[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of metabolic stress on the bone marrow microenvironment is poorly defined. We show that high-fat diet (HFD) decreased long-term Lin(-)Sca-1(+)c-Kit(+) (LSK) stem cells and shifted lymphoid to myeloid cell differentiation. Bone marrow niche function was impaired after HFD as shown by poor reconstitution of hematopoietic stem cells. HFD led to robust activation of PPARγ2, which impaired osteoblastogenesis while enhancing bone marrow adipogenesis. At the same time, expression of genes such as Jag-1, SDF-1, and IL-7 forming the bone marrow niche was highly suppressed after HFD. Moreover, structural changes of microbiota were associated to HFD-induced bone marrow changes. Antibiotic treatment partially rescued HFD-mediated effects on the bone marrow niche, while transplantation of stools from HFD mice could transfer the effect to normal mice. These findings show that metabolic stress affects the bone marrow niche by alterations of gut microbiota and osteoblast-adipocyte homeostasis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Pasteurella multocida toxin (PMT) is a potent inducer of osteoclast formation. Pigs suffering from an infection with toxigenic Pasteurella multocida strains develop atrophic rhinitis characterised by a loss of turbinate bones and conchae. However, on the molecular level the process of bone loss remains largely uncharacterised.
Recently it was found that PMT activates the serine/threonine kinase mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in fibroblasts. Using RAW264.7 macrophages, we investigated the role of the mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) in PMT-mediated osteoclast formation. PMT induces the differentiation of RAW264.7 macrophages into multinucleated, tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) positive osteoclasts that are capable to resorb bone. In the presence of the mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin, PMT was significantly less able to induce the formation of TRAP-positive osteoclasts. Accordingly, the resulting resorption of bone was strongly reduced. A major target of mTOR is the 70 kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (p70 S6K1). Activated p70 S6K1 decreases the expression of programmed cell death protein 4 (PDCD4), a negative transcriptional regulator of osteoclastogenesis, at the protein and gene level. Ultimately this results in the activation of c-Jun, a component of the activator protein 1 (AP-1) complex, which is a major transcription factor for the induction of osteoclast-specific genes. We now demonstrate that c-Jun and its downstream target, the osteoclast-specific bone degrading protease cathepsin K, are upregulated upon PMT treatment in an mTOR-dependent manner.
Activation of mTOR signalling plays a central role in the formation of osteoclasts through the bacterial toxin PMT. On the molecular level, PMT-induced activation of mTOR leads to down regulation of PDCD4, a known repressor of AP-1 complex, culminating in the activation of c-Jun, an essential transcription factor for triggering osteoclastogenesis.
Cell Communication and Signaling 09/2015; 13(40). DOI:10.1186/s12964-015-0117-7 · 3.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
To determine the role of overexpression of the AP-1 transcription factor Fra-1 (Fra-1tg) in adipose-derived stromal cells (ADSCs) as therapeutic treatment of collagenase-induced osteoarthritis (OA).
OA was induced by injection of collagenase into knee joints of C57BL/6 male mice. Wildtype or Fra-1tg ADSCs were isolated from inguinal fat pads of 8 week-old mice, and injected into knee joints 7 days after OA induction. Histological analyses on cartilage destruction and chondrocyte cell death were performed. Adipogenic differentiation capacity was investigated, and gene expression- and cytokine-profiling was performed in stromal vascular fractions (SVFs) and ADSCs.
OA related cartilage destruction and chondrocyte cell death were significantly reduced in knee joints treated with Fra-1tg ADSCs compared with knee joints treated with wt ADSCs. This effect did not result from the higher number of adipogenic progenitors observed in SVFs from Fra-1tg compared to wildtype fat pads, since injection of wildtype ADSCs enriched for adipogenic progenitors did not show any additional chondroprotective effects compared to unsorted ADSCs. However, Fra-1tg ADSCs showed a decreased adipogenic differentiation capacity. Moreover, Fra-1 significantly inhibited the pro-inflammatory IL-6 and pentraxin-3 expression, while increasing the expression of extracellular matrix proteins, such as periostin and F-spondin1. These findings suggest that Fra-1 over-expression leads to an increased chondroprotective effect of ADSCs in OA.
ADSCs overexpressing Fra-1 effectively protect from OA. Our data indicate that genetic modifications of ADSCs, such as Fra-1 overexpression, may improve their potential to protect articular cartilage from OA-mediated damage. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Arthritis and Rheumatology 09/2015; DOI:10.1002/art.39425
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Kv1.3 and IKCa1 lymphocyte potassium channels have been implicated as important targets of selective immunomodulation. We compared the alterations in cytokine production upon selective inhibition of Kv1.3 or IKCa1 channels (by MGTX and TRAM, respectively) in healthy donors (HD), RA and AS patients. We also determined calcium influx kinetics and its sensitivity to Kv1.3 and IKCa1 channel inhibition following PHA activation in CD4, Th1, Th2 and CD8 cells as well as monocytes. The application of TRAM resulted in a lower production of TNF-a and IL1-RA in all three study groups. Inhibition by TRAM had contrary effects on the production of IL-1b and IL-5: While their production was increased by PBMCs of RA patients, this effect was not observed in HD and AS PBMCs. While treatment with MGTX resulted in a similar decrease in calcium influx in the CD4 and Th2 subsets across all study groups, TRAM treatment had opposite effects on RA and HD samples: It decreased calcium influx in the Th2 and CD8 subsets in RA, while only Th1 cells were affected in HDs. The effects of IKCa1 channel inhibition are controversial in samples of RA and AS patients, since it shifts the inflammatory balance into the pro-inflammatory direction.
