[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The lymphatic system is the primary pathway of metastasis for most human cancers. Recent research efforts in studying lymphangiogenesis have suggested the existence of a relationship between lymphatic vessel density and patient survival. However, current methodology of lymphangiogenesis quantification is still characterised by high intra- and interobserver variability. For the amount of lymphatic vessels in a tumour to be a clinically useful parameter, a reliable quantification technique needs to be developed. With this consensus report, we therefore would like to initiate discussion on the standardisation of the immunohistochemical method for lymphangiogenesis assessment.
British Journal of Cancer 01/2007; 95(12):1611-25. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was undertaken to determine the highly sensitive method for detecting tumour lymphatic vessels in all the fields of each slide (LV), lymphatic microvessel density (LMVD) and lymphatic vessel invasion (LVI) and to compare them with other prognostic parameters using immunohistochemical staining with polyclonal (PCAB) and monoclonal antibodies (MCAB) to the lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor-1 (LYVE-1), and the pan-endothelial marker factor VIII in a series of 67 human breast cancers. In all LYVE-1-stained sections, LV (some of which contained red blood cells) were frequently found localised in extralobular stroma, dermis, connective tissue stroma and adjacent to artery and vein, but were rare within the intralobular stroma or the tumour body (3/67 cases) or areas of widespread invasion. In contrast small blood vessels were observed in intra- and extralobular stroma in the factor VIII-stained sections. Quantitation of vessel numbers revealed that LYVE-1/PCAB detected a significantly larger number of LV than either H&E or LYVE-1/MCAB (P<0.0001). LYVE-1/PCAB detected LVI in 25/67 cases (37.3%) and their presence was significantly associated with both lymph node metastasis (chi(2)=4.698, P=0.0248) and unfavourable overall survival (OS) (P=0.0453), while not relapse- free survival (RFS) (P=0.2948). LMVD had no influence for RFS and OS (P=0.4879, P=0.1463, respectively). Our study demonstrates that immunohistochemistry with LYVE-1/PCAB is a highly sensitive method for detecting tumour LV/LVI in breast cancer and LVI is a useful prognostic indicator for lymphatic tumour dissemination.
British Journal of Cancer 12/2005; 93(10):1168-74. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Normal and malignant pulmonary and endometrial tissues were analysed for lymphatic vessels to assess the process of lymphangiogenesis and its role at these sites, using specific immunostaining for LYVE-1 and the panendothelial marker CD31.
Lymphatics were clearly demonstrated in some normal tissues (myometrium, bronchial submucosa, and intestinal submucosa), but not in others (endometrium and alveolar tissue). LYVE-1 positive lymphatic vessels were detected at the tumour periphery of endometrial and lung carcinomas, but not within the main tumour mass. Double staining for LYVE-1 and the MIB1 proliferation marker revealed a higher proliferation index in lymphatic endothelial cells at the invading front of endometrial carcinomas, compared with myometrial areas distal to the tumour. Lung and endometrial carcinomas did not have an intratumorous lymphatic network.
Although lymphangiogenesis may occur at the invading tumour front, incorporated lymphatics do not survive. Therefore, the dissemination of cancer cells through the lymphatics may occur by invasion of peripheral cancer cells into the adjacent normal lymphatics, or through shunts eventually produced at the invading tumour front as a consequence of active angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis.
Journal of Clinical Pathology 03/2005; 58(2):202-6. · 2.44 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tumors of endothelial cell origin are relatively common. Soft tissue tumors and numerous subtypes of benign and malignant vascular tumors have been described; the histogenesis of many of these tumors is uncertain, and distinguishing between benign and malignant vascular tumors, some of which express lymphatic endothelial cell markers, can be problematic. In the present study, immunophenotypic expression of a novel hyaluronan receptor (LYVE-1), which is expressed by endothelial cells of normal lymphatic vessels but not blood vessels, was determined in benign and malignant vascular tumors. It was found that, except in lymphangiomas, intramuscular hemangiomas, and Masson's hemangiomas, endothelial cells in benign blood vessel tumors (including capillary and cavernous hemangiomas, glomus tumors, pyogenic granulomas, and epithelioid hemangiomas) were negative for LYVE-1, and that all angiosarcomas and Kaposi's sarcomas were positive for LYVE-1. Expression of LYVE-1 and other lymphatic endothelial cell markers in relatively few vascular neoplasms has implications for the histogenesis of these lesions, and may prove useful in distinguishing angiosarcoma and Kaposi's sarcoma from most common benign vascular tumors.
