance with a reprocessing procedure was reported for transporting the contaminated endoscope in a sealed container. Automated endoscope reprocessors were available in all hospitals. Regarding reprocessing time, more than half of the subjects replied that reprocessing took more than 15 minutes (63.2%). The quality management of endoscope reprocessing has improved as since the previous survey. A national survey expanded to include primary clinics is required to determine the true current status of endoscope reprocessing.
    01/2015; 48(1):39-47. DOI:10.5946/ce.2015.48.1.39
  • 12/2014; 16(4):203-210. DOI:10.5659/AIKAR.2014.16.4.203
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    ABSTRACT: Elevated levels of serum gastrin (SG) have been associated with tumorigenic effects in a number of gastrointestinal cancers. We decided to investigate the relationship between SG and gastric epithelial lesions. A total of 90 patients with gastric epithelial lesions (hyperplastic polyp, 12; adenoma, 41; early gastric cancer, 29; advanced gastric cancer, 8) were enrolled as the case group and 79 patients without epithelial lesions were enrolled as the control group. Serum gastrin levels were significantly different between the case and control groups (p<0.001). A high SG level (>80 pg/mL), intestinal metaplasia, and a pepsinogen I/II ratio <3 were independently associated with an increased risk of epithelial lesions (odds ratio: 14.6, 9.4, and 4.1, respectively, p<0.05). SG levels in case subjects showed a unimodal distribution pattern as the disease progressed. The mean SG level was highest in those with hyperplastic polyps and then decreased significantly to the control level in the gastric cancer group. Higher SG levels in each disease category were not associated with increased tumor size, synchronicity, invasiveness, presence of lymph node metastasis, or a higher cellular proliferation index (p>0.05). An increased SG level was an independent and potent risk factor for gastric epithelial lesions. However, it does not seem to relate with distal gastric tumor growth. Serial decreases in SG levels should be considered a warning sign in index hypergastrinemic patients with no prior Helicobacter pylori eradication.
    The Turkish journal of gastroenterology: the official journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology 12/2014; 25(6):611-8. DOI:10.5152/tjg.2014.8131 · 0.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose Freezing of gait (FOG), increasing the fall risk and limiting the quality of life, is common at the advanced stage of Parkinson’s disease, typically in old ages. A simple and unobtrusive FOG detection system with a small calculation load would make a fast presentation of on-demand cueing possible. The purpose of this study was to find a practical FOG detection system. Patients and methods A sole-mounted sensor system was developed for an unobtrusive measurement of acceleration during gait. Twenty patients with Parkinson’s disease participated in this study. A simple and fast time-domain method for the FOG detection was suggested and compared with the conventional frequency-domain method. The parameters used in the FOG detection were optimized for each patient. Results The calculation load was 1,154 times less in the time-domain method than the conventional method, and the FOG detection performance was comparable between the two domains (P=0.79) and depended on the window length (P<0.01) and dimension of sensor information (P=0.03). Conclusion A minimally constraining sole-mounted sensor system was developed, and the suggested time-domain method showed comparable FOG detection performance to that of the conventional frequency-domain method. Three-dimensional sensor information and 3–4-second window length were desirable. The suggested system is expected to have more practical clinical applications.
