[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The lymphatic system is the primary pathway of metastasis for most human cancers. Recent research efforts in studying lymphangiogenesis have suggested the existence of a relationship between lymphatic vessel density and patient survival. However, current methodology of lymphangiogenesis quantification is still characterised by high intra- and interobserver variability. For the amount of lymphatic vessels in a tumour to be a clinically useful parameter, a reliable quantification technique needs to be developed. With this consensus report, we therefore would like to initiate discussion on the standardisation of the immunohistochemical method for lymphangiogenesis assessment.
British Journal of Cancer 06/2007; 95(12):1611-25. DOI:10.1038/sj.bjc.6603445 · 4.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was undertaken to determine the highly sensitive method for detecting tumour lymphatic vessels in all the fields of each slide (LV), lymphatic microvessel density (LMVD) and lymphatic vessel invasion (LVI) and to compare them with other prognostic parameters using immunohistochemical staining with polyclonal (PCAB) and monoclonal antibodies (MCAB) to the lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor-1 (LYVE-1), and the pan-endothelial marker factor VIII in a series of 67 human breast cancers. In all LYVE-1-stained sections, LV (some of which contained red blood cells) were frequently found localised in extralobular stroma, dermis, connective tissue stroma and adjacent to artery and vein, but were rare within the intralobular stroma or the tumour body (3/67 cases) or areas of widespread invasion. In contrast small blood vessels were observed in intra- and extralobular stroma in the factor VIII-stained sections. Quantitation of vessel numbers revealed that LYVE-1/PCAB detected a significantly larger number of LV than either H&E or LYVE-1/MCAB (P<0.0001). LYVE-1/PCAB detected LVI in 25/67 cases (37.3%) and their presence was significantly associated with both lymph node metastasis (chi(2)=4.698, P=0.0248) and unfavourable overall survival (OS) (P=0.0453), while not relapse- free survival (RFS) (P=0.2948). LMVD had no influence for RFS and OS (P=0.4879, P=0.1463, respectively). Our study demonstrates that immunohistochemistry with LYVE-1/PCAB is a highly sensitive method for detecting tumour LV/LVI in breast cancer and LVI is a useful prognostic indicator for lymphatic tumour dissemination.
British Journal of Cancer 12/2005; 93(10):1168-74. DOI:10.1038/sj.bjc.6602844 · 4.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Normal and malignant pulmonary and endometrial tissues were analysed for lymphatic vessels to assess the process of lymphangiogenesis and its role at these sites, using specific immunostaining for LYVE-1 and the panendothelial marker CD31.
Lymphatics were clearly demonstrated in some normal tissues (myometrium, bronchial submucosa, and intestinal submucosa), but not in others (endometrium and alveolar tissue). LYVE-1 positive lymphatic vessels were detected at the tumour periphery of endometrial and lung carcinomas, but not within the main tumour mass. Double staining for LYVE-1 and the MIB1 proliferation marker revealed a higher proliferation index in lymphatic endothelial cells at the invading front of endometrial carcinomas, compared with myometrial areas distal to the tumour. Lung and endometrial carcinomas did not have an intratumorous lymphatic network.
Although lymphangiogenesis may occur at the invading tumour front, incorporated lymphatics do not survive. Therefore, the dissemination of cancer cells through the lymphatics may occur by invasion of peripheral cancer cells into the adjacent normal lymphatics, or through shunts eventually produced at the invading tumour front as a consequence of active angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tumors of endothelial cell origin are relatively common. Soft tissue tumors and numerous subtypes of benign and malignant vascular tumors have been described; the histogenesis of many of these tumors is uncertain, and distinguishing between benign and malignant vascular tumors, some of which express lymphatic endothelial cell markers, can be problematic. In the present study, immunophenotypic expression of a novel hyaluronan receptor (LYVE-1), which is expressed by endothelial cells of normal lymphatic vessels but not blood vessels, was determined in benign and malignant vascular tumors. It was found that, except in lymphangiomas, intramuscular hemangiomas, and Masson's hemangiomas, endothelial cells in benign blood vessel tumors (including capillary and cavernous hemangiomas, glomus tumors, pyogenic granulomas, and epithelioid hemangiomas) were negative for LYVE-1, and that all angiosarcomas and Kaposi's sarcomas were positive for LYVE-1. Expression of LYVE-1 and other lymphatic endothelial cell markers in relatively few vascular neoplasms has implications for the histogenesis of these lesions, and may prove useful in distinguishing angiosarcoma and Kaposi's sarcoma from most common benign vascular tumors.
