[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Type 1 diabetes is a common metabolic disorders accompanied by increased blood glucose levels, glucocorticoid and cognitive deficits. The disease has been thought to be associated with environmental changes in the brain and constantly stimulates oxidative stress in patients as well. Therefore, glucocorticoid-mediated negative feedback mechanisms at the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) binding site are very important to understand regulation of this disease. Many researchers have used streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic animals to study GR expressional changes in brain. However, few researchers have considered hyperglycemic period following STZ exposure. In the present study, we found that GR expression in the hippocampus was different based on the period after STZ administration for up to 4 weeks. We performed immunohistochemistry and Western blot to validate the sequential alterations in GR expression in the hippocampus of STZ-induced type 1 diabetic rats. As a result, GR protein expression increased significantly until week 3, but decreased at week 4 following STZ administration. GR expression following 70 mg/kg STZ administration was highest at 3 weeks post administration and was lower thereafter. Therefore, although the STZ-induced increase in GR expression in diabetic animals is known, researchers should consider the sequential GR-expression changes based on hyperglycemic period following STZ exposure.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gene expression changes have been associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); however, the alterations are not fully understood. We investigated the effects of anti-diabetic drugs on gene expression in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats using oligonucleotide microarray technology to identify gene expression changes occurring in T2DM. Global gene expression in the pancreas, adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and liver was profiled from Zucker lean control (ZLC) and anti-diabetic drug treated ZDF rats compared with those in ZDF rats. We showed that anti-diabetic drugs regulate the expression of a large number of genes. We provided a more integrated view of the diabetic changes by examining the gene expression networks. The resulting sub-networks allowed us to identify several biological processes that were significantly enriched by the anti-diabetic drug treatment, including oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), systemic lupus erythematous, and the chemokine signaling pathway. Among them, we found that white adipose tissue from ZDF rats showed decreased expression of a set of OXPHOS genes that were normalized by rosiglitazone treatment accompanied by rescued blood glucose levels. In conclusion, we suggest that alterations in OXPHOS gene expression in white adipose tissue may play a role in the pathogenesis and drug mediated recovery of T2DM through a comprehensive gene expression network study after multi-drug treatment of ZDF rats.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(7):e69624. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High-fat diets (HFD) and high-carbohydrate diets (HCD)- induced obesity through different pathways, but the metabolic differences between these diets are not fully understood. Therefore, we applied proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR)-based metabolomics to compare the metabolic patterns between C57BL/6 mice fed HCD and those fed HFD. Principal component analysis derived from (1)H NMR spectra of urine showed a clear separation between the HCD and HFD groups. Based on the changes in urinary metabolites, the slow rate of weight gain in mice fed the HCD related to activation of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (resulting in increased levels of citrate and succinate in HCD mice), while the HFD affected nicotinamide metabolism (increased levels of 1-methylnicotineamide, nicotinamide-N-oxide in HFD mice), which leads to systemic oxidative stress. In addition, perturbation of gut microflora metabolism was also related to different metabolic patterns of those two diets. These findings demonstrate that (1)H NMR-based metabolomics can identify diet-dependent perturbations in biological pathways.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The X-ray synchrotron is quite different from conventional radiation sources. This technique may expand the capabilities of conventional radiology and be applied in novel manners for special cases. To evaluate the usefulness of X-ray synchrotron radiation systems for real time observations, mouse fetal skeleton development was monitored with a high resolution X-ray synchrotron. A non-monochromatized X-ray synchrotron (white beam, 5C1 beamline) was employed to observe the skeleton of mice under anesthesia at embryonic day (E)12, E14, E15, and E18. At the same time, conventional radiography and mammography were used to compare with X-ray synchrotron. After synchrotron radiation, each mouse was sacrificed and stained with Alizarin red S and Alcian blue to observe bony structures. Synchrotron radiation enabled us to view the mouse fetal skeleton beginning at gestation. Synchrotron radiation systems facilitate real time observations of the fetal skeleton with greater accuracy and magnification compared to mammography and conventional radiography. Our results show that X-ray synchrotron systems can be used to observe the fine structures of internal organs at high magnification.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The karyotype of goral (Nemorhaedus caudatus, 2n = 56) was prepared using lymphocytes and its chromosomal band patterns were compared with those of goat (Capra hircus, 2n = 60) by CBG-, GTG- and RBG-banding techniques. The standard karyotype of goral was composed of 54 acrocentric autosomes, submetacentric X chromosome, and acrocentric Y chromosome. C-bands were prominent in all autosomes except the X chromosome. G- and R-band patterns of goral were dissimilar to those of goat. The data support the idea that the goral did not originate from a common ancestor of bovid, or that there were numerous complicated chromosomal interchanges during goral evolution, in contrast to other bovids.
