[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Toxic element exposure and essential trace element consumption may have changed after the Chinese economy transformed to a market-oriented system. The objectives of this study were to measure urinary concentrations of toxic (arsenic, cadmium, lead) and essential trace (selenium, zinc, copper) elements among rural residents in Hainan, China and to examine if variations in economic development are linked to differences in toxic and trace element exposure. Methods: We conducted a questionnaire-based survey and undertook anthropometric measurements of residents aged ≥20 years (n = 599). Urinary samples were collected and analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results: The median (μg/g creatinine) element concentrations were: arsenic, 73.2; cadmium, 1.8; lead, 3.1; selenium, 36.5; zinc, 371; and copper, 11.0. Intra-community variation in element concentrations was explained by age (arsenic, cadmium, zinc and copper), sex (arsenic, cadmium and selenium: higher in females; zinc: higher in males), body mass index (cadmium) and individual involvement in the market economy as indexed by agrochemical use (lead and selenium). The degree of community-level economic development, which was determined by the proportion of people living in better housing among the study communities, was positively associated with cadmium concentration. Conclusions: The degree of community-level economic development was positively associated with urinary cadmium concentration while individual involvement in the market economy was positively associated with lead and selenium.
International journal of environmental research and public health. 12/2014; 11(12):13047-13064.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rice cultured in Hg- and/or Se-contaminated fields is an important food source of human Hg/Se intake. There are elevated Hg and Se levels in the soil of the Wanshan District, Guizhou Province. Here we attempted to explore how a Hg antagonist, Se, modulates the absorption and accumulation of inorganic mercury (IHg) and methylmercury (MeHg) in rice. The effects of Se on the content and transportation of Hg in hydroponic and soil cultured rice plants were examined. The results show that IHg mainly accumulated in the rice roots, but some also accumulated in the rice grain. In comparison to IHg, MeHg can be concentrated in the rice grain, and the proportion of MeHg in the rice grain may account for above 40% of the total Hg. Se can protect against Hg phytotoxicity in rice and inhibit IHg accumulation in rice tissues, but was not remarkable for MeHg at a low dosage exposure level in this study. These discrepancies imply mechanistic differences between IHg and MeHg absorption and accumulation in rice. This study illustrates that Se plays an important role in modulating Hg uptake, transportation and accumulation in rice. Therefore, Se is considered to be a naturally existing element that effectively reduces Hg accumulation in rice, which may have significant implications for food safety.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The number and mass concentration, size distribution, and the concentration of 16 elements were studied in aerosol samples during the Spring Festival celebrations in 2013 in Beijing, China. Both the number and mass concentration increased sharply in a wide range from 10 nm to 10 μm during the firecrackers and fireworks activities. The prominent increase of the number concentration was in 50 nm-500 nm with a peak of 1.7 × 10(5)/cm(3) at 150 nm, which is 8 times higher than that after 1.5 h. The highest mass concentration was in 320-560 nm, which is 4 times higher than the control. K, Mg, Sr, Ba and Pb increased sharply during the firework activities in PM10. Although the aerosol emission from firework activities is a short-term air quality degradation event, there may be a substantial hazard arising from the chemical composition of the emitted particles.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We aim to investigate the biological effects of copper particles on the murine brain and their underlying mechanism after nasal instillation of copper particles. We choose different sizes and different concentrations of copper nanoparticles for mice intranasal use. Within one week, the mice were sacrificed. Pathological lesions of glial cells were detected by immunohistochemical assay. Immunohistochemical assay reveals that glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) increased significantly in all experimental groups, especially in nanocopper groups. The ultrastructure of nerve cells was observed through TEM, whose results show that there were chromatin congregation and mitochondria shrinkage in the olfactory cells, and that there was increase of endoplasmic reticulum and disassociation of endoplasmic reticulum ribosomes in hippocampus, particularly in the nanocopper-groups. Oxidative stress indexes were determined with colorimetric methods. There was no significant increase in the antioxidative enzymes (GPX, GST, SOD) in brain tissues; however, significant increase of malondiadehyde (MDA) contents was only found in the Cu nanoparticle-exposed mice at the high dose of 40 mg per kg body weight. Based on the investigation into the biological effects of copper nanoparticles (23.5 nm) after intranasal instillation to the mice, we have found that copper particles can indeed enter into the olfactory bulb and then the deeper brain. The inhalation of high dose copper nanoparticles can induce severer lesions of brain in the experimental mice. The underlying mechanism of copper nanoparticles causing severe brain damage bears little connection with oxidative stress.
Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology 06/2014; 14(6):4534-40. · 1.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Health impacts of inhalation exposure to engineered nanomaterials have attracted increasing attention. In this paper, integrated analytical techniques with high sensitivity were used to study the brain translocation and potential impairment induced by intranasally instilled copper nanoparticles (CuNPs). Mice were exposed to CuNPs in three doses (1, 10, 40 mg/kg bw). The body weight of mice decreased significantly in the 10 and 40 mg/kg group (p < 0.05) but recovered slightly within exposure duration. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis showed that CuNPs could enter the brain. Altered distribution of some important metal elements were observed by synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SRXRF). H&E Staining and immunohistochemical analysis showed that CuNPs produced damages to nerve cells and astrocyte might be the one of the potential targets of CuNPs. The changes of neurotransmitter levels in different brain regions demonstrate that the dysfunction occurred in exposed groups. These data indicated that CuNPs could enter the brain after nasal inhalation and induced damages to the central nervous system (CNS). Integration of effective analytical techniques for systematic investigations is a promising direction to better understand the biological activities of nanomaterials.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study the arsenic distribution, speciation, its effects on the balance of other elements and the DNA damage by subchronic arsenite exposure in mice.
The 8-week-old C57BL/6N mice were matched by weight and divided into control group and supplementation group, which were given 0 or 10 microg/ml of sodium arsenite in the drinking water, and continuous exposed for 6 months.
Arsenic was found in various tissues and organs. The highest ones were in the kidney, lung and liver, reached (563.9 +/- 222.5), (458.6 +/- 191.0) and (279.8 +/- 81.2) ng/g, respectively while the lowest in the blood and brain, reached (82.2 +/- 26.7) ng/ml and (101.8 +/- 30.1) ng/g, respectively. Arsenic exists mainly in the form of dimethylarsinous acid (DMA). Compared to the control group, there was a significant difference (P < 0.05) between arsenic and chromium, copper, zinc, selenium, lead in some organs of arsenic exposed group, but not cadmium. Furthermore, the 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) level of the exposed group was (149.1 +/- 1.0) ng/ml, which was significantly higher than the control group of (76.4 +/- 27.9) ng/ml.
Arsenic accumulated in various tissues and organs mainly in the form of DMA, which affected the balance of chromium, copper, zinc, selenium and lead in the body, and led to DNA damage after subchronic exposure.
