Francine Grodstein

Brigham and Women's Hospital , Boston, Massachusetts, United States

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Publications (223)1934.18 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Dietary flavonoids have been related to lower risks of various chronic diseases, but it is unclear whether flavonoid intake in midlife helps to maintain good health and wellbeing in aging. We examined the relation of flavonoid intake in midlife with the prevalence of healthy aging. We included 13,818 women from the Nurses' Health Study with dietary data and no major chronic diseases in 1984-1986 when they were aged in their late 50s (median age: 59 y); all women provided information on multiple aspects of aging an average of 15 y later. Intakes of 6 major flavonoid subclasses in midlife were ascertained on the basis of averaged intakes of flavonoid-rich foods from 2 food-frequency questionnaires (1984-1986). We defined healthy compared with usual aging as of age 70 y; healthy aging was based on survival to ≥70 y with maintenance of 4 health domains (no major chronic diseases or major impairments in cognitive or physical function or mental health). Of women who survived until ≥70 y of age, 1517 women (11.0%) met our criteria for healthy aging. Compared with women in the lowest quintile of intake, women in the highest quintile of intake of several flavonoid subclasses at midlife had greater odds of healthy aging. After multivariable adjustment, ORs were as follows: flavones, 1.32 (95% CI: 1.10, 1.58); flavanone, 1.28 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.53); anthocyanin, 1.25 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.50); and flavonol, 1.18 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.42) (all P-trend ≤ 0.02). Consistently, greater intakes of major sources of these flavonoids (i.e., oranges, berries, onions, and apples) were associated with increased odds of healthy aging. We showed no association with flavan-3-ol monomers (P-trend = 0.80) or polymers (P-trend = 0.63). Higher intake of flavonoids at midlife, specifically flavones, flavanones, anthocyanins, and flavonols, is associated with greater likelihood of health and wellbeing in individuals surviving to older ages. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.
    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 12/2014; 100(6):1489-97. DOI:10.3945/ajcn.114.085605 · 6.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Memory performance in older persons can reflect genetic influences on cognitive function and dementing processes. We aimed to identify genetic contributions to verbal declarative memory in a community setting. We conducted genome-wide association studies for paragraph or word list delayed recall in 19 cohorts from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology consortium, comprising 29,076 dementia- and stroke-free individuals of European descent, aged ≥45 years. Replication of suggestive associations (p < 5 × 10(-6)) was sought in 10,617 participants of European descent, 3811 African-Americans, and 1561 young adults. rs4420638, near APOE, was associated with poorer delayed recall performance in discovery (p = 5.57 × 10(-10)) and replication cohorts (p = 5.65 × 10(-8)). This association was stronger for paragraph than word list delayed recall and in the oldest persons. Two associations with specific tests, in subsets of the total sample, reached genome-wide significance in combined analyses of discovery and replication (rs11074779 [HS3ST4], p = 3.11 × 10(-8), and rs6813517 [SPOCK3], p = 2.58 × 10(-8)) near genes involved in immune response. A genetic score combining 58 independent suggestive memory risk variants was associated with increasing Alzheimer disease pathology in 725 autopsy samples. Association of memory risk loci with gene expression in 138 human hippocampus samples showed cis-associations with WDR48 and CLDN5, both related to ubiquitin metabolism. This largest study to date exploring the genetics of memory function in ~40,000 older individuals revealed genome-wide associations and suggested an involvement of immune and ubiquitin pathways. Copyright © 2014 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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    ABSTRACT: Background Subjective cognitive concerns may represent a simple method to assess likelihood of memory decline among apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 carriers. Methods We examined the relationship of self-reported subjective cognitive concerns, using seven specific cognitive concerns, with memory and memory decline over 6 years among APOE ε4 carriers and non-carriers from the Nurses' Health Study. Results In both groups, increasing subjective cognitive concern score predicted worse baseline memory and faster rates of subsequent memory decline, after adjustment for age, education and depression. The relation with baseline memory appeared statistically stronger in APOE ε4 carriers (P-interaction = 0.03). For memory decline, mean differences in slopes of episodic memory (95% CI) for 4 to 7 versus no concern = −0.05 (−0.10, 0.01) standard units in APOE ε4 carriers, and −0.04 (−0.08, −0.01) standard units in non-carriers. Conclusions APOE ε4 carriers with self-assessed cognitive concerns appear to have worse memory, and possibly accelerated memory decline.