Human Pathlogy 08/2004; 35(7):857-61. · 2.84 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although angiogenesis is a prerequisite for the growth of most human solid tumours, alternative mechanisms of vascularisation can be adopted. We have previously described a non-angiogenic growth pattern in liver metastases of colorectal adenocarcinomas (CRC) in which tumour cells replace hepatocytes at the tumour-liver interface, preserving the liver architecture and co-opting the sinusoidal blood vessels. The aim of this study was to determine whether this replacement pattern occurs during liver metastasis of breast adenocarcinomas (BC) and whether the lack of an angiogenic switch in such metastases is due to the absence of hypoxia and subsequent vascular fibrinogen leakage. The growth pattern of 45 BC liver metastases and 28 CRC liver metastases (73 consecutive patients) was assessed on haematoxylin- and eosin-stained tissue sections. The majority of the BC liver metastases had a replacement growth pattern (96%), in contrast to only 32% of the CRC metastases (P<0.0001). The median carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA9) expression (M75 antibody), as a marker of hypoxia, (intensity x % of stained tumour cells) was 0 in the BC metastases and 53 in the CRC metastases (P<0.0001). There was CA9 expression at the tumour-liver interface in only 16% of the BC liver metastases vs 54% of the CRC metastases (P=0.002). There was fibrin (T2G1 antibody) at the tumour-liver interface in only 21% of the BC metastases vs 56% of the CRC metastases (P=0.04). The median macrophage count (Chalkley morphometry; KP-1 anti-CD68 antibody) at the interface was 4.3 and 7.5, respectively (P<0.0001). Carbonic anhydrase 9 score and macrophage count were positively correlated (r=0.42; P=0.002) in all metastases. Glandular differentiation was less in the BC liver metastases: 80% had less than 10% gland formation vs only 7% of the CRC metastases (P<0.0001). The liver is a densely vascularised organ and can host metastases that exploit this environment by replacing the hepatocytes and co-opting the vasculature. Our findings confirm that a non-angiogenic pattern of liver metastasis indeed occurs in BC, that this pattern of replacement growth is even more prevalent than in CRC, and that the process induces neither hypoxia nor vascular leakage.
British Journal of Cancer 04/2004; 90(7):1429-36. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the distribution of lymphatic vessels in normal, rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA) synovium.
Synovial tissues from 5 normal controls, 14 patients with RA, and 16 patients with OA were studied. Lymphatic vessels were identified by immunohistochemistry using antibodies directed against the lymphatic endothelial hyaluronan receptor (LYVE-1) and recognised blood vessel endothelial markers (factor VIII, CD34, CD31).
Lymphatic vessels were found in all zones of the normal, OA, and RA synovial membrane. Few lymphatic vessels were seen in the sublining zone in normal and OA synovium which did not show villous hypertrophy. However, in both RA synovium and OA synovium showing villous hypertrophy and a chronic inflammatory cell infiltrate, numerous lymphatic vessels were seen in all zones of the synovial membrane, including the sublining zone of the superficial subintima.
Lymphatic vessels are present in normal and arthritic synovial tissues and are more numerous and prominent where there is oedema and an increase in inflammatory cells in the subintima, particularly in RA. This may reflect increased transport of hyaluronan and leucocyte trafficking in inflamed synovial tissues.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 01/2004; 62(12):1227-9. · 9.11 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous research into hyaluronan (HA) has focused on the role of this abundant tissue glycosaminoglycan in promoting cell migration through interactions with its transmembrane receptor CD44 on inflammatory leukocytes and tumor cells. The recent discovery of a new HA receptor, LYVE-1 (lymphatic vessel endothelial HA receptor), expressed predominantly in lymphatic vessels, highlights another aspect of HA biology: its continuous transit through the lymphatic system and its potential involvement in lymph node homing by CD44+ leukocytes and tumor cells. The functional role of LYVE-1 in lymphatic vessels and its application as a marker to study tumor lymphangiogenesis are important areas of investigation.
