Klaus-Peter Schmitz

University of Rostock, Rostock, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany

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Publications (76)178.91 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: As it has been demonstrated that bioactive substances can be delivered locally using coated surgical suture materials we developed a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-releasing suture material that should promote vascularization and potentially wound healing. In this context, we focused on the characterization of the developed suture material and the verification of its biological activity, as well as established a coating process which allows reproducible and stable coating of a commercially available polydioxanone (PDS) suture material with poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) and 0.1μg and 1.0μg VEGF. The in vitro VEGF release kinetics was studied using a Sandwich ELISA. The biological activity of the released VEGF was investigated in vitro using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The potential of the VEGF-releasing suture material was also studied in vivo as five days after implantation in the hind limb of Wistar rats histological findings were analyzed. As essential result, enhanced cell viability in vitro as well as significantly increased vascularization in vivo were achieved using the PLLA/1.0μg VEGF-coated suture material. Furthermore, ELISA measurements revealed a high reproducibility of the VEGF release behavior. Based on the achieved results regarding the dose-effect relationship of VEGF, the stability during its processing and the release behavior it can be predicted that a bioactive suture material would be successful in later in vivo studies. Therefore, this knowledge could be the basis for future studies where bioactive substances with different modes of action will be combined for a targeted, overall enhancement of wound healing.
    Acta biomaterialia. 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The high degree of clinical routine in percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) with and without stenting has not changed the fact that a large number of coronary heart disease patients are still affected by post-operative complications such as restenosis and thrombosis. Because re-endothelialization is the crucial aspect of wound healing after cardiovascular implant surgery, there is a need for modern biomaterials to aid endothelial cells in their adhesion and functional recovery post-stenting. This study systematically examines the potential of numerous chemical polymer modifications with regard to endothelialization. Poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and its chemically activated forms are investigated in detail, as well as the impact of polymer surface morphology and precoating with matrix protein. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) are used to characterize endothelial cell responses in terms of in vitro viability and adhesion. As a potential component in drug eluting implants, VEGF is applied as stimulus to boost endothelial cell proliferation on the polymer. In conclusion, plasma chemical activation of PCL combined with VEGF stimulation best enhances in vitro endothelialization. Examining the impact of morphological, chemical and biological modifications of PCL, this study makes an important new contribution towards the existing body of work on polymer endothelialization.
    Journal of Materials Science Materials in Medicine 05/2014; · 2.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Enhanced proliferation of human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (HCASMCs) and thereby formation of neointima is one of the factors contributing to failure of coronary stents. Even if the use of drug eluting stents and thereby the local delivery of cytotoxic compounds has significantly improved clinical outcome, unselective cytotoxicity is assumed to hamper clinical success. Novel pharmacological approaches are required to enhance cellular selectivity of locally delivered drugs. Cell specific overexpression of a drug transporter could be used to enhance cellular accumulation and therefore cell specificity. In the herein reported study we tested the possibility of cell specific transporter expression to enhance drug effects in HCASMCs. We generated adenoviral constructs to overexpress the organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1) under control of the promoter of SM22α, which had been previously reported as muscle cell-specific gene. First the activity of the SM22α-promoter was assessed in various cell types supporting the notion of muscle cell-specificity. Subsequently, the activity of the transporter was compared in infected human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs) and HCASMCs revealing enhanced accumulation of substrate drugs in HCASMCs in presence of the SM22α-promoter. Testing the hypothesis that this kind of targeting might serve as a mechanism for cell-specific drug effects we investigated the impact on paclitaxel treatment in HCASMC and HCAECs, showing significantly increased anti-proliferative activity of this substrate drug on muscle cells. Taken together, our findings suggest that cell-specific expression of transport proteins serves as mechanism governing the uptake of cytotoxic compounds for a selective impact on targeted cells.