    Alzheimer's and Dementia 09/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.jalz.2014.06.012 · 17.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dementia or other significant cognitive impairment (SCI) are often comorbid with other chronic diseases. To promote collaborative research on the intersection of these conditions, we compiled a systematic inventory of major data resources.
    Alzheimer's & dementia: the journal of the Alzheimer's Association 09/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.jalz.2014.07.002 · 14.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The frequency of soda consumption remains high in the United States. Soda consumption has been associated with poor bone health in children, but few studies have examined this relation in adults, and to our knowledge, no study has examined the relation of soda consumption with risk of hip fractures. Objective: We examined the association of soda, including specific types of soda, and risk of hip fracture in postmenopausal women. Design: An analysis was conducted in postmenopausal women from the Nurses' Health Study cohort (n = 73,572). Diet was assessed at baseline by using a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire and updated approximately every 4 y. In <= 30 y of follow-up, we identified 1873 incident hip fractures: We computed RRs for hip fractures by the amount of soda consumption by using Cox proportional hazards models with adjustment for potential confounders. Results: In multivariable models, each additional serving of total soda per day was associated with a significant 14% increased risk of hip fracture (RR: 1.14; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.23). The attributable risk in our cohort for total soda consumption was 12.5%. Risk was significantly elevated in consumers of both regular soda (RR: 1.19; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.38) and diet soda (RR: 1.12; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.21) and also did not significantly differ between colas and noncolas or sodas with or without caffeine. The association between soda and hip fractures did not differ by body mass index or diagnosis of diabetes. Conclusion: Increased soda consumption of all types may be associated with increased risk of hip fracture in postmenopausal women; however, a clear mechanism was not apparent on the basis of these observational data.
    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 08/2014; 100(3). DOI:10.3945/ajcn.114.083352 · 6.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Elevated plasma homocysteine is a risk factor for Alzheimer disease, but the relevance of homocysteine lowering to slow the rate of cognitive aging is uncertain.OBJECTIVE: The aim was to assess the effects of treatment with B vitamins compared with placebo, when administered for several years, on composite domains of cognitive function, global cognitive function, and cognitive aging.DESIGN: A meta-analysis was conducted by using data combined from 11 large trials in 22,000 participants. Domain-based z scores (for memory, speed, and executive function and a domain-composite score for global cognitive function) were available before and after treatment (mean duration: 2.3 y) in the 4 cognitive-domain trials (1340 individuals); Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE)-type tests were available at the end of treatment (mean duration: 5 y) in the 7 global cognition trials (20,431 individuals).RESULTS: : The domain-composite and MMSE-type global cognitive function z scores both decreased with age (mean ± SE: -0.054 ± 0.004 and -0.036 ± 0.001/y, respectively). Allocation to B vitamins lowered homocysteine concentrations by 28% in the cognitive-domain trials but had no significant effects on the z score differences from baseline for individual domains or for global cognitive function (z score difference: 0.00; 95% CI: -0.05, 0.06). Likewise, allocation to B vitamins lowered homocysteine by 26% in the global cognition trials but also had no significant effect on end-treatment MMSE-type global cognitive function (z score difference: -0.01; 95% CI: -0.03, 0.02). Overall, the effect of a 25% reduction in homocysteine equated to 0.02 y (95% CI: -0.10, 0.13 y) of cognitive aging per year and excluded reductions of >1 mo per year of treatment.CONCLUSION: Homocysteine lowering by using B vitamins had no significant effect on individual cognitive domains or global cognitive function or on cognitive aging.
    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 06/2014; 100(2). DOI:10.3945/ajcn.113.076349 · 6.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Microvascular and macrovascular abnormalities are frequently found on noninvasive tests performed in older adults. Their prognostic implications on disability and life expectancy have not been collectively assessed.