    Clinical Interventions in Aging 10/2014; 9:1709-19. DOI:10.2147/CIA.S69773 · 1.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Transenteral (TE) administration of a bowel cleanser prior to colonoscopy avoids the discomfort associated with drinking a large volume of unpalatable cleanser. Aim To explore patient comfort, preference for future colonoscopy, the efficacy and adverse events associated with TE bowel preparation. Methods Bowel preparation is traditionally practised using polyethylene glycol (PEG) + ascorbic acid (ASC), which was the treatment used in the control group (peroral group; PO group). In the study group (TE group), PEG + ASC were administered directly to the third portion of the duodenum through a scope immediately after completing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Results A higher proportion of subjects in the TE group graded their degree of comfort as very or rather comfortable (28.4 % in the PO group, 65.1 % in the TE group; p = 0.000) and had greater preference for future colonoscopy (69.6 % in the PO group, 82.5 % in the TE group; p = 0.030), compared with the PO group. The TE group had non-inferiority in efficacy compared with the PO group (non-inferiority margin -15 %; lower limit of 95 % confidence interval for difference between success rates -6.4 %, when using the Aronchick Scale, and -7.1 % when using the Ottawa Scale). Nausea or vomiting were more prevalent during preparation in the PO group (46.1 vs. 17.5 %; p = 0.000), and dizziness was more common in the TE group (0 vs. 12.6 %; p = 0.000). Conclusions TE preparation was found to be more comfortable than the traditional peroral method and not inferior in efficacy. The adverse events rate was acceptable.
    Digestive Diseases and Sciences 09/2014; 60(1). DOI:10.1007/s10620-014-3344-7 · 2.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background & Aims: Vasoactive drugs are recommended to be started as soon as possible in suspected variceal bleeding, even before diagnostic endoscopy. However, it is still unclear whether the therapeutic efficacies of the various vasoactive drugs used are comparable. The aim of this prospective multicenter randomized non-inferiority trial was to characterize the effects of terlipressin, somatostatin, and octreotide, when they are initiated before endoscopic treatment in patients with acute variceal bleeding. Methods: Patients with liver cirrhosis and significant upper gastrointestinal bleeding were randomly assigned to receive early administration of terlipressin, somatostatin, or octreotide, followed by endoscopic treatment. Patients with non-variceal bleeding were excluded after endoscopy. The primary endpoint was 5-day treatment success, defined as control of bleeding without rescue treatment, rebleeding or mortality, with a non-inferiority margin of 0.1. Results: In total, 780 patients with variceal bleeding were enrolled: 261 in terlipressin group, 259 in somatostatin group, and 260 in octreotide group. At the time of initial endoscopy, active bleeding was noted in 43.7%, 44.4%, and 43.5% of these patients, respectively (P=0.748), and treatment success was achieved by day 5 in 86.2%, 83.4%, and 83.8% (P=0.636) with similar rates of control of bleeding without rescue treatment (89.7%, 87.6%, and 88.1%, P=0.752), or rebleeding (3.4%, 4.8%, and 4.4%, P=0.739), mortality (8.0%, 8.9%, and 8.8%, P=0.929). The absolute values of lower bound of confidence interval for terlipressin vs somatostatin, terlilpressin vs octreotide, and octreotide vs somatostatin were 0.095, 0.090, and 0.065, respectively. Conclusion: The hemostatic effects and safety did not differ significantly between terlipressin, somatostatin, and octreotide as adjuvants to endoscopic treatment in patients with acute gastroesophageal variceal bleeding. (Hepatology 2014;).
    Hepatology 09/2014; 60(3). DOI:10.1002/hep.27006 · 11.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Neck and shoulder pain is fairly common among adolescents in Korea and results in significant health problem. The aims of this prospective study was to identify the effects of education, in terms of recognition of this issue and posture correction, on prevalence and severity of neck and shoulder pain in Korean adolescents. Methods A prospective, observational cohort design was used. The 912 students from two academic high schools in the city of Seoul were eligible for the current study and 887 completed this study. After a baseline cross-sectional survey, students listened to a lecture about cervical health, focusing on good posture, habits, and stretching exercises to protect the spine, and were encouraged by their teachers to keep the appropriate position. And follow-ups were conducted 3 months later, to evaluate the effect of education. Results The prevalence of neck and shoulder pain was decreased 19.5% (from 82.5 to 66.4%). The baseline mean usual and worst numeric rating scale were 19.9/100 (95% CI, 18.1-21.7) and 31.2/100 (95% CI, 28.7-33.2), respectively. On the follow-up survey, the mean usual and worst numeric rating scale were decreased significantly by 24.1 and 21.7%, respectively, compared with baseline (P < 0.01). Of the 570 students reporting neck and shoulder pain, 16.4% responded that they had experienced improvement during the 3 months. Conclusions Education; recognition of this issue and posture correction, for cervical health appeared to be effective in decreasing the prevalence and severity of neck and shoulder pain at a 3 month follow-up.
