D Y Teller

University of Washington Seattle, Seattle, WA, United States

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Publications (100)363.41 Total impact

  • Maria Pereverzeva, Davida Y Teller
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    ABSTRACT: The present paper addresses the question of simultaneous color contrast in 4-month-old human infants. A temporal modulation paradigm was employed for infant testing. In this paradigm, infants viewed two test disks presented side-by-side: one of unchanging chromaticity (static) and another of the chromaticity varied in time (temporally modulated). The test stimuli were embedded in a surround that was either static or temporally modulated in phase with the modulated test stimulus. The temporally modulated test stimuli were chosen in such a way as to appear static to adults when viewed in the temporally modulated surround. On the basis of the observation that infants prefer to look more at flickering stimuli, the prediction is that, if infants have adult-like simultaneous color contrast, their preference for the temporally modulated stimulus should decrease and their preference for the static stimulus should increase when the surround is also temporally modulated as described. In concordance with this prediction, a significant increase in preference for the temporally static stimuli was observed with the introduction of temporal modulation in the surround. The data are consistent with the conclusion that infants as young as 4 months of age have simultaneous color contrast.
    Perception 02/2009; 38(1):30-43. · 1.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The ‘acuity card’ procedure described here is a simplified method of testing visual acuity of infants and young children, and has been developed to allow preferential looking to be assessed in a laboratory or clinic. A higher proportion of children can be tested successfully than has been reported for more traditional procedures. Initial studies indicate that the acuity card procedure is a fast, accurate method for assessing the acuity of normal infants and children, and those with visual or neurological impairments, across a wide age-range and in both clinical and laboratory settings.RÉSUMÉLe procédé de la ‘carte d'acuité’ décrit dans cet article est une méthode simplifiée pour évaluer l'acuité visuelle de nourrissons et jeunes enfants, qui a été développé pour permettre d'apprécier le regard préférentiel dans un laboratoire ou une clinique. Une proportion plus élévee d'enfant peut être évaluée que ce qui a été rapporté avec des procédés plus traditionnels. Les premières études révèlent que le procédé de la carte d'acuité est une méthode rapide et précise pour apprécier l'acuité des nourrissons et enfants normaux, et ceux qui présentent des troubles visuels ou neurologiques, sur une large étendue d'âge et en clinique comme en laboratoire.ZUSAMMENFASSUNGDie hier beschriebene Anwendung der Acuity Card ist eine vereinfachte Methode, um die Sehschärfe bei Säuglingen und Kleinkindern zu testen; sie ist entwickelt worden, um die Bevorzugung des einen oder anderen Auges in Sehlabors oder Kliniken zu beurteilen. Hiermit können mehr Kinder erfolgreich getestet werden als mit den herkömmlichen Methoden. Vorläufige Untersuchungen zeigen, daß die Anwendung der Acuity Card eine schnelle und genaue Methode darstellt, um iiber ein breites Spektrum sowohl in der Klinik als auch in Sehlabors die Sehschärfe bei gesunden Säuglingen und Kleinkindern und bei Kindern mit visuellen oder neurologischen Storungen zu bestimmen.
    Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology 11/2008; 28(6):779 - 789. · 2.68 Impact Factor
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    Iris Zemach, Susan Chang, Davida Y Teller
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    ABSTRACT: Infants show spontaneous looking preferences among isoluminant chromatic stimuli [Adams, R. J. (1987). An evaluation of color preferences in early infancy. Infant Behavior and Development, 10, 143-150; Bornstein, M. H. (1975). Qualities of color vision in infancy. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 19 (3), 401-419.]. These differences in preference have often been called "hue" or "color" preferences, and attributed to differences in hue, but there are alternative explanations. Spontaneous preference variations remain after stimuli are equated for adult brightness, and thus cannot be attributed to adult-like brightness differences [Teller, D. Y., Civan, A., & Bronson-Castain, K. (2004). Infants' spontaneous color preferences are not due to adult-like brightness variations. Visual Neuroscience, 21 (3), 397-401]. In the present paper, we address three more alternative explanations: colorimetric purity; infant detection thresholds; and adult-like variations in saturation. Three experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1 we measured infants' spontaneous preferences for each of 22 different chromatic stimuli of varying dominant wavelength and colorimetric purity, each paired against the same white standard. In Experiment 2, we measured infants' chromatic detection thresholds. In Experiment 3, adult subjects made saturation matches between a blue-green standard and each of five other chromatic stimuli. Infant detection thresholds accounted for 34% of the variance in infant "hue" preferences, much more than colorimetric purity (2.4%) or adult saturation judgments (3%), but none of the three variables accounted for the majority of the variance. In our view, the most likely remaining option is that infants' spontaneous "hue" preferences indeed arise from preferences for the hues of stimuli that adults see as blue, purple and red.