Human Pathlogy 08/2004; 35(7):857-61. DOI:10.1016/j.humpath.2004.02.009 · 2.77 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction Hyaluronan (HA) is a ubiquitous high molecular mass glycosaminoglycan composed of a repeating disaccharide. CD44, the major cell surface receptor for HA, has a HA-binding domain (CD44_HABD) at the N-terminus of the protein, the 3D structure of which has been determined by both NMR and X-ray crystallography ( Teriete et al. 2004 ); NMR spectra collected on the protein in complex with HA oligosaccharides has allowed us to predict how they may thread across the interaction surface. Amino acids previously implicated in HA binding include R41, Y42, R78 and Y79 ( Peach et al. 1993 ; Bajorath et al. 1998 ), which form a cluster on the surface of the Link module-like region ( Teriete et al. 2004 ), as well as residues in the C-terminal extension (R150, R154, K158 and R162) ( Peach et al. 1993 ). The position of the putative-binding residues in the C-terminal segment, and NMR data, led to the hypothesis of two modes of HA binding ( Teriete et al. 2004 ). Here, this hypothesis is tested by NMR studies of single-site mutants in the context of the CD44_HABD construct. Materials and methods Four mutants of CD44_HABD were made, each with a single residue substitution (R150A, R154A, K158A and R162A). These constructs were expressed as 15N-labelled proteins in Escherichia coli, refolded and purified to homogeneity. 1H–15N HSQC spectra were acquired on the mutants in the presence of varying concentrations of HA hexasaccharide (HA6) and compared to the wild-type construct to determine changes of protein fold and ligand binding. Results The mutants R150A, R154A and K158A have similar HSQC spectra to wild-type CD44_HABD except for local chemical shift perturbations around the altered residue. Conversely, the R162A mutant has widespread chemical shift differences compared to wild-type indicating that this mutation disrupts the fold. On binding HA6, the R150A, R154A and K158A mutants all experience shift perturbations similar to that seen with the wild-type protein. Discussion The interaction of HA6 with wild-type CD44_HABD has been found to cause a significant conformational change in the protein ( Teriete et al. 2004 ). The results here indicate that this ligand-induced rearrangement can also occur in the R150A, R154A and R158A mutants. Therefore, these mutations do not seem to affect the binding of CD44 to HA6. It has been shown previously that the R162A mutation has reduced affinity for HA compared to wild-type protein ( Peach et al. 1993 ). This loss of function may be due to the perturbation of the protein fold, and it is possible therefore that R162 does not participate directly in binding. Work is in progress to test the functional activity of these CD44_HABD mutants using ELISA-like assays and to investigate their chemical shift perturbation in the presence of longer oligosaccharides.