    Korean journal of anesthesiology 09/2014; 67(3):198-204. DOI:10.4097/kjae.2014.67.3.198
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: This study was designed to prospectively evaluate the antiviral responses and evolution of resistance mutations during adefovir (ADV) plus lamivudine (LMV) therapy in patients with entecavir (ETV)-resistant hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Methods: Twenty chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients who had been receiving ETV for more than 6 months and developed virologic breakthrough due to ETV resistance were consecutively enrolled. Results: Patients received ADV plus LMV therapy for 12 months. The baseline mean serum HBV DNA level was 5.59 ± 1.28 log10 IU/ml. The rtT184L/I/A/F (50%), rtS202G (25%) and mixed ETV-resistant mutations (25%) were detected at enrollment. The mean reduction in serum HBV DNA levels from baseline to 12 months was -2.3 ± 1.06 log10 IU/ml (p < 0.001). Seventeen patients were followed up for the full 12 months, and complete virologic response (HBV DNA <20 IU/ml) was observed in 4 patients (23.5%). Among the remaining 13 patients who still had detectable HBV DNA, 7 patients showed disappearance of ETV-resistant mutations or reduction of the proportion of ETV-resistant mutants. An ADV- and LMV-resistant mutant (rtA181T) emerged in 2 patients (11.7%). Conclusions: ADV plus LMV combination therapy suppresses ETV-resistant mutants in the viral population and significantly reduces serum HBV DNA levels in ETV-resistant CHB patients. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Intervirology 06/2014; 57(5):239-247. DOI:10.1159/000360399 · 1.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to present a simulation study estimating the thermal comfort and energy consumption of a Thermally Activated Building System (TABS) combined with a Radiant Floor Heating System (RFHS) and Packaged Air Conditioning System (PAC) in a conventional residential building and low-thermal-load residential building. The two residential buildings with different envelope types were modeled using EnergyPlus. The applied system in each building can be classified as a current system which uses a Packaged Air Conditioning System (PAC) in the summer and a Radiant Floor Heating System (RFHS) in the winter. In this study, the proposed system for heating and cooling is a TABS combined with the current system. The effect of the thermal load according to the different building envelope types is revealed by estimating the thermal comfort and the energy consumption of the system applied in each building. The results indicate that TABS combined with current system is a thermally comfortable and energy efficient, especially for the low-thermal-load building. In a building with a low-thermal-load, TABS could decrease the operating hours and energy consumption of RFHS and PAC. TABS decreased both the heat source energy and the terminal energy by eliminating most of the thermal load with a high Load-Handled Ratio (LHR).
    Energy and Buildings 04/2014; 73:69–82. DOI:10.1016/j.enbuild.2014.01.008 · 2.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics of acute hepatitis A during a recent outbreak in Korea. Data of patients diagnosed with acute hepatitis A from 2007 to 2009 were collected from 21 tertiary hospitals retrospectively. Their demographic, clinical, and serological characteristics and their clinical outcomes were analyzed. A total of 4,218 patients (mean age 33.3 yr) were included. The median duration of admission was 9 days. The mean of the highest ALT level was 2,963 IU/L, total bilirubin was 7.3 mg/dL, prothrombin time INR was 1.3. HBsAg was positive in 3.7%, and anti-HCV positive in 0.7%. Renal insufficiency occurred in 2.7%, hepatic failure in 0.9%, relapsing hepatitis in 0.7%, and cholestatic hepatitis in 1.9% of the patients. Nineteen patients (0.45%) died or were transplanted. Complications of renal failure or prolonged cholestasis were more frequent in patients older than 30 yr. In conclusion, most patients with acute hepatitis A recover uneventfully, however, complication rates are higher in patients older than 30 yr than younger patients. Preventive strategies including universal vaccination in infants and active immunization of hepatitis A to adult population should be considered for prevention of community-wide outbreaks of hepatitis A in Korea. Graphical Abstract
    Journal of Korean medical science 02/2014; 29(2):248-53. DOI:10.3346/jkms.2014.29.2.248 · 1.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG), which was first introduced in 1980, was quickly adopted for use in pediatric and adult patients. However, problems such as severe kyphoscoliosis, interposed organs, or other forms of distorted anatomy, may prevent effective and safe PEG tube placement. In such cases, laparoscopy-assisted PEG (LAPEG) is a useful optional procedure for patients with distorted anatomy and an initial unsuccessful PEG attempt. Furthermore, less invasive measures are preferable over surgical gastrostomy. We present a 27-year-old-male patient with severe kyphoscoliosis and a history of PEG-related complications with a colocutaneous fistula appearing 10 months earlier in whom a feeding tube was successfully placed by LAPEG. There were no LAPEG-related complications in the perioperative period, either technical or metabolic. After discharge, the patient was effectively fed using the bolus method.