    Molecular Pharmaceutics 02/2014; · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Impaired re-endothelialization and stent thrombosis are a safety concern associated with drug-eluting stents (DES). PI3K/p110α controls cellular wound healing pathways, thereby representing an emerging drug target to modulate vascular homoeostasis after injury. PI3K/p110α was inhibited by treatment with the small molecule inhibitor PIK75 or a specific siRNA. Arterial thrombosis, neointima formation, and re-endothelialization were studied in a murine carotid artery injury model. Proliferation and migration of human vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) and endothelial cell (EC) were assessed by cell number and Boyden chamber, respectively. Endothelial senescence was evaluated by the β-galactosidase assay, endothelial dysfunction by organ chambers for isometric tension. Arterial thrombus formation was delayed in mice treated with PIK75 when compared with controls. PIK75 impaired arterial expression and activity of tissue factor (TF) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1); in contrast, plasma clotting and platelet aggregation did not differ. In VSMC and EC, PIK75 inhibited expression and activity of TF and PAI-1. These effects occurred at the transcriptional level via the RhoA signalling cascade and the transcription factor NFkB. Furthermore, inhibition of PI3K/p110α with PIK75 or a specific siRNA selectively impaired proliferation and migration of VSMC while sparing EC completely. Treatment with PIK75 did not induce endothelial senescence nor inhibit endothelium-dependent relaxations. In line with this observation, treatment with PIK75 selectively inhibited neointima formation without affecting re-endothelialization following vascular injury. Following vascular injury, PI3K/p110α inhibition selectively interferes with arterial thrombosis and neointima formation, but not re-endothelialization. Hence, PI3K/p110α represents an attractive new target in DES design.
    European Heart Journal 12/2013; · 14.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) is a conventionally applied hydrophilic lubricious coating on catheter-based cardiovascular devices, used in order to ease movement through the vasculature. Its use as drug reservoir and transfer agent on drug-coated balloons (DCB) is therefore extremely promising with regard to the simplification of its approval as a medical device. Here, we developed a PVP-based coating for DCB, containing paclitaxel (PTX) as a model drug, and studied the impact of crosslinking via UV radiation on drug stability, wash off, and transfer during simulated use in an in vitro vessel model. We showed that crosslinking was essential for coating stability and needed to be performed prior to PTX incorporation due to decreased drug bioavailability as a result of photodecomposition and/or involvement in vinylic polymerization with PVP under UV radiation. Moreover, the crosslinking time needed to be carefully controlled. While short radiation times did not provide enough coating stability, associated with high wash off rates during DCB insertion, long radiation times lowered drug transfer efficiency upon balloon expansion. A ten minutes radiation of PVP, however, combined a minimized drug wash off rate of 34% with an efficient drug transfer of 49%, underlining the high potential of photochemically crosslinked PVP as a coating matrix for DCB.
    Coatings Magazine 12/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Drug-coated balloons (DCB), which have emerged as therapeutic alternative to drug-eluting stents in percutaneous cardiovascular intervention, are well described with regard to clinical efficiency and safety within a number of clinical studies. In vitro studies elucidating the correlation of coating method and composition with DCB performance are however rare but considered important for the understanding of DCB requirements and the improvement of established DCB. In this context, we evaluated the applicability of a pipetting, dip-coating, and spray-coating process for the establishment of DCB based on paclitaxel (PTX) and the ionic liquid cetylpyridinium salicylate (Cetpyrsal) as novel innovative additive in three different compositions. Among tested methods and compositions, the pipetting process with 50wt.% PTX resulted in most promising coatings as drug load was less controllable by the other processes and higher PTX contents led to considerable drug crystallization, as visualized by electron microscopy, accelerating PTX loss during short-term elution. Applying these conditions, homogeneous coatings could be applied on balloon catheter, whose simulated use in an in vitro vessel model revealed percental drug losses of 36 and 28% during transit and percental drug transfers of 12 and 40% under expansion for coatings applied in expanded and folded balloon condition, respectively. In comparison to literature values, these results support the high potential of Cetpyrsal as novel DCB matrix regarding low drug loss and efficient drug transfer.
    Materials science & engineering. C, Materials for biological applications. 10/2013; 33(7):4244-50.