Immunologic Research 08/2015; DOI:10.1007/s12026-015-8683-8 · 3.10 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Osteoporosis can arise in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients secondary to medication and/or chronic inflammation. To analyze if patients with SLE have phenotypically-impaired osteoclastogenesis, we differentiated ex vivo monocytes from 72 SLE patients and 15 healthy individuals into osteoclasts followed by TRAP staining and counting. We identified a subgroup of SLE patients (45%) with a significantly impaired osteoclast differentiation, relative to the other SLE patients or healthy individuals (OR 11.2; 95% CI 1.4-89.9). A review of medication indicated that patients with osteoclast counts equal to healthy donors were significantly more likely to be treated with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) compared to patients with impaired osteoclastogenesis. We analyzed expression of RANKL and the MMF target genes IMPDH1 and IMPDH2 in osteoclasts by qPCR, but detected no difference. Since MMF might influence interferon-α (IFNα) and -γ (IFNγ) we measured serum IFNα and IFNγ levels. Patients with very low osteoclast counts also had comparably higher IFNα serum levels than patients with normal osteoclast counts. We conclude that in vitro osteoclastogenesis is impaired in a subgroup of SLE patients. This correlates inversely with MMF treatment and high IFNα serum levels. Further observational study will be required to determine whether this translates into a clinically meaningful effect.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences 08/2015; 16(8):18825-35. DOI:10.3390/ijms160818825 · 2.86 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This review summarises recent evidence about the interaction between bone, the immune system and cartilage in disabling conditions such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and spondyloarthritis. These topics have been recently discussed at the ‘OsteoRheumatology’ conference held in Genoa in October 2014. The meeting, at its 10th edition, has been conceived to bring together distinguished international experts in the fields of rheumatic and metabolic bone diseases with the aim of discussing emerging knowledge regarding the role of the bone tissue in rheumatic diseases. Moreover, this review focuses on new treatments based on underlying the pathophysiological processes in rheumatic diseases. Although, a number of issues still remain to be clarified, it seems quite clear that in clinical practice, as well as in basic and translational research, there is a need for more knowledge of the interactions between the cartilage, the immune system and the bone. In this context, ‘OsteoRheumatology’ represents a potential new discipline providing a greater insight into this interplay, in order to face the multifactorial and complex issues underlying common and disabling rheumatic diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives Autophagy has recently been shown to regulate osteoclast activity and osteoclast differentiation. Here, we aim to investigate the impact of autophagy inhibition as a potential therapeutic approach for the treatment of osteoporosis in preclinical models.
Methods Systemic bone loss was induced in mice by glucocorticoids and by ovariectomy (OVX). Autophagy was targeted by conditional inactivation of autophagy-related gene 7 (Atg7) and by treatment with chloroquine (CQ). Bone density was evaluated by microCT. The role of autophagy on osteoclastogenesis was analysed by osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption assays. The quantification of receptor activator of nuclear factor κ B ligand and osteoprotegerin proteins in cocultures was performed using ELISA whereas that of osteoclast and osteoblast differentiation markers was by qPCR.
Results Selective deletion of Atg7 in monocytes from Atg7fl/fl_x_LysM-Cre mice mitigated glucocorticoid-induced and OVX-induced osteoclast differentiation and bone loss compared with Atg7fl/fl littermates. Pharmacological inhibition of autophagy by treatment with CQ suppressed glucocorticoid-induced osteoclastogenesis and protected mice from bone loss. Similarly, inactivation of autophagy shielded mice from OVX-induced bone loss. Inhibition of autophagy led to decreased osteoclast differentiation with lower expression of osteoclast markers such as NFATc1, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, OSCAR and cathepsin K and attenuated bone resorption in vitro. In contrast, osteoblast differentiation was not affected by inhibition of autophagy.
Conclusions Pharmacological or genetic inactivation of autophagy ameliorated glucocorticoid-induced and OVX-induced bone loss by inhibiting osteoclastogenesis. These findings may have direct translational implications for the treatment of osteoporosis, since inhibitors of autophagy such as CQ are already in clinical use.
Annals of the rheumatic diseases 06/2015; DOI:10.1136/annrheumdis-2015-207240 · 10.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To analyze the glycosylation of anti-β2GP1, we investigated purified IgG from healthy children, patients with APS, and asymptomatic adult carriers of antiphospholipid antibodies. We observed that in the sera of healthy children and of patients with APS, IgG3 and IgG2 were predominant, respectively. The potentially protective anti-β2GP1-IgM was lower in the sera of healthy children. Although anti-β2GP1-associated C1q did not differ between children and patients with antiphospholipid syndrome, the associated C3c was significantly higher in the sera of healthy children. This indicates a more efficient clearance of anti-β2GP1 immune complexes in the healthy children. This clearance is not accompanied by inflammation or coagulatory events. It is likely that the most important pathogenic factor of the anti-β2GP1-IgG is related to the different glycosylation observed in healthy and diseased individuals. We detected a significantly higher sialylation of anti-β2GP1-IgG isolated from the sera of healthy children and asymptomatic adults when compared with that of patients with clinically apparent antiphospholipid syndrome. Low sialylated IgG reportedly ameliorates inflammation and inflammation promotes hyposialylation. Thus, both reactions create a vicious circle that precipitates the pathology of the antiphospholipid syndrome including thrombus-formation. We conclude that the increased sialylation of anti-β2GP1-IgG of sera of healthy individuals limits their pathogenicity.
Journal of Immunology Research 06/2015; 2015(Article ID 638129):12. DOI:10.1155/2015/638129 · 2.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s), a recently identified population of lymphoid cells lacking lineage-specific receptors, promote type 2 immunity and tissue remodelling. However, the contributive role of ILC2s in the pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis (SSc) is unknown. We aimed to evaluate the levels and correlations with fibrotic manifestations in SSc.
69 patients with SSc and 47 healthy controls were included. Blood samples and skin sections were analysed by flow cytometry and immunohistochemically by staining two complementary panels of markers.
Dermal and circulating ILC2s were significantly elevated in patients with SSc compared with controls. Dermal, but not circulating ILC2s were activated. Stratification of the SSc population in patients with limited cutaneous SSc (lcSSc) and diffuse cutaneous SSc (dcSSc) demonstrated increased levels of ILC2s in both subgroups with significantly higher frequencies in dcSSc compared with lcSSc. Moreover, dermal and circulating ILC2 counts correlated closely with the modified Rodnan skin score and with the presence of pulmonary fibrosis.
ILC2 counts are elevated in patients with SSc and correlate with the extent of skin fibrosis and the presence of interstitial lung disease providing compelling evidence for profibrotic effect of ILC2s in SSc.
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Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 06/2015; 74(Suppl 2):956.2-956. DOI:10.1136/annrheumdis-2015-eular.4060 · 10.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Molecular and clinical observations provide evidence for a potential role of parathyroid hormone (PTH) in colorectal cancer development. We therefore aimed to assess the association of PTH with regard to colorectal cancer precursor lesions. A cohort of 1432 participants, 777 men, 58.4 ± 9.6 years and 701 women, 59.1 ± 10.6 years, undergoing screening colonoscopy were allocated to PTH serum concentrations either above or below 55 ng/L. The number, localization, size, and histology of the polypoid lesions detected during screening colonoscopy were recorded according to PTH serum concentrations. Serum PTH concentrations were not different between men and women. Women with PTH serum concentrations above the cut-off had significantly more adenomas (13/40; 32.5 %) of the distal colon compared to women below the cut-off (91/659; 13.8 %; P = 0.001). Additionally, the rate of dysplasia in adenomas of the distal colon was higher in women with high compared to low PTH concentrations (P = 0.001). These findings remained robust after adjustments for serum vitamin D, age, plasma creatinine, BMI, diabetes, and liver steatosis. No associations were observed between serum PTH concentrations and colorectal lesions in men. These data suggest that elevated PTH serum concentrations might have a role in colorectal cancer development as indicated by higher rates of adenomas, specifically with dysplasia, in women. The role of PTH in colon carcinogenesis and its sex specificity deserve further study.
Hormones and Cancer 05/2015; 6(4). DOI:10.1007/s12672-015-0227-0 · 0.02 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neutrophil granulocytes possess a large arsenal of pro-inflammatory substances and mechanisms that empower them to drive local acute immune reactions to invading microorganisms or endogenous inflammatory triggers. The use of this armory needs to be tightly controlled to avoid chronic inflammation and collateral tissue damage. In gout, inflammation arises from precipitation of uric acid in the form of needle-shaped monosodium urate crystals. Inflammasome activation by these crystals in local immune cells results in a rapid and dramatic recruitment of neutrophils. This neutrophil influx is accompanied by the infamously intense clinical symptoms of inflammation during an acute gout attack. Neutrophilic inflammation however is equipped with a built-in safeguard; activated neutrophils form neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). At the very high neutrophil densities that occur at the site of inflammation, NETs build aggregates that densely pack the monosodium urate (MSU) crystals and trap and degrade pro-inflammatory mediators by inherent proteases. Local removal of cytokines and chemokines by aggregated NETs explains how acute inflammation can stop in the consistent presence of the inflammatory trigger. Aggregated NETs resemble early stages of the typical large MSU deposits that constitute the pathognomonic structures of gout, tophi. Although tophi contribute to muscosceletal damage and mortality in patients with chronic gout, they can therefore be considered as a payoff that is necessary to silence the intense inflammatory response during acute gout.
Journal of Molecular Medicine 05/2015; 93(7). DOI:10.1007/s00109-015-1295-x · 5.11 Impact Factor