[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a common initial presentation of coronary artery disease (CAD). Despite the growing epidemic of CAD in India, the epidemiology of SCD is largely unknown.
The objective of the study was to define the prevalence and determinants of sudden cardiac deaths in rural South India.
Prospective mortality surveillance was conducted in 45 villages (180,162 subjects) in rural South India between January 2006 and October 2007. Trained multipurpose health workers sought to do verbal autopsies within 4 weeks of any death. Detailed questionnaires including comorbidities and circumstances surrounding death were recorded. SCD was adjudicated using the modified Hinkle-Thaler classification.
A total of 1916 deaths occurred in the study population over the 22 month time period and verbal autopsy was obtained in 1827 (95%) subjects. Overall mean age of the deceased was 62 ± 20 years and 1007 (55%) were men. Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases together accounted for 559 deaths (31%), followed by infectious disease (163 deaths, 9%), cancer (126 deaths, 7%) and suicide (93 deaths, 5%). Of the 1827 deaths, after excluding accidental deaths (89 deaths), 309 deaths (17%) met criteria for SCD. Cardiovascular disease was the underlying causes in the majority of the SCD events (231/309 (75%)). On multivariate analyses, previous MI/CAD (p < 0.001, OR 14.25), hypertension (p < 0.001, OR 1.84), and age groups between 40-60 yrs (p=0.029) were significantly associated with SCD.
Sudden cardiac death accounted for up to half of the cardiovascular deaths in rural Southern India. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors were strongly associated with SCD.
Indian pacing and electrophysiology journal 07/2011; 11(4):93-102.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Developing countries are experiencing increasing levels of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although there is a good understanding of how to deliver CVD prevention programs in developed countries, there are few data regarding strategies for CVD prevention in resource-poor settings. This study aimed to implement and evaluate a CVD prevention program in a rural area of India.
The 2 strategies of CVD prevention to be investigated are an algorithm-based care approach and a health-promotion campaign. A factorial, cluster-randomized trial design will be used to evaluate these, in which villages will be exposed to one, both, or neither of the interventions for a period of about 12 months. Surveys of households in every village will be used to assess outcomes in all high-risk individuals and a sample of the general adult population.
The primary outcome of the algorithm-based component of this study will be the percentage of high-risk individuals that have been "identified"-defined as having received a cardiovascular-risk assessment in the last 12 months. The primary outcome for the health-promotion component will be the percentage of the adult population with correct knowledge about the effects of 6 behavioral determinants of cardiovascular risk (green-leafy vegetables, fruits, oily foods, salt, smoking, physical activity). Secondary outcomes include a range of measures defining uptake of different preventive strategies.
This study will provide evidence about the effectiveness of a simple practical mechanism of CVD preventive care specifically designed for delivery in a resource-poor area in India.
American heart journal 10/2009; 158(3):349-55. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Both migrant and local urban populations of Asian Indians have high rates of cardiovascular disease. Metabolic risk factors appear key to this phenomenon but data from rural India are few. We sought to determine the prevalence and distribution of lipids, obesity and metabolic syndrome in a rural region of Andhra Pradesh.
Sampling was done in 20 villages representative of the project area with an age- and sex-stratified group of 4535 adults > or =30 years selected at random from a local census list. The sample represented 13% of all adults > or =30 years in the 20 villages with a response rate of 81%. All participants had interviewer administered questionnaire, physical examination and fasting finger-prick glucose. Every fourth individual had venous blood testing for lipid profile (n=1085). Analysis was done using weighting to obtain estimates of risk factor levels for the adult population in the 20 villages. In addition to standard WHO and 2005 NCEP-ATPIII classifications, exploratory 'Asian' definitions were used for overweight and abdominal obesity.
The population mean levels of total, LDL, HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides were 4.5 (4.4-4.6) mmol/L, 2.8 (2.7-2.9) mmol/L, 1.1 (1.06-1.13) mmol/L, 1.5 (1.4-1.6) mmol/L for men; and 4.8 (4.7-4.9) mmol/L, 3.0 (3.0-3.1) mmol/L, 1.2 (1.16-1.22) mmol/L, 1.3 (1.2-1.4) mmol/L for women. 18.4% of men and 26.3% of women were overweight rising to 32.4% of men and 41.4% of women if 'Asian' definitions were used. Criteria for NCEP-ATPIII metabolic syndrome were met by 26.9% of men and 18.4% of women with figures of 32.5% and 23.9%, respectively, if 'Asian' waist cut-offs were substituted.
Dyslipidaemia, adiposity and metabolic syndrome were common in this rural Indian population and prevalence was much greater if proposed Asian definitions for adiposity were used. Metabolic risk factors likely play a major role in cardiovascular disease in this region.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: India is undergoing rapid epidemiological transition as a consequence of economic and social change. The pattern of mortality is a key indicator of the consequent health effects but up-to-date, precise, and reliable statistics are few, particularly in rural areas.
Deaths occurring in 45 villages (population 180 162) were documented during a 12-month period in 2003-04 by multipurpose primary healthcare workers trained in the use of a verbal autopsy tool. Algorithms were used to define causes of death according to a limited list derived from the international classification of disease version 10. Causes were assigned by two independent physicians with disagreements resolved by a third.
A total of 1354 deaths were recorded with verbal autopsies completed for 98%. A specific underlying cause of death was assigned for 82% of all verbal autopsies done. The crude death rate was 7.5/1000 (95% confidence interval, 7.1-7.9). Diseases of the circulatory system were the leading causes of mortality (32%), with similar proportions of deaths attributable to ischaemic heart disease and stroke. Second was injury and external causes of mortality (13%) with one-third of these deaths attributable to deliberate self harm. Third were infectious and parasitic diseases (12%). Tuberculosis and intestinal conditions each caused one-third of deaths within this category. HIV was assigned as the cause for 2% of all deaths. The fourth and fifth leading causes of death were neoplasms (7%) and diseases of the respiratory system (5%).
Non-communicable and chronic diseases are the leading causes of death in this part of rural India. The observed pattern of death is unlikely to be unique to these villages and provides new insight into the rapid progression of epidemiological transition in rural India.
International Journal of Epidemiology 01/2007; 35(6):1522-9. · 6.98 Impact Factor