  • Biomedizinische Technik/Biomedical Engineering 09/2013; · 1.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aiming at a speed up of the re-endothelialization process of biodegradable endovascular implants, novel approaches for the functionalization of poly(l-lactide) (PLLA) with anti-CD34 antibodies were established. We propose a three-step process involving PLLA surface activation with functional amino groups, attachment of a protein repelling peptide spacer, and covalent random or site-selective immobilization of the antibodies. Obtainable antibody surface densities and antigen binding capacities were thoroughly evaluated by means of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results indicate that a lower amount of anchoring sites on the antibody favors high coupling efficiency, while localization of the anchoring sites, facing the antigen binding moiety, strongly enhances the antigen capture capacity of the support. Besides minimization of physisorption and cell adhesion exemplarily shown with bovine serum albumin, avidin, and human umbilical vein endothelial cells, respectively, the inclusion of the protein-repelling spacer strengthened this effect, yielding antigen capture capacities exceeding values so far reported in literature. In contrast, the number of amino groups on the PLLA surfaces, which is indeed highly dependent on the applied activation procedure, does not seem to influence antibody coupling efficiency and antigen capture capacity considerably. This allows the choice of surface activation treatment, plasma or wet-chemical, regarding other processing parameters as for instance sterilizability or favored modification depth. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2013.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 09/2013; · 2.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Fully absorbable drug-eluting stent platforms are currently entering the clinical arena for the interventional treatment of coronary artery disease. This new technology also holds potential for application in peripheral vascular settings. Our study reports on the development of a sirolimus- (SIR) eluting absorbable polymer stent made from a blend of poly(l-lactide) and poly(4-hydroxybutyrate) (PLLA/P4HB) for peripheral vascular intervention. Stent prototypes were laser-cut from PLLA/P4HB tubes (I.D.=2.2 mm, t=250 µm), spray-coated with different PLLA/P4HB/SIR solutions, and bench-tested to determine expansion properties, fatigue, trackability and in vitro drug release kinetics. The stent prototypes were expanded with a 5.0×20 mm balloon catheter, and exhibited a recoil of 3.6% upon balloon deflation. Stent collapse pressure of 0.4 bar (300 mm Hg) was measured under external pressure load. Sustained scaffolding properties were observed in vitro over 14 weeks of radial fatigue loading (50±25 mm Hg at 1.2 Hz). Trackability was demonstrated in bench tests with an 8 French contralateral introducer sheath. SIR release kinetics were adjusted over a broad range by varying the PLLA/P4HB ratio of the coating matrix. The newly developed absorbable SIR-eluting PLLA/P4HB stent successfully fulfilled the requirements for peripheral vascular intervention under in vitro conditions.
    Biomedizinische Technik/Biomedical Engineering 07/2013; · 1.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: For developing injectable lenses the retention properties of the capsular bag are important. Therefore the apparent permeability coefficients of sodium fluorescein and fluorescent dextrans of different sizes were determined for the human anterior lens capsule to calculate a molecular weight cutoff from these data. In addition, permeability coefficients of drugs helpful for the suppression of secondary cataract were determined. Materials and Methods: Capsulorhexis specimens were fixed in a specially designed two compartment diffusion chamber to investigate the permeation of sodium fluorescein and fluorescent dextrans of different sizes (10, 40, 70 and 150 kDa) for 24 h (n ≥ 3) and of the antiproliferative drugs actinomycin D and methotrexate for 0.5, 24, 48 and 72 h (n ≥ 3). Results: The molecular weight cutoff of the anterior lens capsule was found to be 166 ± 82 kDa. After 0.5 h, no passage of actinomycin D and methotrexate was detectable through the lens capsule. The apparent permeability coefficients for actinomycin D and methotrexate were calculated to 0.71 ± 0.02 µm/s and to 0.80 ± 0.13 µm/s, respectively. Conclusions: The capsular bag retains fluorescent dextrans with a molecular weight of >166 kDa. Hence, prepolymers are required to polymerize rapidly to be retained inside of the capsular bag. In addition, low-molecular substances intended as antiproliferative drugs for secondary cataract prevention should be applied within a time frame of five minutes in such a way that cells adjacent to the capsular bag will not be damaged.