Wei sheng yan jiu = Journal of hygiene research 09/2013; 42(5):764-9, 776.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mercury is one of the most hazardous pollutants in the environment. In this paper, the structural change of human hair induced by mercury exposure was studied. Human hair samples were, respectively, collected from the normal Beijing area and the Hg-contaminated Wanshan area of the Guizhou Province, China. Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy was used to detect the element contents. Small angle x-ray scattering technique was used to probe the structural change. Three reflections with 8.8, 6.7 and 4.5-nm spacing were compared between the normal and the Hg-contaminated hair samples. The results confirm that the 4.5-nm reflection is from the ordered fibrillar structure of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) in proteoglycan (PG) that composes the matrix around the intermediate filaments. The increase of Ca content makes the regular orientated fibrillar structure of GAG transform to a random orientated one, broadening the angular extent of the reflection with 4.5-nm spacing. However, over-dose Hg makes the core proteins where the ordered fibrils of GAG are attached become coiled, which destroys the ordered arrangements of fibrillar GAG in PG, resulting in the disappearance of the reflections with 4.5-nm spacing. The disappearance of the 4.5-nm reflection can be used as a bio-indicator of over-dose Hg-contamination to human body. A supercoiled-coil model of hair nanoscale structure and a possible mechanism of mercury effect in human hair are proposed in this paper.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The response of E. coli to Hg(2+) exposure was investigated using proteomic and metalloproteomic approaches. E. coli was cultured in the LB medium containing HgCl2 and/or selenomethionine. The growth curve of E. coli was measured to estimate the toxicity of Hg(2+) or selenomethionine. After two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), distribution of Hg in 2-DE gel was detected with synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SRXRF) at 4W1B, Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The proteins with differential expression and those containing Hg were identified with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) and peptide mass fingerprinting analysis. The results showed that Hg(2+) can inhibit the growth of E. coli, while supplement of selenomethionine can shorten the lag period induced by Hg(2+), indicating an antagonistic effect of selenomethionine against Hg(2+) toxicity. Mechanistically, Hg was observed to be able to bind pyruvate kinase, a glycolytic enzyme, and modulate the expression of five other proteins, including down-regulation of outer membrane protein W and up-regulation of transcription termination factor rho, cysteine synthase, transaldolase A and alkyl hydroperoxide reductase subunit C. Therefore, our results indicated that mercury may influence osmosis of plasma membrane, antioxidant defense, and glycometabolism of the microorganism. This study demonstrates the high sensitivity of SRXRF in identifying metal-associated proteins compared to conventional proteomic approaches.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Combined pollution of selenium (Se) and mercury (Hg) has been known in Wanshan district (Guizhou Province, China). A better understanding of how Se and Hg interact in plants and the phytotoxicity thereof will provide clues about how to avoid or mitigate adverse effects of Se/Hg on local agriculture. In this study, the biological activity of Se has been investigated in garlic with or without Hg exposure. Se alone can promote garlic growth at low levels (<0.1 mg L(-1)), whereas it inhibits garlic growth at high levels (>1 mg L(-1)). The promotive effect of Se in garlic can be enhanced by low Hg exposure (<0.1 mg L(-1)). When both Se and Hg are at high levels, there is a general antagonistic effect between these two elements in terms of phytotoxicity. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) data suggest that Se is mainly concentrated in garlic roots, compared to the leaves and the bulbs. Se uptake by garlic in low Se medium (<0.1 mg L(-1)) can be significantly enhanced as Hg exposure levels increase (P < 0.05), while it can be inhibited by Hg when Se exposure levels exceed 1 mg L(-1). The synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SRXRF) mapping further shows that Se is mainly concentrated in the stele of the roots, bulbs and the veins of the leaves, and Se accumulation in garlic can be reduced by Hg. The X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) study indicates that Se is mainly formed in C-Se-C form in garlic. Hg can decrease the content of inorganic Se mainly in SeO3(2-) form in garlic while increasing the content of organic Se mainly in C-Se-C form (MeSeCys and its derivatives). Hg-mediated changes in Se species along with reduced Se accumulation in garlic may account for the protective effect of Hg against Se phytotoxicity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the influence of selenium on mercury phytotoxicity, the levels of selenium and mercury were analyzed with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in garlic tissues upon exposure to different dosages of inorganic mercury (Hg(2+)) and selenite (SeO3(2-)) or selenate (SeO4(2-)). The distributions of selenium and mercury were examined with micro-synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (μ-SRXRF), and the mercury speciation was investigated with micro-X-ray absorption near edge structure (μ-XANES). The results show that Se at higher exposure levels (>1mg/L of SeO3(2-) or SeO4(2-)) would significantly inhibit the absorption and transportation of Hg when Hg(2+) levels are higher than 1mg/L in culture media. SeO3(2-) and SeO4(2-) were found to be equally effective in reducing Hg accumulation in garlic. The inhibition of Hg uptake by Se correlates well with the influence of Se on Hg phytotoxicity as indicated by the growth inhibition factor. Elemental imaging using μ-SRXRF also shows that Se could inhibit the accumulation and translocation of Hg in garlic. μ-XANES analysis shows that Hg is mainly present in the forms of Hg-S bonding as Hg(GSH)2 and Hg(Met)2. Se exposure elicited decrease of Hg-S bonding in the form of Hg(GSH)2, together with Se-mediated alteration of Hg absorption, transportation and accumulation, may account for attenuated Hg phytotoxicity by Se in garlic.