    The Journals of Gerontology Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences 05/2014; DOI:10.1093/gerona/glu074 · 4.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Nuts contain nutrients that may benefit brain health; thus, we examined long-term intake of nuts in relation to cognition in older women. Design: Population-based prospective cohort study. Setting: Academic research using data from the Nurses' Health Study. Participants: Nut intake was assessed in a food-frequency questionnaire beginning in1980, and approximately every four years thereafter. Between 1995-2001, 16,010 women age 70 or older (mean age = 74 years) without a history of stroke were administered 4 repeated telephone-based cognitive interviews over 6 years. Our final sample included 15,467 women who completed an initial cognitive interview and had complete information on nut intake. Main Outcome Measures: The Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS), a global score averaging the results of all tests (TICS, immediate and delayed verbal recall, category fluency, and attention), and a verbal memory score averaging the results of tests of verbal recall. Results: In multivariable-adjusted linear regression models, higher long-term total nut intake was associated with better average cognitive status for all cognitive outcomes. For the global composite score combining all tests, women consuming at least 5 servings of nuts/week had higher scores than non-consumers (mean difference=0.08 standard units, 95% confidence interval 0.00-0.15; p-trend=0.003). This mean difference of 0.08 is equivalent to the mean difference we find between women 2 years apart in age. Long-term intake of nuts was not associated with rates of cognitive decline. Conclusions: Higher nut intake may be related to better overall cognition at older ages, and could be an easily-modifiable public health intervention.
    The Journal of Nutrition Health and Aging 05/2014; 18(5):496-502. DOI:10.1007/s12603-014-0014-6 · 2.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives To evaluate associations between sleep duration at midlife and later life and change in sleep duration over time and cognition in older women.DesignParticipants reported sleep duration in 1986 and 2000, and a subgroup of older participants began cognitive testing in 1995 to 2001; follow-up testing was conducted three times, at 2-year intervals.SettingProspective Nurses' Health Study cohort.ParticipantsFemale nurses aged 70 and older free of stroke and depression at the initial cognitive assessment (N = 15,385).MeasurementsValidated, telephone-based cognitive battery to measure cognitive function; four repeated assessments over 6 years were averaged to estimate overall cognition at older ages, and trajectories of cognitive change were evaluated over follow up.ResultsExtreme sleep durations in later life were associated with worse average cognition (P < .001 for the quadratic term for a global score averaging all six cognitive tests). For example, women sleeping 5 h/d or less had worse global cognition than those sleeping 7 h/d, as did women sleeping 9 h/d or more; differences were equivalent to nearly 2 additional years of age. Associations were similar, although slightly attenuated, for sleep duration in midlife. Women whose sleep duration changed by 2 h/d or more over time had worse cognition than women with no change in sleep duration (e.g., for the global score, P < .001 for the quadratic term). Sleep duration was not associated with trajectories of cognitive function over 6 years, which might be attributable to short follow-up for detecting cognitive decline.Conclusion Extreme sleep durations at midlife and later life and extreme changes in sleep duration over time appear to be associated with poor cognition in older women.
    Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 04/2014; 62(6). DOI:10.1111/jgs.12790 · 4.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Vitamin D may play a role in preserving cognitive function. However, there is a paucity of prospective studies on the relationship between vitamin D and cognition with aging. The aim of this study was to examine the association between plasma levels of vitamin D and subsequent cognitive function. Methods This is a prospective study including 1,185 women aged 60–70 years from the Nurses’ Health Study, who had plasma 25-hydroxy-vitamin D levels measured in 1989–1990 and completed an initial Telephone Interview of Cognitive Status approximately 9 years later. Subsequently, three follow-up cognitive assessments were conducted at 1.5–2.0 years intervals. We used multivariable-adjusted linear regression to model initial cognitive function, and mixed linear regression to model change in cognitive function over time. Results Lower vitamin D levels were associated with significantly worse cognitive function 9 years later. For example, the mean global composite score averaging all the cognitive tests was 0.20 lower (95% Confidence Interval (CI):−0.33,−0.08; p-trend=0.009) in women in the lowest quintile (median=14.1 ng/mL) compared with women in the highest quintile of vitamin D (median=38.4 ng/mL). The observed differences were equivalent to the effect estimates we found for women who were approximately 4–6 years apart in age. However, vitamin D levels were not significantly associated with subsequent cognitive decline during 6 years of follow-up. Conclusions Higher levels of plasma vitamin D in women aged 60–70 years were associated with better cognitive function about a decade later but were not associated with cognitive decline during 6 years of follow-up.