Molecules and Cells 02/2011; 31(4):351-4. · 2.21 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AHNAK is a giant protein of approximately 700 kDa identified in human neuroblastomas and skin epithelial cells. Recently, we found that AHNAK knock-out (AHNAK(-/-)) mice have a strong resistance to high-fat diet-induced obesity. In this study, we applied (1)H NMR-based metabolomics with multivariate statistical analysis to compare the altered metabolic patterns detected in urine from high-fat diet (HFD) fed wild-type and AHNAK(-/-) mice and investigate the mechanisms underlying the resistance to high-fat diet-induced obesity in AHNAK(-/-) mice. In global profiling, principal components analysis showed a clear separation between the chow diet and HFD groups; wild-type and AHNAK(-/-) mice were more distinctly separated in the HFD group compared to the chow diet group. Based on target profiling, the urinary metabolites of HFD-fed AHNAK(-/-) mice gave higher levels of methionine, putrescine, tartrate, urocanate, sucrose, glucose, threonine, and 3-hydroxyisovalerate. Furthermore, two-way ANOVAs indicated that diet type, genetic type, and their interaction (gene × diet) affect the metabolite changes differently. Most metabolites were affected by diet type, and putrescine, threonine, urocanate, and tartrate were also affected by genetic type. In addition, cis-aconitate, succinate, glycine, histidine, methylamine (MA), phenylacetylglycine (PAG), methionine, putrescine, uroconate, and tartrate showed interaction effects. Through the pattern changes in urinary metabolites of HFD-fed AHNAK(-/-) mice, our data suggest that the strong resistance to HFD-induced obesity in AHNAK(-/-) mice comes from perturbations of amino acids, such as methionine, putrescine, threonine, and histidine, which are related to fat metabolism. The changes in metabolites affected by microflora such as PAG and MA were also observed. In addition, resistance to obesity in HFD-fed AHNAK(-/-) mice was not related to an activated tricarboxylic acid cycle. These findings demonstrate that (1)H NMR-based metabolic profiling of urine is suitable for elucidating possible biological pathways perturbed by functional loss of AHNAK on HFD feeding and could elucidate the mechanism underlying the resistance to high-fat diet-induced obesity in AHNAK(-/-) mice.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 12/2010; 403(3-4):428-34. · 2.41 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Because it appears that oxidative stress and inflammation are implicated with disease pathogenesis in the diabetic brain, many researchers have used streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic animals to study superoxide production and the effects of superoxide scavengers like Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1). However, many studies have been conducted without considering temporal changes after STZ injection. Interestingly, though SOD activities were not significantly different among the groups, SOD1 and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) immunoreactivities were significantly enhanced at 3 weeks after an STZ injection (STZ3w) versus only marginal levels in sham controls, whereas microglial activity was remarkably reduced in injected rats at this time. However, SOD1 immunoreactivity and microglial activities were only at the sham level at STZ4w. The present study provides important information concerning cell damage by ROS generated by STZ. Microglial response was found to be inactivated at STZ3w and neuronal cells (NeuN) showed a non-significant tendency to be reduced in number at STZ4w except in the dentate gyrus. We speculated that the above oxidative stress-related events should be accomplished at STZ3w in the brains of STZ-induced diabetes animal models. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate chronological changes in SOD1 immunoreactivity associated with lipid peroxidation and inflammatory responses in the hippocampi of STZ-induced type I diabetic rats.