Environmental Research 04/2013; · 3.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Due to a long history of extensive mercury mining and smelting activities, local residents in Wanshan, China, are suffering from elevated mercury exposure. The objective of the present study was to study the effects of oral supplementation with selenium-enriched yeast in these long-term mercury-exposed populations. One hundred and three volunteers from Wanshan area were recruited and 53 of them were supplemented with 100 μg of organic selenium daily as selenium-enriched yeast while 50 of them were supplemented with the nonselenium-enriched yeast for 3 months. The effects of selenium supplementation on urinary mercury, selenium, and oxidative stress-related biomarkers including malondialdehyde and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine were assessed. This 3-month selenium supplementation trial indicated that organic selenium supplementation could increase mercury excretion and decrease urinary malondialdehyde and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine levels in local residents.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The rising commercial use and large-scale production of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) may lead to unintended exposure to humans. The central nervous system (CNS) is a potential susceptible target of the inhaled NPs, but so far the amount of studies on this aspect is limited. Here, we focus on the potential neurological lesion in the brain induced by the intranasally instilled titanium dioxide (TiO₂) particles in rutile phase and of various sizes and surface coatings. Female mice were intranasally instilled with four different types of TiO₂ particles (i.e. two types of hydrophobic particles in micro- and nano-sized without coating and two types of water-soluble hydrophilic nano-sized particles with silica surface coating) every other day for 30 days. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were used to determine the titanium contents in the sub-brain regions. Then, the pathological examination of brain tissues and measurements of the monoamine neurotransmitter levels in the sub-brain regions were performed. We found significant up-regulation of Ti contents in the cerebral cortex and striatum after intranasal instillation of hydrophilic TiO₂ NPs. Moreover, TiO₂ NPs exposure, in particular the hydrophilic NPs, caused obvious morphological changes of neurons in the cerebral cortex and significant disturbance of the monoamine neurotransmitter levels in the sub-brain regions studied. Thus, our results indicate that the surface modification of the NPs plays an important role on their effects on the brain. In addition, the difference in neurotoxicity of the two types of hydrophilic NPs may be induced by the shape differences of the materials. The present results suggest that physicochemical properties like size, shape and surface modification of the nanomaterials should be considered when evaluating their neurological effects.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increasing production and application of metallic nanomaterials are likely to result in the release of these particles into the environment. These released nanoparticles may enter into the lungs and the central nervous system (CNS) directly through inhalation, which therefore poses a potential risk to human health. Herein, we focus on the systemic toxicity and potential influence on the neurotransmitter secretion of intranasally instilled copper nanoparticles (23.5 nm) at three different doses. Copper nanoparticle-exposed mice exhibit pathological lesions at different degrees in certain tissues and especially in lung tissue as revealed by histopathology and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations. Inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) results show that the liver, lung and olfactory bulb are the main tissues in which the copper concentrations increased significantly after exposure to a higher level of Cu nanoparticles (40 mg/kg of body weight). The secretion levels of various neurotransmitters changed as well in some brain regions, especially in the olfactory bulb. Our results indicate that the intranasally instilled copper nanoparticles not only cause the lesions where the copper accumulates, but also affect the neurotransmitter levels in the brain.