    Vision Research 05/2007; 47(10):1368-81. · 2.14 Impact Factor
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    Iris K Zemach, Davida Y Teller
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    ABSTRACT: Stochastic transitivity (ST) is a property of preferences among pairs of objects formed from three alternatives, a, b, and c. In general, ST states that if a is preferred to b, and b is preferred to c, then a will be preferred to c. Stochastic transitivity can be weak, moderate, strong or strict (see text). In the present paper, we analyse the presence and degree of ST in the data from two experiments concerning 12-week-old infants' spontaneous color preferences. In the first experiment (Triads), we tested five sets of three stimuli in pairs of two (a vs. b, b vs. c, a vs. c). In each case two stimuli were chromatic and one was White. Strict ST was seen in all cases. In Experiment 2 (Complementaries), we tested White against pairs of stimuli from opposite sides of the White point (red vs. blue-green, blue vs. yellow, and green vs. purple). The purities required for equal (50/50) preference between the two chromatic stimuli were consistent with the preferences for each of the two stimuli over White. In addition, 12 new triads were generated from the Complementaries experiment. Strict ST was seen in six out of 12 cases, and Moderate ST was seen in the other six. As discussed further in the accompanying paper [Zemach, I. K., Chang, S., & Teller, D. Y. (2007). Infant color vision: prediction of infants' spontaneous color preferences], White was the least preferred stimulus in every triad tested. Although more extensive studies are needed, the data suggest that infants' hue preferences are reasonably well behaved across different choices of stimulus pairs.
    Vision Research 05/2007; 47(10):1362-7. · 2.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the present study, discrete trial familiarization/novelty techniques were used to study lightness constancy in 4-month-old infants. The test stimuli were real objects (paper smiley faces) of two different reflectances, dark gray (17% reflectance) and light gray (54% reflectance). In Experiment 1, the test stimuli were viewed against a white (90% reflectance) surround, and in Experiment 2, against a black (4.6% reflectance) surround. In Experiments 1 and 2, the illumination was changed between familiarization and test phases of each trial. In Experiment 3, the reflectance of the surround was changed from white to mid gray (28.5% reflectance) between familiarization and test phases of each trial. With the white surround, the infants preferred the face with the novel reflectance, consistent with the presence of lightness constancy. With the black surround, the infants showed no preference between faces with novel reflectance vs. novel luminance. With the changing surround, the infants showed a small preference for the stimulus with the novel ratio, as opposed to the stimulus with the novel reflectance and the novel luminance. The results are discussed in the context of adult cues for lightness constancy, including white anchor points and local luminance ratios.
    Vision Research 07/2006; 46(13):2139-48. · 2.14 Impact Factor
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    Maria Pereverzeva, Davida Y Teller
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    ABSTRACT: When the method of constant stimuli is used to measure heterochromatic brightness matches, the resulting matches can be strongly biased toward the center of the range of test luminances used. In the present paper, we investigate the source of this centering bias. The stimuli were 2 degrees red squares presented in a gray surround. In the main experiments, two ranges of stimulus luminance were presented in separate physical locations on a video monitor, but with test trials interleaved in time. Subjects either fixated a fixation cross (fixation condition), creating different retinotopic locations for the two luminance ranges, or foveated each stimulus as it appeared (foveation condition), creating identical retinotopic locations for both ranges. In the fixation condition, the two different stimulus sets resulted in a simultaneous centering bias--two different brightness matches at two different retinotopic locations at the same time. This effect was essentially eliminated in the foveation condition. A dichoptic foveation condition also revealed no centering bias. The results suggest that under the conditions tested, the centering bias is caused by a process located at a post-retinal but still retinotopically organized level of the visual system, rather than by either a retinal process or a more central, spatiotopically organized one.
