[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To identify the risk factors for cystic fibrosis related liver disease.
Ten patients out of a total of 106 patients regularly followed-up during 1999 met the clinical, biochemical and/or ultrasound criteria for liver disease (9.4%). Using information from the admissions records at the service, we collected data on demography, genotype, age and manifestations at diagnosis of cystic fibrosis, nutritional status and laboratory findings. Variables associated with liver disease were initially identified by the Kaplan-Meier method. Those factors that were significant in the univariate analysis were included in the multivariate analysis by means of a Cox regression model.
Under univariate analysis the following factors were associated with liver disease: male sex, age at diagnosis of cystic fibrosis, pancreatic insufficiency, z score for weight at admission, Shwachman score and biochemistry at admission. After adjustment by Cox model, two variables were independently associated with liver disease: Shwachman score (p = 0.0057) and age at diagnosis of cystic fibrosis (p = 0.014).
The risk of developing liver disease is higher among patients diagnosed at an early age and those with worse clinical status as assessed by the Shwachman score, indicating that liver involvement might be part of a more severe form of the condition. These patients merit greater attention in terms of screening for liver disease and should be given treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid earlier in the event of abnormal findings.
Jornal de Pediatria 11/2005; 81(6):478-84. DOI:10.2223/JPED.1398 · 1.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To describe the hepatic abnormalities revealed by ultrasound examination of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients followed at the CF Outpatient Clinic at the Federal University of Minas Gerais; to compare ultrasound data with clinical and biochemical parameters; to validate the Williams ultrasound score for the diagnosis of liver disease in CF.
Seventy cystic fibrosis patients were followed prospectively and underwent clinical, biochemical and ultrasound examinations. The ultrasound findings were compared to the results of the clinical and biochemical examinations. Clinical and biochemical criteria were used as the gold standard for the validation of the Williams ultrasound score. We calculated the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for the Williams score. The patients were divided into two groups: normal (score = 3) or abnormal (score > 3) ultrasound examination.
Ten patients met the clinical and/or biochemical criteria for liver disease (14.3%). All of them presented some abnormality on ultrasound examination of the liver. Abnormalities of the hepatic parenchyma, edge and periportal fibrosis were statistically more frequent in these patients. The Williams ultrasound score showed high specificity (91.7%; CI 80.9-96.9), but low sensitivity (50%; CI 20.1-79.9) for the diagnosis of liver disease.
The Williams ultrasound score was not a good screening tool when compared to the clinical and biochemical examinations. Since there are currently no adequate tests that can be used to diagnose liver disease, we recommend a sequential evaluation combining clinical, biochemical and ultrasound examinations for the diagnosis of liver disease in CF.
Jornal de Pediatria 09/2004; 80(5):380-6. DOI:10.2223/1222 · 1.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of a pre-thickened infant formula (Nan AR) with a conventional homemade formula in the reduction of regurgitation and vomiting in infants with gastroesophageal reflux.\par
A hundred children, under 12 months, not exclusively breast feeding, were select for the study. Forty-eight were treated with conventional formula with starch and 52 with pre-thickened infant formula.\par
There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in the improvement or cure of symptoms, each treatment having been effective.\par
Thickened formulas, pre-thickened or home-thickened, have shown the same efficacy in the management of gastroesophageal reflux in children.
Jornal de Pediatria 02/2003; 79(1):49-54. · 1.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the prevalence of clinical and biochemical abnormalities suggestive of liver disease in the population of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) seen at the CF Outpatient Clinic of the Federal University of Minas Gerais; to describe the group of patients with liver disease and to compare it with the group without liver disease, regarding several clinical and laboratory variables.
Descriptive study, resultant of a prospective, and partially retrospective assessment of 106 patients with CF. Liver disease was defined by the presence of firm hepatomegaly (>2.5 cm from the right costal margin), and/or splenomegaly, and/or persistent and significant increase (>1.5 times the upper limit of normality, over six months) of at least two serum liver enzymes (alanine aminotransferase--ALT, aspartate aminotransferase--AST, alkaline phosphatase--ALP, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase--GGT).
Hepatomegaly was verified in seven patients (6.6%) and splenomegaly in five (4.7%). AST activity was altered in 18.9% of the patients, ALT in 9.4%, GGT in 11.3%, and ALP in 46.2%. Significant and persistent increase in liver enzyme activities was verified in nine patients (8.5%). Ten patients with CF (9.4%) fulfill the criteria for liver disease. Other causes of liver disease were excluded. The mean age of the patients with liver disease was 7.7 years. There was absolute predominance of the male sex. All the patients are without symptoms.
The prevalence of liver disease associated with CF was 9.4%. The frequent and transitory insignificant elevations of liver enzymes are well documented in the literature. Its significance as a predictor of liver disease has not been determined yet. However, the results of this study enhance the need for longitudinal assessment in order to define cases of liver disease in CF.
Jornal de Pediatria 10/2002; 78(5):389-96. · 1.19 Impact Factor