Trends in Immunology 07/2001; 22(6):317-21. · 9.49 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan is a key substrate for cell migration in tissues during inflammation, wound healing, and neoplasia. Unlike other matrix components, hyaluronan (HA) is turned over rapidly, yet most degradation occurs not locally but within distant lymph nodes, through mechanisms that are not yet understood. While it is not clear which receptors are involved in binding and uptake of hyaluronan within the lymphatics, one likely candidate is the lymphatic endothelial hyaluronan receptor LYVE-1 recently described in our laboratory (Banerji, S., Ni, J., Wang, S., Clasper, S., Su, J., Tammi, R., Jones, M., and Jackson, D.G. (1999) J. Cell Biol. 144, 789-801). Here we present evidence that LYVE-1 is involved in the uptake of hyaluronan by lymphatic endothelial cells using a new murine LYVE-1 orthologue identified from the EST data base. We show that mouse LYVE-1 both binds and internalizes hyaluronan in transfected 293T fibroblasts in vitro and demonstrate using immunoelectron microscopy that it is distributed equally among the luminal and abluminal surfaces of lymphatic vessels in vivo. In addition, we show by means of specific antisera that expression of mouse LYVE-1 remains restricted to the lymphatics in homozygous knockout mice lacking a functional gene for CD44, the closest homologue of LYVE-1 and the only other Link superfamily HA receptor known to date. Together these results suggest a role for LYVE-1 in the transport of HA from tissue to lymph and imply that further novel hyaluronan receptors must exist that can compensate for the loss of CD44 function.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 07/2001; 276(22):19420-30. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The growth of blood and lymphatic vasculature is mediated in part by secreted polypeptides of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family. The prototype VEGF binds VEGF receptor (VEGFR)-1 and VEGFR-2 and is angiogenic, whereas VEGF-C, which binds to VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3, is either angiogenic or lymphangiogenic in different assays. We used an adenoviral gene transfer approach to compare the effects of these growth factors in adult mice. Recombinant adenoviruses encoding human VEGF-C or VEGF were injected subcutaneously into C57Bl6 mice or into the ears of nude mice. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that VEGF-C upregulated VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3 expression and VEGF upregulated VEGFR-2 expression at 4 days after injection. After 2 weeks, histochemical and immunohistochemical analysis, including staining for the lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor-1 (LYVE-1), the vascular endothelial marker platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1), and the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) revealed that VEGF-C induced mainly lymphangiogenesis in contrast to VEGF, which induced only angiogenesis. These results have significant implications in the planning of gene therapy using these growth factors.
Circulation Research 04/2001; 88(6):623-9. · 11.86 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Metastasis to local lymph nodes via the lymphatic vessels is a common step in the spread of solid tumors. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the spread of cancer by the lymphatics, we examined the ability of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-D, a ligand for the lymphatic growth factor receptor VEGFR-3/Flt-4, to induce formation of lymphatics in a mouse tumor model. Staining with markers specific for lymphatic endothelium demonstrated that VEGF-D induced the formation of lymphatics within tumors. Moreover, expression of VEGF-D in tumor cells led to spread of the tumor to lymph nodes, whereas expression of VEGF, an angiogenic growth factor which activates VEGFR-2 but not VEGFR-3, did not. VEGF-D also promoted tumor angiogenesis and growth. Lymphatic spread induced by VEGF-D could be blocked with an antibody specific for VEGF-D. This study demonstrates that lymphatics can be established in solid tumors and implicates VEGF family members in determining the route of metastatic spread.
Nature Medicine 03/2001; 7(2):186-91. · 22.86 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The lymphatic vasculature transports extravasated tissue fluid, macromolecules and cells back into the blood circulation. Recent reports have focused on the molecular mechanisms regulating the lymphatic vessels. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C and VEGF-D have been shown to stimulate lymphangiogenesis and their receptor, VEGFR-3, has been linked to human hereditary lymphedema. Here we show that a soluble form of VEGFR-3 is a potent inhibitor of VEGF-C/VEGF-D signaling, and when expressed in the skin of transgenic mice, it inhibits fetal lymphangiogenesis and induces a regression of already formed lymphatic vessels, though the blood vasculature remains normal. Transgenic mice develop a lymphedema-like phenotype characterized by swelling of feet, edema and dermal fibrosis. They survive the neonatal period in spite of a virtually complete lack of lymphatic vessels in several tissues, and later show regeneration of the lymphatic vasculature, indicating that induction of lymphatic regeneration may also be possible in humans.