    Vision Research 12/2005; 45(25-26):3290-300. · 2.14 Impact Factor
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    Sarina Hui-Lin Chien, John Palmer, Davida Y Teller
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    ABSTRACT: When adults view a disk of light embedded in a higher luminance surround, the perceived lightness of the disk is largely determined by the surround to disk luminance ratio (Wallach's ratio rule). In the present study, both adult and infant subjects were tested with multiple discrete trial procedures in which the surround luminance was decreased between the study and test phases of each trial. Tested with sequential lightness matching, adult subjects showed an approximate ratio rule, with a small but consistent deviation in the direction of a luminance match. Tested with a forced-choice novelty preference technique in combination with a cross-familiarization paradigm, 4-month-old infants showed preference minima that fell closer to the mean adult match than to the ratio rule. This finding suggests that, at least for a relatively simple visual display, 4-month-old infants' looking preferences are governed by an adult-like achromatic contrast system.
    Vision Research 11/2005; 45(22):2854-61. · 2.14 Impact Factor
  • Andrea Civan, Davida Y. Teller, John Palmer
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    ABSTRACT: We here describe a discrete trial, forced-choice, combined spontaneous preference and novelty preference technique. In this technique, spontaneous preferences and familiarized (postfamiliarization) preferences are measured with the same stimulus pairs under closely parallel conditions. A variety of systematic stimulus variations were used in 16-week-old infants to explore the interrelations among spontaneous preferences, familiarized preferences, and familiarization (novelty) effects. Infants were exposed to pairs of 10° red and blue disks of varying colorimetric purity generated on a video monitor. Pairs of disks were identified for which spontaneous preferences were balanced at about 50–50 or unbalanced at about 75–25, and the magnitudes of familiarized preferences were determined. When spontaneous preferences were balanced at 50–50, novelty effects increased with increasing chromatic separation between the 2 stimuli, showing the independence of these variables. When spontaneous preferences were unbalanced, novelty effects were asymmetrical, being large after familiarization to the spontaneously preferred stimulus, but small or nonexistent after familiarization to the spontaneously nonpreferred stimulus. The potential uses of combined spontaneous preference and novelty preference techniques are discussed.
    Infancy 03/2005; 7(2). · 1.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the present work, we explore the perceptual bases of infants' spontaneous looking preferences among isoluminant chromatic stimuli (Bornstein, 1975). Three experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, adult subjects made brightness matches between a white standard and each of six isoluminant chromatic stimuli. The classic variations of brightness with chromaticity were found. In Experiment 2, 12-week-old infants' spontaneous looking preferences were measured for white lights of different luminances. Preference increased with increasing luminance, suggesting that brightness differences are sufficient to create looking preferences among isochromatic stimuli. In Experiment 3, infants' preferences were tested for each of the six chromatic stimuli paired against white, at both isoluminance and (adult) isobrightness. All chromatic stimuli were preferred to white, and the pattern of preferences was similar for both isoluminance and isobrightness conditions. It is concluded that hue and/or saturation, rather than brightness, control infants' spontaneous looking preferences among chromatic stimuli.