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Quantitative proteomics poses a great challenge and also offers considerable opportunities for analytical chemistry. Currently, the available methods for quantitative proteomics are mainly based on labeling by isotopes and quantification by biological mass spectrometers with soft-ionization sources. Recently, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has been introduced as an attractive complement to biological mass spectrometry for protein quantification. Here we developed a new method based on lanthanide labeling and ICP-MS detection for relative quantification of protein mixtures. The bifunctional reagent DTPAA was chosen as the element-labeling reagent for proteins. Two samples containing RNase A, cytochrome c, and lysozyme in different mixture ratios were labeled with two lanthanides, Ce and Sm, respectively. After separation with cation exchange chromatography, the proteins could be relatively quantified by comparison between signal intensities of Ce and Sm in ICP-MS. The intact proteins can be quantitatively analyzed without enzyme digestion. Because there are 17 lanthanides available for proteinlabeling, the developed method provides a possibility for high-throughput and top-down proteomics quantification by ICP-MS.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Commercially available carbon nanotubes (CNT) often contain some quantities of metallic and carbonaceous impurities. These impurities influence their physicochemical properties and performance, and accordingly a number of potential applications. The lack of information of metal impurities may also preclude accurate environmental and health risk assessments for specific CNT materials. To address these needs, a quantitative analysis of the metal contents has been made in a number of commercial carbon nanotubes produced by different manufacturers. More than 20 metals or metalloids were determined by neutron activation analysis. The results indicate arranging from 0.44 to 3 wt% of catalyst residues remained although the producers claim to provide a catalyst-free product. Most of the impurity elements are transition metals, such as Fe, Ni, Mo, Y, Co and Cr. In addition to the expected catalyst residues, other unexpected impurity elements were detected including As, Gd, W, Yb, Sm and so on. Metallic impurities in carbon nanotube materials should come from the large-scale production procedures, post fabrication and post-purification treatments. The analytical results determined by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry show that a further deep purification using conventional acid reflux cannot completely remove the metallic impurities from carbon nanotubes. Post-production clean up is difficult and often incompletely.
Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology 03/2011; 11(3):2389-97. · 1.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Potentially harmful element contamination from mining and smelting raises concerns due to possible health risks. For most people, diet is the main route of exposure to potentially harmful elements, so determination of the concentrations of these elements in foodstuffs and assessment of their possible risk for humans via dietary intake is very important. This study was designed to investigate the concentrations of different elements, including Hg, Pb, Cd, Mn and Se in foodstuffs and to estimate the potential health risk of these elements via consumption of polluted foodstuffs in the Wanshan Hg mine area, Guizhou province, SW China. The multielemental concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The target hazard quotient (THQ) and hazard index (HI) were calculated to evaluate the potential health risk from individual and combined potentially harmful elements due to dietary intake. The average contents of Hg, Pb, Cd, Mn and Se in the most frequently consumed foodstuffs were: 31, 248, 121, 1035 and 32 μg/kg respectively. Among them, Cd and Hg were the most important contributors to potentially harmful elements contamination in Wanshan. Eight of 10 kinds of vegetables were contaminated to various levels by different elements but the samples of rice, pork, radish and potato were below the stipulated limits for toxic elements. In this study, the average dietary intakes of Hg, Pb, Cd, Mn, Se by an adult man of 60 kg living in Wanshan were: 27, 167, 86, 1061, 42 μg/day, respectively. The HIs for multielement dietary intake was 3.11, with the relative contributions of Hg, Pb, Cd, Mn and Se being 22.3%, 24.3%, 45.0%, 3.9% and 4.4%, respectively, which indicated that consumption of food poses a potential health risk. Vegetables were found to be the main source of potentially harmful element dietary intake.Research highlights► Wanshan is the most important historical Hg mining area in China. ► Foodstuffs from Wanshan is collected and Hg, Pb, Cd, Mn and Se were determined. ► Cd and Hg were the most important contributors. ► Vegetables were the main source of potentially harmful element dietary intake. ► Consumption of local foodstuffs poses a potential health risk.