    01/2014; 87(3):318. DOI:10.3904/kjm.2014.87.3.318
  • Sang Hoon Park
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    ABSTRACT: Weight loss via lifestyle modification remains the most efficient treatment for NAFLD. Weight loss and exercise are the cornerstones of therapy, but achieving long-term lifestyle modification is not free from difficulties. Pharmacologic therapy should be considered for patients with NAFLD unable to achieve or maintain lifestyle-induced weight loss. Unfortunately, there is no approved drug for NAFLD currently. Current treatment methods for NAFLD can be divided roughly into those methods that target components of metabolic syndrome using weight reduction and insulin sensitizers (pioglitazone) and those that use antioxidants (Vitamin E) to benefit the liver. Pioglitazone has been shown to improve steatosis, hepatocellular ballooning, and inflammation and also to reduce the risk of fibrosis progression in several randomized-controlled trials (RCTs). In a large RCT, large doses of vitamin E improved all histological lesions except for fibrosis. Compared with a placebo, Metformin lowered ALT, but did not improve liver histology. Recently, novel anti-diabetic agents (GLP-1 analogues, DPP IV inhibitors) and probiotics that alter the gut microbiome were shown to mildly benefit ALT and liver histology. In this report, we systemically review current pharmacologic therapies and other promising agents that were not considered in the most recent guidelines for the treatment of NAFLD.
    01/2014; 86(4):425. DOI:10.3904/kjm.2014.86.4.425
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    ABSTRACT: A spherical high density polyethylene (HDPE) with a diameter of more than 0.2 µm was obtained from emulsion crystallization of an HDPE/1-dodecanol/triethylene glycol system. A multilamination type or split-and-recombine type micromixer was used for continuous production of HDPE particles. The micromixers provided a high heat and mass transfer rate between the HDPE/1-dodecanol solution and the cold immiscible nonsolvent triethylene glycol. This process could easily realize a supercooled uniform emulsion for HDPE crystallization. The particle size of HDPE could be controlled from the operating conditions of the continuous-flow micromixer system.