International Journal of Experimental Pathology 08/2004; 85(4). DOI:10.1111/j.0959-9673.2004.390as.x · 2.17 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although angiogenesis is a prerequisite for the growth of most human solid tumours, alternative mechanisms of vascularisation can be adopted. We have previously described a non-angiogenic growth pattern in liver metastases of colorectal adenocarcinomas (CRC) in which tumour cells replace hepatocytes at the tumour-liver interface, preserving the liver architecture and co-opting the sinusoidal blood vessels. The aim of this study was to determine whether this replacement pattern occurs during liver metastasis of breast adenocarcinomas (BC) and whether the lack of an angiogenic switch in such metastases is due to the absence of hypoxia and subsequent vascular fibrinogen leakage. The growth pattern of 45 BC liver metastases and 28 CRC liver metastases (73 consecutive patients) was assessed on haematoxylin- and eosin-stained tissue sections. The majority of the BC liver metastases had a replacement growth pattern (96%), in contrast to only 32% of the CRC metastases (P<0.0001). The median carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA9) expression (M75 antibody), as a marker of hypoxia, (intensity x % of stained tumour cells) was 0 in the BC metastases and 53 in the CRC metastases (P<0.0001). There was CA9 expression at the tumour-liver interface in only 16% of the BC liver metastases vs 54% of the CRC metastases (P=0.002). There was fibrin (T2G1 antibody) at the tumour-liver interface in only 21% of the BC metastases vs 56% of the CRC metastases (P=0.04). The median macrophage count (Chalkley morphometry; KP-1 anti-CD68 antibody) at the interface was 4.3 and 7.5, respectively (P<0.0001). Carbonic anhydrase 9 score and macrophage count were positively correlated (r=0.42; P=0.002) in all metastases. Glandular differentiation was less in the BC liver metastases: 80% had less than 10% gland formation vs only 7% of the CRC metastases (P<0.0001). The liver is a densely vascularised organ and can host metastases that exploit this environment by replacing the hepatocytes and co-opting the vasculature. Our findings confirm that a non-angiogenic pattern of liver metastasis indeed occurs in BC, that this pattern of replacement growth is even more prevalent than in CRC, and that the process induces neither hypoxia nor vascular leakage.
British Journal of Cancer 04/2004; 90(7):1429-36. DOI:10.1038/sj.bjc.6601727 · 4.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the distribution of lymphatic vessels in normal, rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA) synovium.
Synovial tissues from 5 normal controls, 14 patients with RA, and 16 patients with OA were studied. Lymphatic vessels were identified by immunohistochemistry using antibodies directed against the lymphatic endothelial hyaluronan receptor (LYVE-1) and recognised blood vessel endothelial markers (factor VIII, CD34, CD31).
Lymphatic vessels were found in all zones of the normal, OA, and RA synovial membrane. Few lymphatic vessels were seen in the sublining zone in normal and OA synovium which did not show villous hypertrophy. However, in both RA synovium and OA synovium showing villous hypertrophy and a chronic inflammatory cell infiltrate, numerous lymphatic vessels were seen in all zones of the synovial membrane, including the sublining zone of the superficial subintima.
Lymphatic vessels are present in normal and arthritic synovial tissues and are more numerous and prominent where there is oedema and an increase in inflammatory cells in the subintima, particularly in RA. This may reflect increased transport of hyaluronan and leucocyte trafficking in inflamed synovial tissues.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 01/2004; 62(12):1227-9. DOI:10.1136/ard.2003.005876 · 10.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan is a key substrate for cell migration in tissues during inflammation, wound healing, and neoplasia. Unlike other matrix components, hyaluronan (HA) is turned over rapidly, yet most degradation occurs not locally but within distant lymph nodes, through mechanisms that are not yet understood. While it is not clear which receptors are involved in binding and uptake of hyaluronan within the lymphatics, one likely candidate is the lymphatic endothelial hyaluronan receptor LYVE-1 recently described in our laboratory (Banerji, S., Ni, J., Wang, S., Clasper, S., Su, J., Tammi, R., Jones, M., and Jackson, D.G. (1999) J. Cell Biol. 144, 789-801). Here we present evidence that LYVE-1 is involved in the uptake of hyaluronan by lymphatic endothelial cells using a new murine LYVE-1 orthologue identified from the EST data base. We show that mouse LYVE-1 both binds and internalizes hyaluronan in transfected 293T fibroblasts in vitro and demonstrate using immunoelectron microscopy that it is distributed equally among the luminal and abluminal surfaces of lymphatic vessels in vivo. In addition, we show by means of specific antisera that expression of mouse LYVE-1 remains restricted to the lymphatics in homozygous knockout mice lacking a functional gene for CD44, the closest homologue of LYVE-1 and the only other Link superfamily HA receptor known to date. Together these results suggest a role for LYVE-1 in the transport of HA from tissue to lymph and imply that further novel hyaluronan receptors must exist that can compensate for the loss of CD44 function.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The growth of blood and lymphatic vasculature is mediated in part by secreted polypeptides of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family. The prototype VEGF binds VEGF receptor (VEGFR)-1 and VEGFR-2 and is angiogenic, whereas VEGF-C, which binds to VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3, is either angiogenic or lymphangiogenic in different assays. We used an adenoviral gene transfer approach to compare the effects of these growth factors in adult mice. Recombinant adenoviruses encoding human VEGF-C or VEGF were injected subcutaneously into C57Bl6 mice or into the ears of nude mice. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that VEGF-C upregulated VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3 expression and VEGF upregulated VEGFR-2 expression at 4 days after injection. After 2 weeks, histochemical and immunohistochemical analysis, including staining for the lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor-1 (LYVE-1), the vascular endothelial marker platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1), and the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) revealed that VEGF-C induced mainly lymphangiogenesis in contrast to VEGF, which induced only angiogenesis. These results have significant implications in the planning of gene therapy using these growth factors.