    Current eye research 07/2013; · 1.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Within the context of novel stent designs we developed a dual drug-eluting stent (DDES) with an abluminally focussed release of the potent anti-proliferative drug sirolimus and a luminally focussed release of atorvastatin with stabilizing effect on atherosclerotic deposits and stimulating impact on endothelial function, both from biodegradable poly(L-lactide)-based stent coatings. With this concept we aim at simultaneous inhibition of in-stent restenosis as a result of disproportionally increased smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration as well as thrombosis due to failed or incomplete endothelialisation. The especially adapted spray-coating processes allowed the formation of smooth form-fit polymer coatings at the abluminal and luminal side with 70 % respectively 90 % of the drug/polymer solution being deposited at the intended stent surface. The impacts of tempering, sterilization, and layer composition on drug release are thoroughly discussed making use of a semi-empirical model. While tempering at 80 °C seems to be necessary for the achievement of adequate and sustained drug release, the coating sequence for DDES should be rather abluminal-luminal than luminal-abluminal, as reduction of the amount of sirolimus eluted luminally could then potentially minimize the provocation of endothelial dysfunction. In vitro proliferation and viability assays with smooth muscle and endothelial cells underline the high potential of the developed DDES.
    Journal of Materials Science Materials in Medicine 07/2013; · 2.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Implants providing controlled, local release of active substances are of interest in different medical applications. Therefore, the focus of the present article is the development of implant-associated diffusion- or chemically controlled local drug delivery (LDD) systems based on biodegradable polymeric drug carriers. In this context, we provide new data and review our own recently published data concerning the drug release behavior of diffusion-controlled LDD systems in relation to the kind of polymer, drug content, coating mass/thickness, and layer composition. We demonstrate that polymers allow a wide range of control over the drug release characteristics. In this regard, we show that the glass transition temperature of a polymer has an impact on its drug release. Additionally, the blending of hydrophobic, semicrystalline polymers with amorphous polymers leads to an increase in the rate of drug release compared with the pure semicrystalline polymer. Moreover, the percentage loading of the embedded drug has a considerable effect on the rate and duration of drug release. Furthermore, we discuss chemically controlled LDD systems designed for the release of biomolecules, such as growth factors, as well as nanoparticle-mediated LDD systems. With our own published data on drug-eluting stents, microstents, and cochlear implants, we highlight exemplary implant-associated LDD systems designed to improve implant performance through the reduction of undesirable effects such as in-stent restenosis and fibrosis.
    Biomedizinische Technik/Biomedical Engineering 06/2013; · 1.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The development of drug-eluting coatings based on hyaluronic acid (HA) is especially promising for implant-associated local drug delivery (LDD) systems, whose implantation provokes high insertion forces, as, for instance, cochlear implants or drug-coated balloons (DCB). The lubricious character of HA can then reduce the coefficient of friction and serve as drug reservoir simultaneously. In this context, we investigated several plasma- and wet-chemical methods for the deposition of HA-based coatings with LDD function on polyamide 12 as a model implant surface, conventionally used for DCB. In contrast to aminosilane, epoxy silane surface layers allowed the covalent attachment of a smooth and uniform HA base layer, which provided good adherence of further HA layers deposited by manual dip coating at a subsequent processing stage. The applied HA-crosslinking procedure during dip coating influences the transfer and release of paclitaxel, which could be reproducibly incorporated via infiltration. While crosslinking with N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N′-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride provided HA coatings on DCB, which allowed for an efficient paclitaxel transfer upon expansion in a vessel model, crosslinking with glutardialdehyde resulted in a slower drug release being more appropriate for implants with longer residence time in the body. The developed HA coating is hence well suited for spontaneous and sustained LDD.
    Journal of Chemistry. 04/2013; 2013.
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    ABSTRACT: For an aqueous shunt draining from the anterior chamber into the choroidal space, fibroblasts from the choroidea and/or the sclera are most likely responsible for a fibrotic response around the outflow region of such a shunt. The prevention of fibrosis should extend the operating life of the shunt. A detailed characterization of fibroblasts derived from choroidea and sclera should provide information about whether a fibrosis reaction can be inhibited by cell type-specific agents. We generated mRNA profiles of fibroblasts from the choroidea, sclera, and Tenon's space by gene array hybridization to provide a basis on which to search for potential pharmacological targets for fibrosis prevention. Hybridization data were analyzed by the Rosetta Resolver system and Limma to obtain mRNA profiles of the three fibroblast types. The three fibroblast types investigated shared fibroblast-specific gene expression patterns concerning extracellular matrix proteins as collagens and fibronectin, but also showed distinct mRNA patterns. Individual mRNA species overexpressed in one of the fibroblast types might serve as markers for the identification of the fibroblast type in histological analyses. Future in-depth analyses of the gene expression patterns might help identify pharmacological targets for fibrosis prevention.