    The Journal of Nutrition Health and Aging 04/2014; 18(4). DOI:10.1007/s12603-013-0409-9 · 2.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Higher long-term cumulative lead exposure predicts faster cognitive decline in older men, but evidence of an association in women is lacking. Objective To determine if there is an association between lead exposure and cognitive decline in women. Methods This study considers a sample of 584 women from the Nurses' Health Study who live in or near Boston, Massachusetts. We quantified lead exposure using biomarkers of lead exposure assessed in 1993–2004 and evaluated cognitive decline by repeated performance on a telephone battery of cognitive tests primarily assessing learning, memory, executive function, and attention completed in 1995–2008. All cognitive test scores were z-transformed for use in analyses. We used linear mixed models with random effects to quantify the association between each lead biomarker and change in cognition overall and on each individual test. Results Consideration of individual tests showed greater cognitive decline with increased tibia lead concentrations, a measure of long-term cumulative exposure, for story memory and category fluency. The estimated excess annual decline in overall cognitive test z-score per SD increase in tibia bone lead concentration was suggestive, although the confidence intervals included the null (0.024 standard units, 95% confidence interval: −0.053, 0.004 – an additional decline in function equivalent to being 0.33 years older). We found little support for associations between cognitive decline and patella or blood lead, which provide integrated measures of exposure over shorter timeframes. Conclusions Long-term cumulative lead exposure may be weakly associated with faster cognitive decline in community-dwelling women, at least in some cognitive domains.
    Environmental Research 02/2014; 129:69–75. DOI:10.1016/j.envres.2013.12.010 · 3.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies report higher prevalence of depression among women with urgency (UUI) or mixed (MUI) urinary incontinence than those with stress UI (SUI). UUI is the dominant type among black women, whereas SUI is the predominant type among white women. Thus, UI-related mental health issues could be a key consideration among black women. We hypothesized that the association between UI and depression might be stronger in black versus white women. These cross-sectional analyses assessed 934 black and 71,161 white women aged 58-83 in the Nurses' Health Study, which was established among women living in the USA. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the ten-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD-10). Multivariate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) for high depressive symptoms (CESD-10 score ≥ 10) according to self-reported UI frequency, severity, and type were calculated using logistic regression models. Although point estimates for associations of UI frequency, severity, and type with high depressive symptoms were higher in black women, differences in ORs between black versus white women were not statistically significant. For example, the OR for at least weekly UI compared with no UI was 2.29 (95 % CI 1.30-4.01) in black women and 1.58 (95 % CI 1.49-1.68) in white women (p interaction = 0.4). We found no statistically significant differences in UI frequency, severity, and type with high depressive symptoms in black versus white women. However, the small number of black women in this study with high depressive symptoms limited statistical power to detect significant interactions. Thus, these results should be interpreted with caution.
    International Urogynecology Journal 01/2014; 25(6). DOI:10.1007/s00192-013-2309-2 · 2.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease is the public health crisis of the 21st century. There is a clear need for a widely available, inexpensive and reliable method to diagnosis Alzheimer's disease in the earliest stages, track disease progression, and accelerate clinical development of new therapeutics. One avenue of research being explored is blood based biomarkers. In April 2012, the Alzheimer's Association and the Alzheimer's Drug Discovery Foundation convened top scientists from around the world to discuss the state of blood based biomarker development. This manuscript summarizes the meeting and the resultant discussion, including potential next steps to move this area of research forward.