    Visual Neuroscience 01/2004; 21(3):397-401. · 1.48 Impact Factor
  • Maria Pereverzeva, Davida Y Teller
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    ABSTRACT: When infants are tested with stimuli of various chromaticities embedded in a dark or achromatic (white) surround, they show maximal preference for stimuli of maximal colorimetric purity, and minimal preference for achromatic stimuli. We investigated how this pattern of preferences changes with changes of surround chromaticity. Sixteen-week-old infants were tested in two experimental conditions. The surrounds in the first condition were red and white; and in the second condition green and white. The three test stimuli varied in colorimetric purity from white to red in the first condition, and from white to green in the second condition. A test stimulus that appeared achromatic to adults when viewed in the chromatic surround was included. Infant spontaneous looking preferences changed with changes of surround chromaticity. The changes were consistent with the conclusion that infant looking behavior is governed by a preference for the stimuli that differ maximally in purity from the surround. The implications of this pattern of results are discussed.
    Visual Neuroscience 01/2004; 21(3):389-95. · 1.48 Impact Factor
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    Sarina Hui-Lin Chien, John Palmer, Davida Y Teller
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    ABSTRACT: When adults view a test disk embedded in a higher-luminance surround, the perceived lightness of the disk is largely determined by the surround-to-disk (S/D) luminance ratio (Wallach's ratio rule). Performance of 4-month-old infants tested with a forced-choice novelty-preference technique was consistent with predictions based on Wallach's ratio rule. This result suggests that the ability to extract and maintain information about local luminance ratios is present early in infancy. This ability is likely to contribute to the development of lightness constancy.
    Psychological Science 08/2003; 14(4):291-5. · 4.43 Impact Factor
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    Davida Y Teller, Maria Pereverzeva, Andrea L Civan
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    ABSTRACT: When infants fail to make chromatic discriminations, do the characteristics of their performance minima coincide more closely with the properties of adult luminance matches or heterochromatic brightness matches? In addition to their spectral properties, adult luminance matches are typically characterized by relatively small individual differences, whereas brightness matches are believed to be both more variable and more biasable. Two complementary experiments were carried out on adults and 8-week-old infant subjects. Both groups were tested with small (1.5 degrees to 4 degrees ) red and blue test fields of varying luminances, embedded in a white surround. In adults, heterochromatic brightness matches were measured. Individual differences spanned about 0.5 log units, and brightness matches could be biased by as much as 0.8 log units by varying the range of test field luminances. In infants, the locations of performance minima were measured. Individual differences spanned less than 0.1 log units, the mean performance minima coincided with predictions based on V10(lambda), and the location of the performance minimum was nearly unaffected by the range of test field luminances used. Thus by all three criteria, these data suggest that infants' performance minima are mediated by luminance rather than by brightness signals. To date there remains no evidence that the infant visual system computes a brightness signal.
    Journal of Vision 02/2003; 3(5):333-46. · 2.48 Impact Factor
  • Davida Y.  Teller 
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    ABSTRACT: Vision scientists are interested in three diverse entities: physical stimuli, neural states, and consciously perceived colors, and in the mapping rules among the three. In this worldview, the three kinds of entities have coequal status, and views that attribute color exclusively to one or another of them, such as color realism, have no appeal.
    Behavioral and Brain Sciences 01/2003; 26(01):48 - 49. · 18.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Individual differences in isoluminance values were studied in infants and adults using a motion nulling paradigm. Two luminance-modulated sinusoidal grating components (spatial frequency=0.25 cpd, temporal frequency=5.6 Hz, speed=22.4 deg/s) were superimposed and moved in opposite directions across a color video screen. The contrasts of the two components were traded off to determine motion nulls. Two conditions were used: red/black vs. green/black, and red/black vs. blue/black grating components. An eye movement based response measure was used for infant subjects, and an average of 308 trials per infant were obtained. As observed in earlier studies, the mean motion null values for infants and adults were highly similar in each condition. The standard errors of motion null values for individual subjects were very small. Individual differences among infants were also small, and were clearly measurable only in the red/black vs. blue/black condition. The close similarity of mean null values, combined with the small individual differences among infants, supports the idea that under the right circumstances mean adult isoluminance values can be used as a sufficient approximation to individual infant isoluminance values in studies of infant color vision. These circumstances are discussed and evaluated in detail.