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Accurate determination of selenium (Se) species in biological samples is a critical issue because Se commonly occurs at low levels and in diverse species. The method for the full quantification of Se species in serum samples was proposed through combined ion-pair reverse-phase (RP) chromatography and affinity chromatography (AF) hyphenated to inductively coupled plasma-(quadrupole) mass spectrometry (ICP-qMS) with post-column isotope dilution analysis (IDA) and a collision cell technique (CCT). Different Se species like inorganic Se (Se4+ and Se6+), selenocystine (SeCys), selenomethionine (SeMet), selenoprotein P (SelP), selenoalbumin (SeAlb) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) can be separated and quantified. The proposed methodology was used to qualitatively and quantitatively study the dynamic distribution of Se species in human serum samples from the Hg-contaminated area after supplementation with 100 μg of Se daily as Se-enriched yeast for 180 days. SelP takes up almost half and even more of the total Se and increases with the Se administration. The repeatability in terms of relative standard deviation (R.S.D. %, n = 10) is 6% for GPx and SelP and 5% for SeAlb. The detection limits are 0.1 μg Se L−1 for GPx and other non-retained Se compounds, 1.0 μg Se L−1 for SelP and 1.2 μg Se L−1 for SeAlb, 1.3 μg Se L−1 for inorganic Se; 1.2 μg Se L−1 for SeCys; 1.1 μg Se L−1 for SeMet, respectively.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress is considered to be one of the important mechanisms involved in carcinogenesis. To investigate the effect of [Gd@C82(OH)22]n and [C60(OH)20]n nanoparticles on the oxidative stress in the tumor-bearing mice, several antioxidative enzymes and antioxidants were tested for mice with or without tumor inoculation. Transplanted tumors were grown in mice by subcutaneous inoculation of a metastatic Lewis lung carcinoma in female C57/BL mice. More importantly, the tumor cells can metastasize into the normal lung tissues gradually. Therefore, in present paper, the activities of copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione S-transferase (GST), as well as the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the tumor-invaded lung tissues of the tumor-bearing mice were compared to the nomal lung tissues of normal mice. After treatment with nanoparticles, the activities of GSH-Px and GST and other parameters related to the oxidative stress were downregulated and tended closely to the normal levels. Pulmonary histopathological results also showed that two different types of water-soluble fullerenes can prevent lungs from inflammatory lesion and tumor invasion. These findings indicate two different types of water-soluble fullerenes materials can downregulate the oxidative stress status by scavenging excessive free radicals and inhibiting the lipid peroxidation in tumor-bearing mice, which can partly explain their protective roles on the pulmonary oxidative-damage induced by the tumor metastasis to lung tissues.
Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology 12/2010; 10(12):8632-7. · 1.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endohedral metallofullerenes have unique chemical and physical properties that are essential for biomedical applications. They can be used as a radiotracer in magnetic resonance and X-ray imaging (MRI and XRI). Polyhydroxylated metallofullerene Gd@C82(OH)x has been studied as a new high efficient contrast agents for MRI and has also shown high efficiency for antitumor growth. Previous studies have shown that Gd@C82(OH)22 mainly accumulated in bone, pancreas, liver and kidney after intraperitoneal administration. However, whether the nanoparticles can enter into cells and the site of their potential action remains unclear. In this work, the distribution patterns of Gd@C82(OH)22 in subcellular compartments were studied using the techniques of differential centrifugation and ICP-MS analysis. The results indicate that the Gd@C82(OH)22 can enter into cells and the subcellular distribution patterns are significantly different from that of GdCl3. GdCl3 has much higher bioavailability for mice than Gd@C82(OH)22. Therefore, the present data suggest that Gd@C82(OH)22 in living systems may be not decomposed to release free Gd3+ ion and may be metabolized as a pristine carbon cage.
Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology 12/2010; 10(12):8597-602. · 1.34 Impact Factor