    Alzheimer's & dementia: the journal of the Alzheimer's Association 01/2014; 10(1):109-14. DOI:10.1016/j.jalz.2013.10.007 · 14.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Despite widespread use of multivitamin supplements, their effect on cognitive health-a critical issue with aging-remains inconclusive. To date, no long-term clinical trials have studied multivitamin use and cognitive decline in older persons. To evaluate whether long-term multivitamin supplementation affects cognitive health in later life. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of a multivitamin from 1997 to 1 June 2011. The cognitive function substudy began in 1998. Up to 4 repeated cognitive assessments by telephone interview were completed over 12 years. ( NCT00270647) SETTING: The Physicians' Health Study II. 5947 male physicians aged 65 years or older. Daily multivitamin or placebo. A global composite score averaging 5 tests of global cognition, verbal memory, and category fluency. The secondary end point was a verbal memory score combining 4 tests of verbal memory, which is a strong predictor of Alzheimer disease. No difference was found in mean cognitive change over time between the multivitamin and placebo groups or in the mean level of cognition at any of the 4 assessments. Specifically, for the global composite score, the mean difference in cognitive change over follow-up was -0.01 SU (95% CI, -0.04 to 0.02 SU) when treatment was compared with placebo. Similarly, cognitive performance did not differ between the multivitamin and placebo groups on the secondary outcome, verbal memory (mean difference in cognitive change over follow-up, -0.005 SU [CI, -0.04 to 0.03 SU]). Doses of vitamins may be too low or the population may be too well-nourished to benefit from a multivitamin. In male physicians aged 65 years or older, long-term use of a daily multivitamin did not provide cognitive benefits. National Institutes of Health, BASF, Pfizer, and DSM Nutritional Products.
    Annals of internal medicine 12/2013; 159(12):806-14. DOI:10.7326/0003-4819-159-12-201312170-00006 · 16.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chinese translation Maintaining health and well-being in aging populations is critical. To examine the association between dietary patterns in midlife and prevalence of healthy aging. Cross-sectional observational study. Nurses' Health Study. 10 670 women with dietary data and no major chronic diseases between 1984 and 1986, when they were in their late 50s and early 60s (median age, 59 years). Women provided information on health an average of 15 years later. Diet quality in midlife was ascertained using the Alternative Healthy Eating Index-2010 (AHEI-2010) and Alternate Mediterranean diet scores, averaged from 2 food-frequency questionnaires (1984 to 1986). "Healthy" aging was defined as survival to 70 years or older with maintenance of 4 health domains: no major chronic diseases or major impairments in cognitive or physical function or mental health. After multivariable adjustment, greater adherence to the AHEI-2010 (upper vs. lower quintiles) in midlife was related to 34% (95% CI, 9% to 66%; P for trend < 0.001) greater odds of healthy versus usual aging. Greater adherence to Alternate Mediterranean diet was related to 46% (CI, 17% to 83%; P for trend = 0.002) greater odds of healthy aging. When the 4 components of healthy aging were analyzed separately, the AHEI-2010 and Alternate Mediterranean diet were significantly associated with greater likelihood of no major limitations in physical function and mental health. Residual confounding was possible, although many confounding factors were considered. Bias due to complex patterns of measurement error within diet scores cannot be excluded. Better diet quality at midlife seems to be strongly linked to greater health and well-being in persons surviving to older ages. National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health.