    Vision Research 07/2002; 42(13):1639-49. · 2.14 Impact Factor
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    T A Rasengane, J Palmer, D Y Teller
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    ABSTRACT: In the present study we investigate the dependence of photopic contrast thresholds on retinal illuminance in infants and adults. Contrast thresholds were measured at five retinal illuminances between about 6 and about 20,000 Td in subjects in both age groups. The forced-choice preferential looking technique was used in 3-month-old infants, and standard forced-choice techniques were used in adults. The stimulus was a 0.25 cy/deg squarewave grating phase alternated at 6 Hz. Infants' contrast thresholds were more than two log units higher than those of adults at all retinal illuminances. Contrast thresholds had a similar dependence on retinal illuminance in both infants and adults. For both age groups, contrast thresholds initially decreased with increasing retinal illuminance. However, at both ages, above a critical illuminance of about 200 Td, contrast thresholds remained constant, following Weber's law. Thus a vertical shift was sufficient to bring the two data sets into correspondence. In the context of a two-site model of light adaptation, our results imply that infants' elevated contrast thresholds cannot be explained solely on the basis of photoreceptoral immaturities. Later physiological immaturities must also limit infants' photopic contrast thresholds.
    Vision Research 03/2001; 41(3):359-73. · 2.14 Impact Factor
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    M A Thomasson, D Y Teller
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    ABSTRACT: In our previous demonstrations of chromatic discrimination in infants, we have used test and surround fields of different chromaticities that abutted each other at sharp chromatic edges. In order to see whether sharp chromatic edges are necessary for infants to make chromatic discriminations, 16-week-old infants were tested with three stimulus configurations in which sharp chromatic edges were eliminated. The three edge manipulations involved black borders, a dark surround, or blurred edges around the chromatic test field. In each case red, green, and violet test fields were used. Although performance decreased when sharp chromatic edges were eliminated, observers' percent correct scores remained clearly above chance for eight of the nine discriminations (three colors x three edge manipulations). We argue that all three edge manipulations reduce the likelihood of mediation of chromatic discrimination by M (magnocellular) cells. These data thus provide evidence that young infants have functional P (parvocellular) pathways, and use them for making chromatic discriminations.
    Vision Research 02/2000; 40(9):1051-7. · 2.14 Impact Factor
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    D H Peterzell, S K Chang, D Y Teller
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    ABSTRACT: This study concerns the spatial-frequency-tuned channels underlying infants' contrast sensitivity functions (CSFs) for red-green chromatic stimuli, and their relationship to the channels underlying infants' CSFs for luminance-modulated stimuli. Behavioral (forced-choice preferential-looking) techniques and stationary stimuli were used. In experiment 1. contrast thresholds were measured in 4- and 6-month-olds, using isoluminant red-green gratings with spatial frequencies ranging from 0.27 to 1.53 c deg. In experiment 2. contrast thresholds were measured in 4-month-olds. using both red-green and luminance-modulated gratings in the same low spatial frequency range. Covariance analyses of individual differences were performed. Experiment 1 revealed one dominant covariance channel for the detection of red-green gratings, with a second channel contributing to detection of the highest spatial frequencies used. Experiment 2 revealed two to three channels serving color and luminance: but surprisingly these channels were not statistically separable for luminance versus chromatic stimuli. Thus, covariance channels for color and luminance that are independent for adults [Peterzell & Teller (2000). Spatial frequency tuned covariance channels for red-green and luminance-modulated gratings: psychophysical data from human adults. Vision Research, 40, 417-430] are apparently interdependent in infants. These data suggest that for infants, detection thresholds for chromatic and luminance-modulated stimuli may be limited by common mechanisms.