Circulation Research 04/2001; 88(6):623-9. DOI:10.1161/01.RES.88.6.623 · 11.02 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Metastasis is a frequent and lethal complication of cancer. Vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) is a recently described lymphangiogenic factor. Increased expression of VEGF-C in primary tumours correlates with dissemination of tumour cells to regional lymph nodes. However, a direct role for VEGF-C in tumour lymphangiogenesis and subsequent metastasis has yet to be demonstrated. Here we report the establishment of transgenic mice in which VEGF-C expression, driven by the rat insulin promoter (Rip), is targeted to beta-cells of the endocrine pancreas. In contrast to wild-type mice, which lack peri-insular lymphatics, RipVEGF-C transgenics develop an extensive network of lymphatics around the islets of Langerhans. These mice were crossed with Rip1Tag2 mice, which develop pancreatic beta-cell tumours that are neither lymphangiogenic nor metastatic. Double-transgenic mice formed tumours surrounded by well developed lymphatics, which frequently contained tumour cell masses of beta-cell origin. These mice frequently developed pancreatic lymph node metastases. Our findings demonstrate that VEGF-C-induced lymphangiogenesis mediates tumour cell dissemination and the formation of lymph node metastases.
The EMBO Journal 03/2001; 20(4):672-82. DOI:10.1093/emboj/20.4.672 · 10.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Metastasis of breast cancer occurs primarily through the lymphatic system, and the extent of lymph node involvement is a key prognostic factor for the disease. Whereas the significance of angiogenesis for tumor progression has been well documented, the ability of tumor cells to induce the growth of lymphatic vessels (lymphangiogenesis) and the presence of intratumoral lymphatic vessels have been controversial. Using a novel marker for lymphatic endothelium, LYVE-1, we demonstrate here the occurrence of intratumoral lymphangiogenesis within human breast cancers after orthotopic transplantation onto nude mice. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C overexpression in breast cancer cells potently increased intratumoral lymphangiogenesis, resulting in significantly enhanced metastasis to regional lymph nodes and to lungs. The degree of tumor lymphangiogenesis was highly correlated with the extent of lymph node and lung metastases. These results establish the occurrence and biological significance of intratumoral lymphangiogenesis in breast cancer and identify VEGF-C as a molecular link between tumor lymphangiogenesis and metastasis.