Nature Medicine 03/2001; 7(2):199-205. · 22.86 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Metastasis is a frequent and lethal complication of cancer. Vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) is a recently described lymphangiogenic factor. Increased expression of VEGF-C in primary tumours correlates with dissemination of tumour cells to regional lymph nodes. However, a direct role for VEGF-C in tumour lymphangiogenesis and subsequent metastasis has yet to be demonstrated. Here we report the establishment of transgenic mice in which VEGF-C expression, driven by the rat insulin promoter (Rip), is targeted to beta-cells of the endocrine pancreas. In contrast to wild-type mice, which lack peri-insular lymphatics, RipVEGF-C transgenics develop an extensive network of lymphatics around the islets of Langerhans. These mice were crossed with Rip1Tag2 mice, which develop pancreatic beta-cell tumours that are neither lymphangiogenic nor metastatic. Double-transgenic mice formed tumours surrounded by well developed lymphatics, which frequently contained tumour cell masses of beta-cell origin. These mice frequently developed pancreatic lymph node metastases. Our findings demonstrate that VEGF-C-induced lymphangiogenesis mediates tumour cell dissemination and the formation of lymph node metastases.
The EMBO Journal 03/2001; 20(4):672-82. · 9.82 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Metastasis of breast cancer occurs primarily through the lymphatic system, and the extent of lymph node involvement is a key prognostic factor for the disease. Whereas the significance of angiogenesis for tumor progression has been well documented, the ability of tumor cells to induce the growth of lymphatic vessels (lymphangiogenesis) and the presence of intratumoral lymphatic vessels have been controversial. Using a novel marker for lymphatic endothelium, LYVE-1, we demonstrate here the occurrence of intratumoral lymphangiogenesis within human breast cancers after orthotopic transplantation onto nude mice. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C overexpression in breast cancer cells potently increased intratumoral lymphangiogenesis, resulting in significantly enhanced metastasis to regional lymph nodes and to lungs. The degree of tumor lymphangiogenesis was highly correlated with the extent of lymph node and lung metastases. These results establish the occurrence and biological significance of intratumoral lymphangiogenesis in breast cancer and identify VEGF-C as a molecular link between tumor lymphangiogenesis and metastasis.
Nature Medicine 03/2001; 7(2):192-8. · 22.86 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Monocyte/macrophages play important roles in regulating tissue growth and angiogenesis through the controlled release of heparin-binding growth factors such as fibroblast growth factor (FGF), vascular endothelial growth factor, and heparin binding epidermal growth factor. The action of these potent growth mediators is known to be regulated by adsorption to heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) on the surface and within the extracellular matrix of other neighboring cells, which respectively promote or restrict interactions with their signal-transducing receptors on target cells. Here we report on the nature of HSPGs inducibly expressed on the surface of macrophages that confer these cells with the capacity to regulate endogenous growth factor activity. We reveal that activated human macrophages express only a single major 48-kDa cell surface HSPG, syndecan-2 (fibroglycan) as the result of de novo RNA and protein synthesis. In addition, we demonstrate this macrophage HSPG selectively binds the macrophage-derived growth factors FGF-2, vascular endothelial growth factor and heparin binding EGF and can present FGF-2 in a form that transactivates receptor-bearing BaF32 cells. These results define a novel and unique proteoglycan profile for macrophages and imply a key role for syndecan-2 in the delivery of sequestered growth factors by inflammatory macrophages for productive binding to their appropriate target cells in vivo.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 09/1999; 274(34):24113-23. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan (HA) is an abundant component of skin and mesenchymal tissues where it facilitates cell migration during wound healing, inflammation, and embryonic morphogenesis. Both during normal tissue homeostasis and particularly after tissue injury, HA is mobilized from these sites through lymphatic vessels to the lymph nodes where it is degraded before entering the circulation for rapid uptake by the liver. Currently, however, the identities of HA binding molecules which control this pathway are unknown. Here we describe the first such molecule, LYVE-1, which we have identified as a major receptor for HA on the lymph vessel wall. The deduced amino acid sequence of LYVE-1 predicts a 322-residue type I integral membrane polypeptide 41% similar to the CD44 HA receptor with a 212-residue extracellular domain containing a single Link module the prototypic HA binding domain of the Link protein superfamily. Like CD44, the LYVE-1 molecule binds both soluble and immobilized HA. However, unlike CD44, the LYVE-1 molecule colocalizes with HA on the luminal face of the lymph vessel wall and is completely absent from blood vessels. Hence, LYVE-1 is the first lymph-specific HA receptor to be characterized and is a uniquely powerful marker for lymph vessels themselves.