    Vision Research 02/2000; 40(4):431-44. · 2.14 Impact Factor
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    Sarina Hui-Lin Chien, Davida Y Teller, John Palmer
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    ABSTRACT: The scotopic to photopic transition was tested in adults and 12-week-old infants using a large field motion nulling technique at a series of luminances between −3.57 and 2.70 log cd m−2. The stimuli were composed of 0.25 cyc deg−1, 5.6 Hz blue/black and yellow/black sinusoidal grating components, superimposed and moving in opposite directions. The contrasts of the two components were traded off to determine motion nulls at each luminance level. An eye movement based response measure was used for infant subjects, whereas self-report was used in adults. In both age groups, the motion null values approached a scotopic asymptote consistent with V′(λ) at the lowest luminance levels, and a photopic asymptote consistent with V10(λ) at the highest luminance levels. The scotopic to photopic transition was gradual and occurred over about 3 log units between about −2 and 1 log cd m−2 in both groups. The null values for infants and adults were highly similar at each luminance level, and the shapes of the transition curves were virtually identical at the two ages. These data suggest that at each different luminance level, the balance between rod-initiated and cone-initiated signals in the extrafoveal luminance channel is similar or identical in 12-week-old infants and adults.
    Vision Research 02/2000; · 2.14 Impact Factor
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    D H Peterzell, D Y Teller
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    ABSTRACT: Both chromatic and luminance-modulated stimuli are served by multiple spatial-frequency-tuned channels. This experiment investigated the independence versus interdependence of spatial frequency channels that serve the detection of red-green chromatic versus yellow-black luminance-modulated stimuli at low spatial frequencies. Contrast thresholds for both chromatic and luminance-modulated gratings were measured within 12 individual subjects using a repeated-measures design. Spatial frequencies ranged from 0.27 to 2.16 c/deg. A covariance structure analysis of individual differences was applied to the data. We computed statistical sources of individual variability, used them to define covariance channels, and determined the number and frequency tuning of these channels. For luminance-modulated gratings, two covariance channels were found, including one above and one below 1 c/deg [cf. Peterzell, & Teller (1996). Individual differences in contrast sensitivity functions: the coarsest spatial pattern analyzer. Vision Research, 36, 3077-3085]. For chromatic gratings, correlations between thresholds for most spatial frequencies were uniformly high, yielding a single covariance channel covering all but the highest spatial frequency tested. A combined analysis of both data sets recovered the same three covariance channels, and showed that detection thresholds for low-frequency red-green chromatic and luminance-modulated stimuli are served by separate, statistically independent processes.
    Vision Research 01/2000; 40(4):417-30. · 2.14 Impact Factor
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    B Lia, K R Dobkins, J Palmer, D Y Teller
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    ABSTRACT: The present experiment uses a quadrature motion paradigm to investigate the motion correspondence cues used by young infants for coding the direction of motion of red/green isoluminant gratings. Three-month-old infants and adults were tested with 0.25 c/d luminance-modulated or red/green isoluminant gratings, either moving continuously or shifted in spatial quadrature. Both direction-of-motion and detection thresholds were measured, and motion:detection (M:D) threshold ratios were examined. Infants, like adults, could code the direction of motion of red/green quadrature-shifted gratings. In adults, M:D ratios were similar for continuous and quadrature motion. In infants, M:D ratios were higher for quadrature than for continuous motion, but elevations of similar magnitude were seen for both luminance-modulated and red/green gratings. The results suggest that frequency-doubled signals, such as those often seen in the magnocellular (M-cell) pathway, are not necessary for coding the direction of motion of isoluminant gratings in infant subjects. Two other theoretical options--mediation by the scatter of isoluminance points in the M-cell population, and parvocellular (P-cell) mediation--are discussed.
    Vision Research 06/1999; 39(10):1783-94. · 2.14 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
363.41 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1968–2009
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • • Department of Psychology
      • • Department of Medicine
      Seattle, WA, United States
  • 1997
    • University of California, San Diego
      • Department of Psychology
      San Diego, CA, United States
  • 1992
    • Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center
      • Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences
      Lubbock, TX, United States
  • 1988
    • Emory University
      Atlanta, Georgia, United States
  • 1982
    • University of Rochester
      Rochester, New York, United States
    • Wisconsin National Primate Research Center
      Madison, Wisconsin, United States
  • 1973
    • Syracuse University
      Syracuse, New York, United States