Nature Medicine 03/2001; 7(2):192-8. DOI:10.1038/84643 · 27.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sialoadhesin is a macrophage-restricted cellular interaction molecule and a prototypic member of the Siglec family of sialic acid binding immunoglobulin (Ig)-like lectins. So far, it has only been characterized in rodents. Here, we report the molecular cloning, binding properties, and expression pattern of human sialoadhesin. The predicted protein sequences of human and mouse sialoadhesin are about 72% identical, with the greatest similarity in the extracellular region, which comprises 17 Ig domains in both species. A recombinant protein consisting of the first 4 N-terminal domains of human sialoadhesin fused to the Fc region of human IgG1 mediated sialic acid-dependent binding with a specificity similar to its mouse counterpart, preferring sialic acid in the alpha2,3 glycosidic linkage over the alpha2,6 linkage. By flow cytometry with peripheral blood leukocytes, recombinant sialoadhesin bound strongly to granulocytes with intermediate binding to monocytes, natural killer cells, B cells, and a subset of CD8 T cells. Using antibodies raised to the recombinant protein, sialoadhesin was immunoprecipitated from the THP-1 human monocytic cell line as an approximate 200-kd glycoprotein. The expression pattern of human sialoadhesin was found to be similar to that of the mouse receptor, being absent from monocytes and other peripheral blood leukocytes, but expressed strongly by tissue macrophages in the spleen, lymph node, bone marrow, liver, colon, and lungs. High expression was also found on inflammatory macrophages present in affected tissues from patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The CD44 glycoprotein is expressed in multiple isoforms on a variety of cell types where it functions as a receptor for hyaluronan-mediated motility. Recently, interest has centered on CD44 heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) isoforms because of their potential to sequester heparin-binding growth factors and chemokines. Expression of these isoforms on ectodermal cells has recently been shown to regulate limb morphogenesis via presentation of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 4/FGF 8 while expression on tumor cells was shown to sequester hepatocyte growth factor and promote tumor dissemination. To date, however, CD44 HSPG expression in tissue macrophages and lymphocytes has not been adequately investigated, despite the fact these cells actively synthesize growth factors and chemokines and indirect evidence that monocyte CD44 sequesters macrophage inflammatory protein-1beta. Here we show primary human monocytes rather than lymphocytes express CD44 HSPGs, but only following in vitro differentiation to macrophages or activation with the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1alpha or bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Furthermore, we show these isoforms are preferentially modified with heparan rather than chondroitin sulfate, bind the macrophage-derived growth factors FGF-2, vascular endothelial growth factor, and heparin-binding epidermal growth factor with varying affinities (K(d) 25-330 nM) and in the case of FGF-2, can stimulate productive binding to the high affinity tyrosine kinase FGF receptor 1 (FGFR1). In contrast, we find no evidence for significant binding to C-C chemokines. Last, we confirm by immunofluorescent antibody staining that inflamed synovial membrane macrophages express CD44 HSPGs and that expression is greatest in cells containing high FGF-2 levels. These results suggest a paracrine role for macrophage CD44 HSPG isoforms in the regulation of growth factor action during inflammation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Monocyte/macrophages play important roles in regulating tissue growth and angiogenesis through the controlled release of heparin-binding growth factors such as fibroblast growth factor (FGF), vascular endothelial growth factor, and heparin binding epidermal growth factor. The action of these potent growth mediators is known to be regulated by adsorption to heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) on the surface and within the extracellular matrix of other neighboring cells, which respectively promote or restrict interactions with their signal-transducing receptors on target cells. Here we report on the nature of HSPGs inducibly expressed on the surface of macrophages that confer these cells with the capacity to regulate endogenous growth factor activity. We reveal that activated human macrophages express only a single major 48-kDa cell surface HSPG, syndecan-2 (fibroglycan) as the result of de novo RNA and protein synthesis. In addition, we demonstrate this macrophage HSPG selectively binds the macrophage-derived growth factors FGF-2, vascular endothelial growth factor and heparin binding EGF and can present FGF-2 in a form that transactivates receptor-bearing BaF32 cells. These results define a novel and unique proteoglycan profile for macrophages and imply a key role for syndecan-2 in the delivery of sequestered growth factors by inflammatory macrophages for productive binding to their appropriate target cells in vivo.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SR proteins have a characteristic C-terminal Ser/Arg-rich repeat (RS domain) of variable length and constitute a family of highly conserved nuclear phosphoproteins that can function as both essential and alternative pre-mRNA splicing factors. We have cloned a cDNA encoding a novel human SR protein designated SRp30c, which has an unusually short RS domain. We also cloned cDNAs encoding the human homologues of Drosophila SRp55/B52 and rat SRp40/HRS. Recombinant proteins expressed from these cDNAs are active in constitutive splicing, as shown by their ability to complement a HeLa cell S100 extract deficient in SR proteins. Additional cDNA clones reflect extensive alternative splicing of SRp40 and SRp55 pre-mRNAs. The predicted protein isoforms lack the C-terminal RS domain and might be involved in feedback regulatory loops. The ability of human SRp30c, SRp40 and SRp55 to modulate alternative splicing in vivo was compared with that of other SR proteins using a transient contransfection assay. The overexpression of individual SR proteins in HeLa cells affected the choice of alternative 5' splice sites of adenovirus E1A and/or human beta-thalassemia reporters. The resulting splicing patterns were characteristic for each SR protein. Consistent with the postulated importance of SR proteins in alternative splicing in vivo, we demonstrate complex changes in the levels of mRNAs encoding the above SR proteins upon T cell activation, concomitant with changes in the expression of alternatively spliced isoforms of CD44 and CD45.