The Journal of Cell Biology 03/1999; 144(4):789-801. · 10.82 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The CD44 molecule is a widely distributed cell surface receptor for the extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan. The ligand-binding site which is located in the membrane distal portion of the molecule encompasses a region of approximately 100 amino acids termed the Link domain, a structural unit that is conserved among members of the Hyaladherin superfamily which includes cartilage link protein, aggrecan, and tumor necrosis factor-stimulated gene-6 (TSG-6). In contrast to these other Hyaladherins, however, the ligand-binding domain of CD44 appears to extend beyond the Link domain to involve additional basic residues located toward the membrane proximal region. Furthermore, recent molecular modeling studies indicate that within the CD44 Link domain itself, the spatial arrangement of critical residues involved in HA binding is likely to differ significantly from the prototypic TSG-6 Link module. In order to obtain material to solve the CD44 solution structure we have developed an optimized method for the expression and purification of functionally active CD44 ectodomains encompassing both the Link module and the additional downstream HA-binding residues in Escherichia coli. Here we describe the details of the method which involves solubilization of recombinant CD44 from inclusion bodies in 8 M urea, followed by refolding and purification of intact monomers using size-exclusion and reverse-phase chromatography. We show the method yields CD44 molecules that (1) retain reactivity with a panel of conformation-sensitive antibodies, (2) possess similar hyaluronan-binding characteristics to authentically folded CD44 molecules expressed in eukaryotic cells, and (3) display one-dimensional NMR spectra that indicate the presence of a single conformational species. This method should enable sufficient amounts of functional CD44 Link module to be produced for comprehensive structural analyses by multidimensional NMR spectroscopy.
Protein Expression and Purification 01/1999; 14(3):371-81. · 1.43 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SR proteins have a characteristic C-terminal Ser/Arg-rich repeat (RS domain) of variable length and constitute a family of highly conserved nuclear phosphoproteins that can function as both essential and alternative pre-mRNA splicing factors. We have cloned a cDNA encoding a novel human SR protein designated SRp30c, which has an unusually short RS domain. We also cloned cDNAs encoding the human homologues of Drosophila SRp55/B52 and rat SRp40/HRS. Recombinant proteins expressed from these cDNAs are active in constitutive splicing, as shown by their ability to complement a HeLa cell S100 extract deficient in SR proteins. Additional cDNA clones reflect extensive alternative splicing of SRp40 and SRp55 pre-mRNAs. The predicted protein isoforms lack the C-terminal RS domain and might be involved in feedback regulatory loops. The ability of human SRp30c, SRp40 and SRp55 to modulate alternative splicing in vivo was compared with that of other SR proteins using a transient contransfection assay. The overexpression of individual SR proteins in HeLa cells affected the choice of alternative 5' splice sites of adenovirus E1A and/or human beta-thalassemia reporters. The resulting splicing patterns were characteristic for each SR protein. Consistent with the postulated importance of SR proteins in alternative splicing in vivo, we demonstrate complex changes in the levels of mRNAs encoding the above SR proteins upon T cell activation, concomitant with changes in the expression of alternatively spliced isoforms of CD44 and CD45.
The EMBO Journal 10/1995; 14(17):4336-49. · 9.82 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Immune mechanisms, possibly involving cell-surface molecules such as CD44, have been invoked to explain the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. We used monoclonal antibodies against epitopes encoded within the variable region of CD44 to investigate CD44 isoform expression in colon, small intestine, and liver in patients with various intestinal disorders and in controls. Biopsy samples from patients with ulcerative colitis showed significantly increased epithelial expression of CD44 isoforms containing the v6 and v3 epitopes, detected with antibodies 2F10 and 3G5, respectively. CD44v6 was detected on colonic crypt epithelial cells in 23 of 25 ulcerative colitis samples compared with 3 of 18 colonic Crohn's disease samples (p = 3.0 x 10(-6); odds ratio 57.5 [95% CI 6.83-702]) and 3 of 52 controls (22 normal colon, 10 infective colitis, 2 radiation colitis, and 18 colonic Crohn's disease; p < 1 x 10(-8); odds ratio 199 [25.5-2294]). No significant expression of CD44v6, CD44v3, or CD44v8/9 was found in samples of normal proximal colon from 4 patients with distal ulcerative colitis, whereas samples from the affected area showed staining for CD44v6 and CD44v3. No expression of CD44 variants was found in 15 samples of normal small intestine, 11 small-bowel pouchitis, 8 coeliac disease, 3 small-bowel Crohn's disease, 6 normal liver, 6 primary biliary cirrhosis, or 9 primary sclerosing cholangitis. The high intensity of CD44v6 and v3 epitope expression on crypt epithelial cells in ulcerative colitis suggests that CD44 isoforms may have an important role in ulcerative colitis. Their detection could have diagnostic potential in differentiating ulcerative colitis from other forms of colonic inflammation including Crohn's disease.
The Lancet 06/1995; 345(8959):1205-9. · 39.06 Impact Factor