    Molecular vision 01/2013; 19:1321-1331. · 1.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Biodegradability and adhesive-associated local drug release are important aspects of research in tissue adhesive development. Therefore, this study focuses on investigating the in vitro degradation and drug release of a tissue adhesive consisting of hexamethylene diisocyanate functionalized 1,2-ethylene glycol bis(dilactic acid) and chitosan chloride. To prevent infections, ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (CPX·HCl) was incorporated into the adhesive. The influence of CPX·HCl on the adhesive reaction and adhesive strength was analyzed by FTIR-ATR-spectroscopy and tensile tests. The CPX·HCl release was investigated by HPLC. The degradation-induced changes at 37 °C were evaluated by gravimetric/morphological analyzes and micro-computer tomography. The antibiotic potential of the CPX·HCl loaded adhesive was determined by agar diffusion tests. The degradation tests revealed a mass loss of about 78 % after 52 weeks. The adhesive reaction velocity and tensile strength were not influenced by CPX·HCl. Using a 2 mg/g CPX·HCl loaded adhesive an inhibition of all tested bacteria was observed.
    Journal of Materials Science Materials in Medicine 12/2012; · 2.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Glaucoma is a common cause of blindness in industrialized countries and is the most frequent cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Since raised intraocular pressure (IOP) has been implicated as the major risk factor, the main goal of all glaucoma treatment is to reduce IOP sufficiently to prevent continuous irreversible retinal ganglion cell damage and progression of visual field loss. Pharmacological reduction of IOP is first-line therapy, followed by laser treatment of the trabecular meshwork and filtering glaucoma surgery, and cyclophotocoagulation of the ciliary body or allogenic implants. The most important glaucoma implants are presented (Molteno, Ahmed, Baerveldt, Krupin) together with more recent developments (Ex-Press, Eyepass, iStent, Gold micro shunt). Drainage into the suprachoroidal space is a promising option, but is also limited by scarring of the new created outflow route due to proliferation and adhesion of fibroblasts. A deeper understanding of fibroblasts in the related eye compartments is required. Characterization of scleral, choroidal, and, as a reference, Tenon fibroblast subtypes, is possible based on gene expression patterns. Alongside mitomycin-C and 5-fluorouracil, newer drugs to prevent fibrosis have been proposed, offering effects that are more specific and more physiological. Effectors involved in wound healing phases and signaling pathways are potential targets for pharmaceutical intervention. Downregulation of growth factors like TGF-ß and their downstream effectors may suppress proliferation and differentiation of fibroblasts, extracellular matrix deposition, wound contraction, and neovascularization. Furthermore, current approaches to local drug delivery in glaucoma implant technology are briefly summarized.
    Current pharmaceutical biotechnology 10/2012; · 3.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Beyond their originally sole mechanical function, current drug-eluting stents (DES) implement the concept of local drug delivery for the re-opening of stenotic arterial vessels, and for prevention of in-stent restenosis as one of the major limitations of conventional bare metal stents (BMS). Current DES consist of a permanent metallic stent platform and an active agent being released from a drug-incorporated polymer coating or a porous stent surface. Although DES have impressively demonstrated their capability of reducing in-stent restenosis, their safety remains under debate due to potential risks, such as delayed healing, late thrombosis and hypersensitivity demanding further development. Current advancements in the stent design address the stent platform, the pharmacologically active substance and/or the drug carrier. For instance, novel biocompatible absorbable stent platforms and drug carriers are developed and novel drugs with a differential effect on vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells, providing efficient inhibition of muscle cells without altering the endothelial cell function, are identified. Moreover, biofunctionalization of the stent's surface with capture molecules for endothelial progenitor cells are under investigation in order to achieve an in situ endothelialization of the implant. In this context, this review paper discusses the current advances in coronary stent technology with a special focus on novel stent platforms, drugs and stent coatings for the prevention of restenosis and improvement of biocompatibility.