The EMBO Journal 10/1995; 14(17):4336-49. · 10.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Immune mechanisms, possibly involving cell-surface molecules such as CD44, have been invoked to explain the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. We used monoclonal antibodies against epitopes encoded within the variable region of CD44 to investigate CD44 isoform expression in colon, small intestine, and liver in patients with various intestinal disorders and in controls. Biopsy samples from patients with ulcerative colitis showed significantly increased epithelial expression of CD44 isoforms containing the v6 and v3 epitopes, detected with antibodies 2F10 and 3G5, respectively. CD44v6 was detected on colonic crypt epithelial cells in 23 of 25 ulcerative colitis samples compared with 3 of 18 colonic Crohn's disease samples (p = 3.0 x 10(-6); odds ratio 57.5 [95% CI 6.83-702]) and 3 of 52 controls (22 normal colon, 10 infective colitis, 2 radiation colitis, and 18 colonic Crohn's disease; p < 1 x 10(-8); odds ratio 199 [25.5-2294]). No significant expression of CD44v6, CD44v3, or CD44v8/9 was found in samples of normal proximal colon from 4 patients with distal ulcerative colitis, whereas samples from the affected area showed staining for CD44v6 and CD44v3. No expression of CD44 variants was found in 15 samples of normal small intestine, 11 small-bowel pouchitis, 8 coeliac disease, 3 small-bowel Crohn's disease, 6 normal liver, 6 primary biliary cirrhosis, or 9 primary sclerosing cholangitis. The high intensity of CD44v6 and v3 epitope expression on crypt epithelial cells in ulcerative colitis suggests that CD44 isoforms may have an important role in ulcerative colitis. Their detection could have diagnostic potential in differentiating ulcerative colitis from other forms of colonic inflammation including Crohn's disease.
The Lancet 06/1995; 345(8959):1205-9. DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(95)91991-0 · 45.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The CD44 cell surface glycoprotein is expressed on a broad range of different tissues as multiple isoforms containing from one to ten alternatively spliced exons v1-v10 inserted within the extracellular domain. Differential glycosylation generates still further variability, yielding both N- and O-glycan-modified forms of CD44 in addition to proteoglycan-like variants containing chondroitin sulphate and heparan sulphate. These high molecular mass proteoglycan-like variants, previously identified in lymphocytes, melanomas, and keratinocytes have been implicated in cell-matrix adhesion, cell motility, and invasiveness. More recently, monocyte CD44 molecules presumed to carry glycosaminoglycan chains were shown to bind the chemokine MIP-1 beta (Tanaka, Y.,D. H. Adams, S. Hubscher, H. Hirano, U. Siebenlist, and S. Shaw. 1993. Nature (Lond). 361:79-82.) raising the intriguing possibility that proteoglycan-like CD44 variants might play a role in regulating inflammatory responses. Here we have investigated the molecular identity of these proteoglycan-like CD44 variants by generating a panel of recombinant CD44 isoforms using a novel cassette cloning strategy. We show that both chondroitin and heparan sulphate modifications are associated specifically with isoforms (CD44v3-10 and CD44v3,8-10) containing the v3 alternative exon which encodes a consensus motif SGXG for GAG addition. Other isoforms (CD44v10, CD44v8-10, CD44v7-10, and CD44v6-10) are shown to lack these GAG chains but to carry extensive O-glycan modifications, most likely within the mucin-like alternative exon inserts. We also demonstrate that the majority of endogenous GAG-modified CD44 isoforms present in epithelial cells constitute v3 isoforms thus establishing that in these cells the majority of proteoglycan-like CD44 variants are generated by alternative splicing. Finally we present evidence using transfected B lymphoma cells that the GAG-modified CD44 isoforms CD44v3-10 and CD44v3,8-10, unlike CD44H, bind only weakly to hyaluronan. Together with the demonstration in the accompanying paper (Bennett, K., D. G. Jackson, J.C. Simon, E. Tanczos, R. Peach, B. Modrell, I. Stamenkovic, G. Plowman, and A. Aruffo. 