    Annals of internal medicine 11/2013; 159(9):584-91. DOI:10.7326/0003-4819-159-9-201311050-00004 · 16.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: We examined whether midlife body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) predict successful ageing. Design and Methods: BMI/WC were assessed in 4869 persons (mean age 51.2, range 42-63 in 1991/93) and survival and successful ageing (alive, no chronic disease at age >60 years, not in the worst age- and sex-standardized quintile of cognitive, physical, respiratory, and cardiovascular, and mental health) ascertained over a 16-year follow-up, analysed using logistic regression adjusted for socio-demographic factors and health behaviours. Results: 507 participants died, 1008 met the criteria for successful ageing. Those with BMI≥30 kg/m(2) had lower odds of successful ageing (Odds Ratio (OR)=0.37; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.27, 0.50) and survival (OR=0.55; 95% CI: 0.41, 0.74) compared to BMI between 18.5-25 kg/m(2) . Those with a large waist circumference (≥102/88 cm in men/women) had lower odds of successful ageing (OR=0.41; 95% CI: 0.31, 0.54) and survival (OR=0.57; 95% CI: 0.44, 0.73) compared to those with a small waist (<94/80 cm in men/women). Analysis with finer categories showed lower odds of successful ageing starting at BMI ≥23.5 kg/m(2) and waist circumference 82/68 cm in men/women. Conclusions: Optimal midlife BMI and waist circumference for successful ageing might be substantially below the current thresholds used to define obesity.
    Obesity 10/2013; 22(4). DOI:10.1002/oby.20651 · 4.39 Impact Factor
  • Elizabeth E Devore, Francine Grodstein, Eva S Schernhammer
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    ABSTRACT: Rotating night-shift work, which can disrupt circadian rhythm, may adversely affect long-term health. Experimental studies indicate that circadian rhythm disruption might specifically accelerate brain aging; thus, we prospectively examined shift-work history at midlife as associated with cognitive function among older women in the Nurses' Health Study. Women reported their history of rotating night-shift work in 1988 and participated in telephone-based cognitive interviews between 1995 and 2001; interviews included 6 cognitive tests that were subsequently repeated 3 times, at 2-year intervals. We focused on shift work through midlife (here, ages 58-68 years) because cognitive decline is thought to begin during this period. Using multivariable-adjusted linear regression, we evaluated mean differences in both "average cognitive status" at older age (averaging cognitive scores from all 4 interviews) and rates of cognitive decline over time across categories of shift-work duration at midlife (none, 1-9, 10-19, or ≥20 years). There was little association between shift work and average cognition in later life or between shift work and cognitive decline. Overall, this study does not clearly support the hypothesis that shift-work history in midlife has long-term effects on cognition in older adults.
    American journal of epidemiology 09/2013; 178(8). DOI:10.1093/aje/kwt214 · 4.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The relationship of postmenopausal hormone therapy with all-cause dementia and Alzheimer's disease dementia has been controversial. Given continued interest in the role of hormone therapy in chronic disease prevention and the emergence of more prospective studies, we conducted a systematic review to identify all epidemiologic studies meeting prespecified criteria reporting on postmenopausal hormone therapy use and risk of Alzheimer's disease or dementia. A systematic search of Medline and Embase through December 31, 2012, returned 15 articles meeting our criteria. Our meta-analysis of any versus never use did not support the hypothesis that hormone therapy reduces risk of Alzheimer's disease (summary estimate = 0.88, 95% confidence interval: 0.66, 1.16). Exclusion of trial findings did not change this estimate. There were not enough all-cause dementia results for a separate meta-analysis, but when we combined all-cause dementia results (n = 3) with Alzheimer's disease results (n = 7), the summary estimate remained null (summary estimate = 0.94, 95% confidence interval: 0.71, 1.26). The limited explorations of timing of use-both duration and early initiation-did not yield consistent findings. Our findings support current recommendations that hormone therapy should not be used for dementia prevention. We discuss trends in hormone therapy research that could explain our novel findings and highlight areas where additional data are needed.
    Epidemiologic Reviews 09/2013; DOI:10.1093/epirev/mxt008 · 7.33 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

12k Citations
1,934.18 Total Impact Points


  • 1996–2014
    • Brigham and Women's Hospital
      • Department of Medicine
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1995–2014
    • Harvard Medical School
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Department of Neurology
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2002–2013
    • Massachusetts Department of Public Health
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1996–2013
    • Harvard University
      • • Department of Epidemiology
      • • Department of Nutrition
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2011
    • University of Pittsburgh
      • Division of Geriatric Medicine
      Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
    • Massachusetts General Hospital
      • Department of Neurology
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2008
    • Erasmus MC
      Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 1997
    • Lund University
      Lund, Skåne, Sweden