    Current pharmaceutical biotechnology 10/2012; · 3.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Trehalose has been shown to protect epithelial cells from desiccation damage in cell culture and the murine dry eye model. The present study evaluates the protective role of trehalose in reconstructed human corneal epithelium (3D-HCE) during desiccation. Materials and methods: The morphology of 3D-HCE was examined using in vivo an ex vivo confocal laser-scanning microscopy (CLSM). The 3D-HCE was desiccated with or without pre-treatment with trehalose. Evaluation of protective role of trehalose was conducted using different in vitro cell viability assays and CLSM. Tissue thickness for each condition was determined by optical coherence tomography (OCT). Results: 3D-HCE tissue revealed similar features with human cornea at histological level. After desiccation the percentage of living cells was only 32% in 3D-HCE tissue without pre-incubation and 98% in trehalose-pre-incubated tissue, as shown by a cell viability assay. These findings were confirmed by using a Live-Dead assay. Also, the confocal immunofluorescence analysis revealed much better preservation of tight junctions in trehalose-pre-treated tissue. Conclusions: CLSM and an in vitro cell viability assays could be successfully used for the characterization of 3D-HCE tissue. We demonstrated the protective role of trehalose using reconstructed corneal epithelium (3D-HCE), which mimics HCE and has the potential to become a valuable model in ophthalmic research.
    Current eye research 06/2012; 37(11):982-9. · 1.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This paper describes methods for design, manufacturing and characterization of a micro-mechanical valve for a novel glaucoma implant. The implant is designed to drain aqueous humour from the anterior chamber of the eye into the suprachoroidal space in case of an elevated intraocular pressure (IOP). In contrast to any existing glaucoma drainage device (GDD), the valve mechanism is located in the anterior chamber and there, surrounded by aqueous humour, immune to fibrosis induced failure. For the prevention of hypotony the micro-mechanical valve is designed to open if the physiological pressure difference between the anterior chamber and the suprachoroidal space in the range of 0.8 mmHg to 3.7 mmHg is exceeded. In particular the work includes: (i) manufacturing and morphological characterization of polymer tubing, (ii) mechanical material testing as basis for (iii) the design of micro-mechanical valves using finite element analysis (FEA), (iv) manufacturing of microstent prototypes including micro-mechanical valves by femtosecond laser micromachining and (v) the experimental fluid-mechanical characterization of the manufactured microstent prototypes with regard to valve opening pressure. The considered materials polyurethane (PUR) and silicone (SIL) exhibit low elastic modulus and high extensibility. The unique valve design enables a low opening pressure of micro-mechanical valves. An ideal valve design for PUR and SIL with an experimentally determined opening pressure of 2 mmHg and 3.7 mmHg is identified. The presented valve approach is suitable for the inhibition of hypotony as a major limitation of today's GDD and will potentially improve the minimally invasive treatment of glaucoma.
    Biomedical Microdevices 06/2012; 14(5):907-20. · 2.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A cochlear implant (CI)-associated local drug delivery system based on dexamethasone (DMS) was developed with the purpose to inhibit the growth of fibrotic tissue which influences the signal transmission from the CI to the neurons of the inner ear. For the realization of a targeted DMS delivery the following concepts were combined: modification of the silicone-based electrode carrier by incorporation of DMS and a DMS-containing polymeric coating chemically attached on the surface of the electrode carrier. It was demonstrated that the coated CI showed a high coating stability in a simulated implantation procedure. The in vitro drug release studies in a quasi-stationary model revealed a faster DMS release in the initial phase originating from the DMS-containing coatings and then a lower and sustained DMS release originating from the DMS-loaded silicone carrier. The performed in vitro biocompatibility study confirmed that the released DMS was non-toxic for cultured spiral ganglion cells.
    Journal of Materials Science Materials in Medicine 06/2012; 23(9):2151-62. · 2.14 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

552 Citations
178.91 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2001–2014
    • University of Rostock
      • • Institut für Biomedizinische Technik
      • • Orthopädische Klinik und Poliklinik
      Rostock, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany
  • 2010
    • University of Greifswald
      • Institute of Diagnostic Radiology and Neuroradiology
      Greifswald, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany