M C Guillemin

Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China

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Publications (23)94.09 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Arsenic has recently been identified as an effective drug in the treatment of newly diagnosed and relapsed acute promyelocytic leukemia. Indeed, arsenic trioxide combined with all-trans retinoic acid shows a synergistic effect. Mechanistically, arsenic targets the key leukemogenic protein PML-RARalpha, setting up a new example of molecular target-based cancer therapy.
    Current topics in microbiology and immunology 02/2007; 313:129-44. · 3.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The promyelocytic leukemia retinoic acid receptor alpha (PMLRARalpha) chimeric protein is associated with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). PMLRARalpha transgenic mice develop leukemia only after several months, suggesting that PMLRARalpha does not by itself confer a fully malignant phenotype. Suppression of apoptosis can have a central role in tumorigenesis; therefore, we assessed whether BCL-2 influenced the ability of PMLRARalpha to initiate leukemia. Evaluation of preleukemic animals showed that whereas PMLRARalpha alone modestly altered neutrophil maturation, the combination of PMLRARalpha and BCL-2 caused a marked accumulation of immature myeloid cells in bone marrow. Leukemias developed more rapidly in mice coexpressing PMLRARalpha and BCL-2 than in mice expressing PMLRARalpha alone, and all mice expressing both transgenes succumbed to leukemia by 7 mo. Although both preleukemic, doubly transgenic mice and leukemic animals had abundant promyelocytes in the bone marrow, only leukemic mice exhibited thrombocytopenia and dissemination of immature cells. Recurrent gain of chromosomes 7, 8, 10, and 15 and recurrent loss of chromosome 2 were identified in the leukemias. These chromosomal changes may be responsible for the suppression of normal hematopoiesis and dissemination characteristic of the acute leukemias. Our results indicate that genetic changes that inhibit apoptosis can cooperate with PMLRARalpha to initiate APL.
    Journal of Experimental Medicine 03/2001; 193(4):531-43. · 13.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Foamy viruses (FVs) are complex retroviruses which have been isolated from different animal species including nonhuman primates, cattle, and cats. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of a new FV isolated from blood samples of horses. Similar to other FVs, the equine foamy virus (EFV) exhibits a highly characteristic ultrastructure and induces syncytium formation and subsequent cell lysis on a large number of cell lines. Molecular cloning of EFV reveals that the general organization is that of other known FVs, whereas sequence similarity with its bovine FV counterpart is only 40%. Interestingly, EFV buds exclusively from the plasma membrane and not from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), as previously shown for other FVs. The absence of the ER retrieval dilysine motif in EFV Env is likely responsible for this unexpected sorting pathway.
    Journal of Virology 06/2000; 74(9):4064-73. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) patients, retinoic acid (RA) triggers differentiation while arsenic trioxide (arsenic) induces both a partial differentiation and apoptosis. Although their mechanisms of action are believed to be distinct, these two drugs both induce the catabolism of the oncogenic promyelocytic leukemia (PML)/RARalpha fusion protein. While APL cell lines resistant to one agent are sensitive to the other, the benefit of combining RA and arsenic in cell culture is controversial, and thus far, no data are available in patients. Using syngenic grafts of leukemic blasts from PML/RARalpha transgenic mice as a model for APL, we demonstrate that arsenic induces apoptosis and modest differentiation, and prolongs mouse survival. Furthermore, combining arsenic with RA accelerates tumor regression through enhanced differentiation and apoptosis. Although RA or arsenic alone only prolongs survival two- to threefold, associating the two drugs leads to tumor clearance after a 9-mo relapse-free period. These studies establishing RA/arsenic synergy in vivo prompt the use of combined arsenic/RA treatments in APL patients and exemplify how mouse models of human leukemia can be used to design or optimize therapies.
    Journal of Experimental Medicine 05/1999; 189(7):1043-52. · 13.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human foamy virus (HFV) belongs to the spumaretrovirus group of the Retroviridae taxonomic family. Attempts to associate HFV or other foamy viruses to a specific pathology still remain unsuccessful. However, viral gene expression as well as tissue-specific tropism in an in vivo context remain poorly analyzed. To address this issue, we have infected domestic rabbits with a single dose of HFV and followed them at the biological and molecular levels for 5 years. No apparent pathology was detectable in the infected animals which have developed a strong immunological response against major viral proteins. We found that HFV provirus in blood cells and several organs persisted predominantly in its defective form, delta HFV, suggesting that in vivo viral persistence could be related to homologous interference as was recently shown in vitro. This animal model might be useful for studying the in vivo targets of HFV and should also be convenient for testing therapeutic effects of antiretroviral drugs.
    Virology 03/1997; 228(2):263-8. · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is specifically associated to a t(15; 17) translocation which fuses a gene encoding a nuclear receptor for retinoic acid, RARalpha, to a previously unknown gene PML. The PML protein is localized in the nucleus on a specific domain of unknown function (PML nuclear bodies, NB) previously detected with autoimmune sera from patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). These bodies are nuclear matrix-associated and all of their identified components (PML, Sp100, and NDP52) are sharply upregulated by interferons. We show that autoantibodies against both PML and Sp100 are usually associated in sera with multiple nuclear dot anti-nuclear antibodies and demonstrate that PML is an autoantigen, not only in PBC, but also in other autoimmune diseases. In APL, the PML/RARalpha fusion interferes with both the retinoic acid (RA) response and PML localization on nuclear bodies, but the respective contribution of each defect to leukemogenesis is unclear. RA induces the terminal differentiation of APL blasts, yielding to complete remissions, and corrects the localization of NB antigens. Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) also induces remissions in APL, seemingly through induction of apoptosis. We show that in APL, As2O3 leads to the rapid reformation of PML bodies. Thus, both agents correct the defect in NB antigen localization, stressing the role of nuclear bodies in the pathogenesis of APL.
    Experimental Cell Research 01/1997; 229(2):253-60. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PML is a nuclear matrix protein with growth suppressing properties, whose expression is deregulated during oncogenesis. Moreover, in the t(15;17) translocation of acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL), PML fusion to the retinoic acid receptor alpha (RAR alpha) is the likely molecular basis of leukaemogenesis. Here we show that interferons (IFNs) alpha, beta, and gamma upregulate PML mRNA expression. Analysis of 5' genomic sequences of the PML gene revealed an IFN-alpha/-beta stimulated response element (ISRE) and an IFN-gamma activation site (GAS) in the untranslated first exon. Binding of IFN signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) was demonstrated to be weak for the PML GAS, but strong for the PML ISRE which also seemed to contribute substantially to the IFN-gamma response. Thus, PML is a primary target gene of IFNs and would appear as a suitable candidate for mediating some of their antiproliferative effects. Abnormalities of PML structure, localisation or expression in human malignancy, constitute examples of how an IFN target gene may be altered in oncogenesis.
    Oncogene 01/1996; 11(12):2565-73. · 8.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the intranuclear distribution of PML and Sp100 in HeLa cells at the ultrastructural level and examined their relocalization in response to herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection. In the absence of infection, we observed that both are components, not only of nuclear bodies, but also of interchromatin granule-associated zones, which suggests a potential role for PML and Sp100 in splicing events. Prolonged HSV-1 infection induced dramatic changes in nuclear organization which consisted of the morphological disappearance of some nuclear structures (nuclear bodies, interchromatin granule-associated zones, coiled bodies) and of the development of a centrally located electron-translucent viral region which pushed the cellular clusters of interchromatin granules to the nuclear border. Concomitantly, dense bodies, concentric arrays of reduplicated inner nuclear membrane, and translucent patches containing a few viral capsids occurred at the nuclear border. PML and Sp100 were exclusively detected over the finely granular material of the viral translucent patches which also contains small amounts of p80-coilin and U1 and U2 snRNAs. An antiserum raised against capsid proteins intensely labeled the viral translucent patches at the level of their finely granular material and enclosed viral capsids. Our data, therefore, suggest that these viral structures, in addition to being the site of accumulation of viral capsid proteins and, possibly, a capsidworks, are also a site of sequestration of cell factors including PML and Sp100. Viral capsid proteins could interfere with and inactivate PML and Sp100 and be implicated in the shutoff of host cell metabolism induced by HSV-1 infection.
    Experimental Cell Research 01/1996; 221(2):448-61. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nuclear bodies (NBs) are ultrastructurally defined granules predominantly found in dividing cells. Here we show that PML, a protein involved in the t(15;17) translocation of acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL), is specifically bound to a NB. PML and several NB-associated proteins, found as auto-antigens in primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), are co-localized and co-regulated. The APL-derived PML-RAR alpha fusion protein is shown to be predominantly localized in the cytoplasm, whereas a fraction is nuclear and delocalizes the NB antigens to multiple smaller nuclear clusters devoid of ultrastructural organization. RA administration (which in APL patients induces blast differentiation and consequently complete remissions) causes the re-aggregation of PML and PBC auto-antigens onto the NB, while PML-RAR alpha remains mainly cytoplasmic. Thus, PML-RAR alpha expression leads to a RA-reversible alteration of a nuclear domain. These results shed a new light on the pathogenesis of APL and provide a molecular link between NBs and oncogenesis.
    The EMBO Journal 04/1994; 13(5):1073-83. · 10.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is thought to be caused by the t(15,17) translocation that fuses the PML gene to that of the retinoic acid receptor alpha (RAR alpha) and generates a PML/RAR alpha fusion protein. Yet, paradoxically, APL cells are exquisitely sensitive to retinoic acid (RA), as they terminally differentiate upon RA exposure. In this report, we have examined the expression of PML and PML/RAR alpha in normal and APL cells. By immunofluorescence or immunocytochemistry, we show that PML has a speckled nuclear pattern of expression that contrasts with that of PML/RAR alpha (mostly a micropunctuated nuclear pattern or a cytoplasmic localization). The APL-derived cell line NB4 that expresses both the PML and PML/RAR alpha genes also shows the fine micropunctuated nuclear pattern, suggesting a dominant effect of the fusion protein over the localization of wild-type PML. RA treatment of NB4 cells or clones expressing PML/RAR alpha gradually leads to a PML pattern before apparent morphologic maturation. In 14 untreated APL patients, the PML-reactive proteins were cytoplasmic (by immunocytochemistry) or both cytoplasmic and nuclear with a micropunctuated pattern (by immunofluorescence). Strikingly, in 4 patients, after 1 to 2 weeks of RA therapy, the speckled nuclear PML pattern reappeared concomitant with the onset of differentiation. These results establish that fusion of PML to RAR alpha results in an altered localization of PML that is reverted upon RA treatment. This observation, which highlights the importance of PML, is likely to be a key to unravelling the molecular mechanism of both leukemogenesis and RA-induced differentiation of APL.
    Blood 10/1993; 82(6):1858-67. · 9.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This report describes the preliminary characterization of a novel antigen reactive with a murine monoclonal antibody designated B1N produced in our laboratory. This antibody (IgM) reacts in IFI with mammals and also insect cells, by staining in a speckled fashion the nucleus of these cells. Immunoblotting analysis of Hela and murine D55 nuclear extracts revealed a polypeptide with an apparent molecular weight of 120kD (p120). In this work we demonstrated that: 1. this polypeptide appeared in human peripheral blood lymphocytes only when they were induced to proliferate in vitro after phytohemagglutinin stimulation; 2. this polypeptide was no longer detected in D55 resting cells, following serum deprivation; 3. the MAb B1N specifically revealed the nucleus of proliferating cells on frozen sections of uterine tissue. These data strongly suggest that the p120 nuclear antigen expression is associated with the proliferation state of cells.
    Comptes Rendus de l Académie des Sciences - Series III - Sciences de la Vie 02/1991; 312(7):301-7.
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    ABSTRACT: A comparative study at the genomic and protein level was performed between two immunologically related spumaretroviruses, the human HSRV and the simian SFV6. Cross immunoprecipitation analysis with specific polyclonal and monoclonal antisera indicates shared antigenic determinants. However, restriction analysis of the viral DNAs and thermal stability of the hybrids demonstrate that HSRV and SFV6 are two different isolates.
    AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 08/1990; 6(7):951-7. · 2.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Monoclonal antibodies (Mo Abs) were prepared against influenza/A/equine/Prague/1/56 (H7N7) and influenza/A/equine/Miami/1/63 (H3N8) reference strains of equine influenza virus. These monoclonals were tested against the 2 reference strains, 8 field strains of equine influenza virus, 3 human influenza viruses possessing the H3 hemagglutinin, and one virus of human origin possessing the H1 hemagglutinin. Two antibodies were obtained in one fusion against the Prague/1/56 strain and reacted only with this strain. Four anti/A/equine/Miami/1/63 Mo Abs were obtained in one fusion. They differentiated 8 strains of equine origin from all strains of human origin and from one strain of equine origin (Joinville/1/78) isolated in 1978. The specificity of this difference was confirmed by cross-seroneutralization between A/equine/Miami/1/63 strain and A/equine/Joinville/1/78 strain.
    Annales de recherches vétérinaires. Annals of veterinary research 02/1989; 20(3):243-50.
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    G Pancino, C Charpin, F Calvo, M C Guillemin, A Roseto
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    ABSTRACT: A monoclonal antibody (7B10) which displays differential reactivity with breast carcinomas compared to benign lesions or normal breast tissue was selected by fusion of spleen cells from BALB/c mice immunized with the T47D human mammary carcinoma cell line. The antigen, recognized by 7B10 on T47D cells, appeared to be both surface and cytoplasm localized, as demonstrated by indirect immunofluorescence, immunoperoxidase, and electron microscopy studies. This antibody (IgG1) bound with four human breast cancer cell lines (T47D, MCF7, ZR-75-1, and HSL53) which express estrogen receptors. No binding was observed with cancer cell lines of other origin or with normal cells. In vivo, by immunoperoxidase staining of frozen sections of normal breast, the antigen recognized by 7B10 appeared to be located on epithelial cell membranes, whereas in benign and malignant mammary disorders, staining also involved the cytoplasm, as confirmed by electron microscopy on fresh cancer tissue. On formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections, cytoplasmic staining was detected in breast cancer, but no immunostaining was observed with benign lesions or normal breast. In paraffin sections, most normal tissues investigated did not react with 7B10 antibody. However, ducts in the parotid gland, tubules in the kidney and some biliary ducts, and apocrine glands in the skin showed irregular, diffuse weak staining. 7B10 was unreactive with adenocarcinomas of origin other than breast, except for some cells in ovarian clear cell carcinoma. No reactivity was observed with squamous carcinomas, lymphomas, or melanomas. The antigen recognized by 7B10 appeared to be a Mr 32,000 protein, as identified by immunoprecipitation from extracts of T47D after labeling with [35S]methionine. Since the antigen was present only on the membrane of differentiated normal mammary epithelial cells, and was also expressed in the cytoplasm of tumor cells, it may be of interest in immunological studies of mammary epithelial cell differentiation. Moreover, since in formalin-fixed tissues immunostaining is virtually confined to mammary carcinomas, monoclonal antibody 7B10 may have diagnostic applications in breast cancer.
    Cancer Research 09/1987; 47(16):4444-52. · 9.28 Impact Factor
  • G Pancino, C Charpin, F Calvo, M C Guillemin, A Roseto
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    ABSTRACT: Two mouse hybridomas, producing the monoclonal antibodies 7B10 and 1BE12 which react with membrane antigens of a metastatic human breast tumor cell line were selected. One of them, 7B10, is directed against a mammary gland antigenic determinant and selectively stain mammary carcinoma on histologic sections after fixation and paraffin embedding.
    Comptes Rendus de l Académie des Sciences - Series III - Sciences de la Vie 02/1987; 304(11):313-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Mice monoclonal antibodies (IgG) have been raised against Leishmania infantum promastigotes by fusing SP 2/0 myeloma cells and immunized mice splenic cells. The monoclonal antibodies have been detected by indirect immunofluorescence. In vivo tests showed that some of them could inhibit the life cycle of several Leishmania species from the Old and the New World. Studies of these protective monoclonals by the western blot technique showed the presence of three constant antigens (40 kD, 70 kD and 113 kD) amongst the Leishmania species studied.
    Comptes Rendus de l Académie des Sciences - Series III - Sciences de la Vie 02/1985; 300(9):395-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Two stable monoclonal hybridoma cell lines secreting type-specific antibodies against the human papillomavirus type 1 (HPV-1) were isolated. The monoclonal antibodies detected HPV-1 antigens in frozen sections of HPV-1-induced warts, using immunofluorescence or immunoperoxidase techniques, and they reacted with HPV-1 particles in an immunodiffusion test. The two monoclonal antibodies recognized the major structural viral polypeptide, with a molecular weight of 54 000, and a minor polypeptide, with molecular weight of 76 000, in both the dissociated viral particles and in the wart extracts.
    Journal of General Virology 09/1984; 65 ( Pt 8):1319-24. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Hybridoma 02/1984; 3(3):297-300. · 0.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cell fusion of Sp2/0, a murine myeloma derived non-secreting variant, with splenic lymphocytes from Mice immunized against human cytomegalovirus, has originated two stable hybridomas producing monoclonal antibodies (IgG) which react specifically with antigens that appear early in infectious cycle and remain localized in the cell nucleus.
    Comptes rendus des séances de l'Académie des sciences. Série III, Sciences de la vie 02/1983; 297(6):305-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Five monoclonal hybridoma cell lines secreting antibodies against bovine rotavirus have been produced and four of them characterized by immunostaining of structural polypeptides electrophoretically transferred on to nitrocellulose sheets. Three hybridomas appeared to be directed against the major structural polypeptide (VP39) of the virion. These three monoclonals cross-reacted with the major polypeptide of simian rotavirus and human rotavirus. A fourth hybridoma appeared to react specifically with the high-molecular weight external polypeptide (VP89) and its cleavage products. A cross-reaction was observed with human Wa strain but not with SA11. The fifth hybridoma, even though reacting in an immunofluorescent test, did not show any reactivity by immunostaining. None of the monoclonals neutralized the infectivity of bovine rotavirus.
    Journal of General Virology 02/1983; 64 (Pt 1):237-40. · 3.53 Impact Factor