Neurochemical Research 10/2010; 36(1):117-28. · 2.13 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diabetes, especially type 2, is closely associated with hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation. Short-term effects of adrenalectomy (ADX) in type 2 diabetes are well characterized; however, there have been few reports on the long-term effects of ADX in genetically engineered type 2 diabetes and the neuroendocrine system. We performed bilateral ADX in Zucker Lean Control rats (ZLC; ADX-ZLC), Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats (ZDF; ADX-ZDF), and sham control rats to evaluate how the HPA axis would be regulated in long-term corticosterone deficient type 2 diabetic animals. We evaluated arginine vasopressin (AVP), glucocorticoid receptor (GR), and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) expression with immunohistochemistry (IHC), immunofluorescence, real-time PCR, and Western blot analysis in each treatment group 7 weeks post ADX to assess HPA axis regulatory patterns in connection with type 2 diabetes. Additionally, mRNA expression of AVP and CRH receptors (V1aR, V1bR, CRHR1, and CRHR2) was also measured and adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) immunoreactivity was surveyed by IHC to add to data regarding the regulatory mechanism. AVP and CRH protein expression levels increased after ADX in the hypothalamus of diabetic rats based on IHC results; however, we found that the subtypes of each receptor may be regulated differently in ADX groups compared to sham groups. Immunoreactivity of ACTH in the pituitary gland was enhanced in ADX groups and GR expression levels in the hypothalamic paraventricular nuclei (PVN) remained high, as determined by IHC as well as Western blot analysis. Without the negative feedback system of corticosterone, CRH is highly enhanced and may primarily combine with CRHR1 to stimulate negative feedback through ACTH in the pituitary gland in type 2 diabetic rats with long-term ADX. Although the negative feedback signal was not transmitted appropriately following long-term ADX with type 2 diabetes, a high GR protein level was maintained as in type 2 diabetes. The long-termed lack of corticosterone in the blood stream is a very important factor for normal regulation of the HPA axis even in diabetic animals. From the data, we can conclude that the stimulated HPA axis regulation in the developing type 2 diabetic animals following long-term adrenalectomy has remained elevated rather than diminished. Therefore, the current study may provide useful information to better understand patients suffering from both type 2 diabetes and Addison's disease.
Journal of chemical neuroanatomy 10/2010; 40(2):130-9. · 1.75 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to study the treatment of aneurysms, the technique of making experimental aneurysms in laboratory animals must be established. In our study, to examine the feasibility of making experimental aneurysm and selective angiography on the common carotid artery in rabbits and to determine the size of experimental aneurysm after surgery, saccular aneurysms were fashioned on the right common carotid artery in 17 rabbits using a vein pouch technique. Selective angiography of the common carotid artery was performed immediately after surgery, and at 1 week, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks after surgery. Also, histological changes in the aneurysms were observed. In 16 rabbits with established successful experimental aneurysm, no differences were found in diet intake and behavior before and after surgery. The patency of the carotid artery was confirmed by selective angiography. The average size of the aneurysm immediately after surgery was similar to that of 1 week postoperatively in selective angiography, however it increased with time at 4weeks and 8 weeks. Histologically, infiltration of inflammatory cells and hemorrhage were found at the junction of the carotid artery and the vein pouch at 1 week, which disappeared at 4 weeks and 8 weeks. This study suggests experimental saccular aneurysm using the vein pouch technique might form aneurysms similar to that of the human in its properties such as increment of size, and selective angiography might be suitable for assessment of experimental aneurysm. Therefore, this animal model may be suitable for investigating new treatment methodologies for human aneurysms.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, we observed the effects of metformin, one of the most widely prescribed drugs for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, on cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation in the subgranular zone of the hippocampal dentate gyrus (SZDG) in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats, which are a model for type 2 diabetes. For this, metformin was administered orally once a day to 14-week-old ZDF rats for 2 weeks and the animals were sacrificed at 16 weeks of age. During this period, blood glucose levels were higher in the vehicle-treated ZDF rats than in the Zucker lean control (ZLC) rats. Metformin treatment significantly decreased the blood glucose levels from 15.5 weeks of age. In the SZDG, Ki67 (a marker for cell proliferation)- and doublecortin (DCX, a marker for differentiated neuroblasts)-immunoreactive cells were much lower in the vehicle-treated ZDF rats than in the ZLC rats. In the metformin-treated ZDF group, Ki67- and DCX-immunoreactive cells were significantly increased in the SZDG compared to those in the vehicle-treated ZDF group. These results suggest that diabetes significantly reduces cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation in the SZDG and that metformin treatment normalizes the reduction of cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation in the SZDG in diabetic rats.
Neurochemical Research 04/2010; 35(4):645-50. · 2.13 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Homozygous staggerer (RORa(sg/sg)) mice showed a severe ataxia caused by cerebellum degeneration. Decreased and dysfunctional Rora is a main cause of this neurologic phenotype. The phenotype of staggerer mice has been well known in cerebellum. However, there has been rarely reported about cerebrum even though of staggerer is expressed in merely cerebellum but hippocampus, thalamus, cortex, and olfactory bulb. The expressions of Ki67, doublecortin (DCX), and NeuN, which are cell proliferation, neuronal differentiation and mature neuron markers, respectively, were measured with immunohistochemistry in dentate gyrus in staggerer mice in order to uncover whether staggerer can affect the change in dentate gyrus. The immunoreactivities of DCX and NeuN were significantly reduced in the dentate gyrus of staggerer mice than normal control, while Ki67 were rarely unchanged in staggerer mice. These results suggest that staggerer mutation has an influence on the neuronal differentiation and development not only in cerebellum but also in dentate gyrus.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mouse models are crucial for the functional annotation of human genome. Gene modification techniques including gene targeting and gene trap in mouse have provided powerful tools in the form of genetically engineered mice (GEM) for understanding the molecular pathogenesis of human diseases. Several international consortium and programs are under way to deliver mutations in every gene in mouse genome. The information from studying these GEM can be shared through international collaboration. However, there are many limitations in utility because not all human genes are knocked out in mouse and they are not yet phenotypically characterized by standardized ways which is required for sharing and evaluating data from GEM. The recent improvement in mouse genetics has now moved the bottleneck in mouse functional genomics from the production of GEM to the systematic mouse phenotype analysis of GEM. Enhanced, reproducible and comprehensive mouse phenotype analysis has thus emerged as a prerequisite for effectively engaging the phenotyping bottleneck. In this review, current information on systematic mouse phenotype analysis and an issue-oriented perspective will be provided.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present study, we observed the effects of cyclosporine A (CsA), an efficient immunosuppressant, on cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus (SZDG) in normal C57BL/6 mice using Ki67 and doublecortin (DCX) immunohistochemical staining, respectively. At 8 weeks of age, vehicle (physiological saline) or CsA was daily administered (40 mg/kg, i.p.) for 1 week. Animals were sacrificed at 2 weeks after last administration. CsA treatment did not show any influences in neurons, astrocytes and microglia based on immunohistochemistry for its markers, respectively. However, in the CsA-treated group, Fluoro-Jade B, a marker for neurodegeneration, positive cells were found in the SZDG, not in the vehicle-treated group. In the vehicle-treated group, Ki67 immunoreactive (+) nuclei were clustered in the SZDG, whereas in the CsA-treated group Ki67(+) nuclei were scattered in the SZDG, showing no difference in cell numbers. Numbers of DCX(+) neuroblasts with well-developed processes (tertiary dendrites) were much lower in the CsA-treated group than those in the vehicle-treated group; however, numbers of DCX(+) neuroblasts with secondary dendrites were similar in both the groups. These results suggest that CsA significantly reduces dendritic outgrowth and complexity from neuroblasts in the SZDG without any affecting in neurons, astrocytes and microglia in normal mice.
Neurochemical Research 10/2009; 35(3):465-72. · 2.13 Impact Factor