1995. J. Cell Biol. 128:687-698.), that CD44 molecules containing the v3 exon bind growth factors, these results highlight a new and potentially important role for CD44 alternative splicing in the control of cell-surface proteoglycan expression.
The Journal of Cell Biology 03/1995; 128(4):673-85. · 9.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cluster-4 and CD24 cDNA's have recently been cloned from the small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) cell line SW2 and from the erythroleukemia cell line K562, respectively. The only difference in the coding sequence, between cluster-4 and CD24 antigens is the substitution of a single base pair leading to a substitution of Val by Ala near the putative glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchorage sites of the mature protein. Here we demonstrate that the nucleotide substitution which distinguishes the cluster-4 and CD24 antigen genes is due to an allelic polymorphism on chromosome band 6q21. In addition, we identified by Southern blotting and PCR of DNA from somatic human x hamster hybrid cell lines homologues of cluster-4/CD24 on the Y chromosome and chromosome 15. We suggest, however, that the gene on 6q21 is the active locus since the mRNA of cell lines always represents the allelic variants found on chromosome 6. The distribution pattern of this allelic polymorphism in SCLC cell lines and leukocytes of healthy donors did not reveal any obvious relationship with disease. However, it is noteworthy that homozygosity for cluster-4 was found in only one case whereas heterozygosity and homozygosity for CD24 both contribute up to 50% of the samples examined.
Cytogenetics and cell genetics 02/1995; 70(1-2):119-25. DOI:10.1159/000134075
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: At least 20 different isoforms of the human CD44 lymphocyte-homing receptor/hyaluronan receptor have been described to date that arise from the differential splicing of up to 10 alternative exons (termed v1-v10) encoding the membrane-proximal extracellular domain. Although numerous analyses at the mRNA level have indicated tissue-specific expression of CD44 variants, few analyses have been performed at the protein level because of limited availability of suitable monoclonal antibodies. Recently, however, exon-specific monoclonal antibodies have been generated using bacterial fusion proteins, and these have been reported to detect high levels of vCD44 containing the v6 exon on human tumors. Together with earlier evidence linking this particular exon with tumor metastasis in the rat, these latter experiments have led to the interpretation that v6 splice variants play a causative role in tumor dissemination. In this paper we describe the use of a new and comprehensive panel of CD44 exon-specific monoclonal antibodies generated against a recombinant CD44(v3-10)-immunoglobulin chimera to study vCD44 expression in a large number of normal and neoplastic tissues. We show that the expression of vCD44 varies greatly among different human tumors and that some express either very low levels of vCD44 or no CD44 at all. Furthermore, we demonstrate that expression is not limited to isoforms containing the v6 exon but includes variants carrying v3, v4/5, and v8/9. Additionally, normal epithelial tissues are shown to express considerable levels of these same vCD44 isoforms. Such results argue against a ubiquitous role for vCD44 isoforms in promoting tumor growth and metastasis.
Cancer Research 09/1994; 54(16):4539-46. · 9.33 Impact Factor