    Journal of chemical engineering of Japan 01/2014; 47(2):141-145. DOI:10.1252/jcej.13we084 · 0.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Liver stiffness measurement (LSM) by transient elastography is a non-invasive method to assess liver fibrosis. Decline in LSM value has been reported after antiviral treatment (AVT) using nucleos(t)ide analogues (NUCs) in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients, however, factors associated with changes in LSM during AVT remains unclear. A total of 76 CHB patients who received AVT with NUCs and had serial LSM (median duration: 16 months, range: 12 to 35 months) during AVT were analyzed. Complete virological response (CVR) was defined when hepatitis B virus DNA level was undetectable by real-time PCR assay (< 50 copies/mL). LSM value had significantly decreased after AVT with NUCs [median (quartile): 6.5 (4.7-9.2) to 5.3 (3.9-6.7), P<0.001]. The median change of LSM value/year was -0.8 (range: -9.5∼4.9). The annual change of LSM value was associated with baseline total bilirubin levels, HBeAg status and achievement of CVR during follow-up in univariable analysis, and achievement of CVR during follow-up was an only independent factor associated with the annual change of LSM value [beta coefficients (95% confidence interval)=-0.29 (-2.81∼-0.26), P=0.02]. The annual LSM change was significantly different between those who achieved and did not achieve CVR (median change: -1.08/year vs. 0.26/year, P<0.01), and more patients with CVR had decrease in LSM value (89% (47/53) vs. 35% (8/23), P<0.01). A significant decrease in LSM value was observed in CHB patients after AVT with NUCs. Achievement of CVR was significant factor associated with change in LSM value. Achieving CVR might be a key to decrease LSM value during AVT with NUCs.
    Gastroentérologie Clinique et Biologique 11/2013; 38(2). DOI:10.1016/j.clinre.2013.10.003 · 1.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The genotypic shift of hepatitis A virus (HAV) and its correlation with clinical course has not been evaluated in acute hepatitis A (AHA). Methods: From June 2007 to May 2009, we prospectively enrolled 546 AHA patients. We performed a nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using the serum samples in addition to phylogenetic analysis, then we compared patient clinical features. Results: Among 351 successfully genotyped patients, we found genotype IIIA in 178 patients (51%) and IA in 173 patients (49%). The sequences of genotype IA are identical to previously reported Korean genotype IA, and the new IIIA genotype is closely related to NOR24/Norway. We retrospectively analyzed 41 AHA samples collected from 2000 to 2006 and found that all of them were genotype IA. Patients with genotype IIIA showed significantly higher levels of aspartate aminotransferase, higher levels of alanine aminotransferase, and lower platelet counts than patients with genotype IA when comparing baseline laboratory data or peak/lowest laboratory data during the disease course. However, there were no differences in duration of hospital stay, incidence of cholestatic hepatitis, acute kidney injury, and acute liver failure, or mortality between them. Conclusions: A genotypic shift of the HAV was identified in Korean AHA subjects, and genotype IIIA HAV has become endemic. Although there were significant differences in the biochemical responses of AHA between genotype IA and genotype IIIA patients, we did not detect any differences in clinical outcomes such as complications or mortality.
    Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases 07/2013; 45(11). DOI:10.3109/00365548.2013.805425 · 1.64 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

575 Citations
166.87 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2015
    • Pusan National University
      • Department of Biological Sciences
      Tsau-liang-hai, Busan, South Korea
    • Seoul Medical Center
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • National Health Insurance Corporation Ilsan Hospital
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2013–2015
    • Inje University
      Kŭmhae, Gyeongsangnam-do, South Korea
    • Inha University Hospital
      Sinhyeon, South Gyeongsang, South Korea
  • 2014
    • Konkuk University
      • Department of Biological Engineering
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2011–2014
    • Korea University
      • • Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Chonnam National University
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Gwangju, Gwangju, South Korea
  • 2009–2014
    • Seoul National University
      • • Department of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering
      • • Department of Architecture
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Sungkyunkwan University
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Pohang University of Science and Technology
      • Division of Molecular and Life Sciences
      Antō, North Gyeongsang, South Korea
  • 2003–2014
    • Hallym University
      • College of Medicine
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2012
    • Soonchunhyang University
      Onyang, Chungcheongnam-do, South Korea
    • Catholic University of Korea
      • Department of Urology
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2010–2012
    • Chonbuk National University
      Tsiuentcheou, Jeollabuk-do, South Korea
    • Kyung Hee University
      • Department of Mechanical Engineering
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2003–2012
    • Hallym University Medical Center
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2009–2011
    • Inje University Paik Hospital
      • Department of Dermatology
      Kōyō, Gyeonggi Province, South Korea
  • 2009–2010
    • Kangbuk Samsung Hospital
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea