Todd P Gilmer

University of California, San Diego, San Diego, California, United States

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Publications (73)310.08 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Permanent supported housing programs are being implemented throughout the United States. This study examined the relationship between fidelity to the Housing First model and residential outcomes among clients of full service partnerships (FSPs) in California.
    Psychiatric services (Washington, D.C.) 07/2014; · 2.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE California's full-service partnerships (FSPs) provide a combination of subsidized permanent housing and multidisciplinary team-based services with a focus on rehabilitation and recovery. The goal of the study was to examine whether participation in FSPs is associated with changes in health service use and costs compared with usual care. METHODS A quasi-experimental, pre-post, intent-to-treat design with a propensity score-matched contemporaneous control group was used to compare health service use and costs among 10,231 FSP clients and 10,231 matched clients with serious mental illness who were receiving public mental health services in California from January 1, 2004, through June 30, 2010. RESULTS Among FSP participants, the mean annual number of mental health outpatient visits increased by 55.5, and annual mental health costs increased by $11,725 relative to the matched control group. Total service costs increased by $12,056. CONCLUSIONS Participation in an FSP was associated with increases in outpatient visits and their associated costs. As supportive housing programs are implemented nationally and on a large scale, these programs will likely need to be more effectively designed and targeted in order to achieve reductions in costly inpatient services.
    Psychiatric services (Washington, D.C.) 05/2014; · 2.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives This study examined whether and how permanent supportive housing (PSH) programs are able to support aging in place among tenants with serious mental illness.DesignInvestigators used a mixed-method approach known as a convergent parallel design in which quantitative and qualitative data are analyzed separately and findings are merged during interpretation. Quantitative analysis compared 1-year pre-residential and post-residential outcomes for PSH program enrollees, comparing adults aged 35–49 years (n = 3990) with those aged 50 years or older (n = 3086). Case study analysis using qualitative interviews with staff of a PSH program that exclusively served older adults identified challenges to providing support services.ResultsSubstantial declines in days spent homeless and in justice system settings were found, along with increases in days living independently in apartments and in congregate settings. Homelessness and justice system involvement declined less for older adults than younger adults. Qualitative themes related to working with older adults included increased attention to medical vulnerability, residual effects of institutional care, and perceived preference for congregate living.ConclusionsPSH is an effective way to end homelessness, yet little is known about how programs can support housing stability among aging populations. Additional support and training for PSH staff will better promote successful aging in place. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 04/2014; · 2.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined variation in the implementation of California's Full Service Partnerships (FSPs), which are supported housing programs that do "whatever it takes" to improve outcomes among persons with serious mental illness who are homeless or at risk of homelessness. Ninety-three FSPs in California. A mixed methods approach was selected to develop a better understanding of the complexity of the FSP programs. The design structure was a combined explanatory and exploratory sequential design (qual→QUAN→qual) where a qualitative focus group was used to develop a quantitative survey that was followed by qualitative site visits. The survey was used to describe the breadth of variation based on fidelity to the Housing First model, while the site visits were used to provide a depth of information on high- versus low-fidelity programs. We found substantial variation in implementation among FSPs. Fidelity was particularly low along domains related with housing and service philosophy, indicating that many FSPs implemented a rich array of services but applied housing readiness requirements and did not adhere to consumer choice in housing. There remains room for improvement in the recovery-orientation of FSPs. Fortunately, we have identified several processes by which program managers and counties can increase the fidelity of their programs.
    Health Services Research 10/2013; · 2.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES Programs that use the Housing First model are being implemented throughout the United States and internationally. The authors describe the development and validation of a Housing First fidelity survey. METHODS A 46-item survey was developed to measure fidelity across five domains: housing process and structure, separation of housing and services, service philosophy, service array, and team structure. The survey was administered to staff and clients of 93 supported-housing programs in California. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were used to identify the items and model structure that best fit the data. RESULTS Sixteen items were retained in a two-factor model, one related to approach to housing, separation of housing and services, and service philosophy and one related to service array and team structure. CONCLUSIONS Our survey mapped program practices by using a common metric that captured variation in fidelity to Housing First across a large-scale implementation of supported-housing programs.
    Psychiatric services (Washington, D.C.) 09/2013; 64(9):911-4. · 2.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In California, the Mental Health Services Act allocated substantial funding to Full Service Partnerships (FSPs): programs that do whatever it takes to improve residential stability and mental health outcomes. The state-guided, but stakeholder-driven, approach to FSPs resulted in a set of programs that share core similarities but vary in their specific approaches. This qualitative study examines FSP variations within the framework of fidelity to the Housing First model. Semistructured interviews with 21 FSP program managers identified through purposeful sampling were coded and analyzed to identify variations across programs in their approaches to housing and services. Through the process of constant comparison, FSP characteristics were condensed into a set of broad themes related to fidelity to the Housing First model. We identified three broad themes: (a) FSPs varied in the degree to which key elements of Housing First were present; (b) program recovery orientation and staff experience were associated with fidelity; and (c) FSPs for older adults, adults exiting the justice system, and transitional age youth made specific adaptations to tailor their programs for the needs of their specific populations. FSPs bring a considerable level of community-based housing and treatment resources to homeless persons with serious mental illness. However, when examined individually, there exists enough variation in approaches to housing and treatment to raise the question whether some programs may be more or less effective than others. An opportunity exists to employ the variation in FSPs implemented under this initiative to analyze the importance of fidelity to HF for client outcomes, program costs, and recovery-oriented care.
    American Journal of Psychiatric Rehabilitation 01/2013; 16(4).
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE To describe a needs assessment, practice description, practice innovation and reimbursement of a psychiatric pharmacist medication therapy management (MTM) clinic with related challenges and opportunities. SETTING An MTM clinic established in collaboration with the Outpatient Psychiatric Services (OPS) at the University of California San Diego (UCSD), under contract with the San Diego County Health and Human Services Agency Adult and Older Adult Mental Health Services (A/OAMHS). PRACTICE DESCRIPTION Two board-certified psychiatric pharmacists provided direct patient care using a collaborative practice protocol 3 days per week. Clinical services included pharmacotherapy management, laboratory monitoring, medication counseling, and psychosocial referrals to other providers. PRACTICE INNOVATION Payment to UCSD OPS for clinical services was based on a contract between the San Diego County A/OAMHS and the clinic. Two pharmacists co-managed mental health patients and billed for medication management based on face-to-face contact time (medication minutes) and documentation time with each patient. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Number of patients comanaged, dropout rates, visit duration, and billed minutes. RESULTS From May 2009 to December 2010, two pharmacists comanaged 68 patients, mean (± SD) age 48.6 ± 11.6 years, diagnosed with major depressive, schizophrenic, schizoaffective, and/or bipolar disorder. A total of 56 (82.3%) patients were clinically stable and remained on the pharmacist caseload, but 12 (17.6%) patients were lost to follow-up (10 lost contact, 1 moved, 1 expired). On average, patients had 7.7 patient visits , for 491 total visits (with an average of 26 minutes per visit) that were billed at a rate of $4.82 per minute for medication minutes, translating to $84,542.80. CONCLUSION With provider education and appropriate physician champions, pharmacists are able to work collaboratively with psychiatrists in a mental health clinic.
    Journal of the American Pharmacists Association 11/2012; 52(6):e252-8.
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    ABSTRACT: San Diego County Mental Health system clients completed a questionnaire after the October 2007 wildfires. As compared to those not in an evacuation area, those residing in an evacuation area reported significantly more impact of the fires. Clients who evacuated were most affected, followed by those in an evacuation area who did not evacuate. Evacuation strongly impacted client-reported emotional effects of the fire, confusion about whether to evacuate, and ability to obtain medications. Gender and clinical diagnosis interacted with evacuation status for some fire impact variables. Loss of control and disruption of routine are discussed as possibly related factors.
    Administration and Policy in Mental Health 06/2012; · 2.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Medical groups have invested billions of dollars in electronic medical records (EMRs), but few studies have examined the cost-effectiveness of EMR-based clinical decision support (CDS). This study examined the cost-effectiveness of EMR-based CDS for adults with diabetes from the perspective of the health care system. DATA SOURCES/SETTING: Clinical outcome and cost data from a randomized clinical trial of EMR-based CDS were used as inputs into a diabetes simulation model. The simulation cohort included 1,092 patients with diabetes with A1c above goal at baseline. STUDY DESIGN: The United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study Outcomes Model, a validated simulation model of diabetes, was used to evaluate remaining life years, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), and health care costs over patient lifetimes (40-year time horizon) from the health system perspective. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Patients in the intervention group had significantly lowered A1c (0.26 percent, p = .014) relative to patients in the control arm. Intervention costs were $120 (SE = 45) per patient in the first year and $76 (SE = 45) per patient in the following years. In the base case analysis, EMR-based CDS increased lifetime QALYs by 0.04 (SE = 0.01) and increased lifetime costs by $112 (SE = 660), resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $3,017 per QALY. The cost-effectiveness of EMR-based CDS persisted in one-way, two-way, and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Widespread adoption of sophisticated EMR-based CDS has the potential to modestly improve the quality of care for patients with chronic conditions without substantially increasing costs to the health care system.
    Health Services Research 05/2012; · 2.29 Impact Factor
  • Richard Kronick, Todd P Gilmer
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    ABSTRACT: Proposals to move toward reducing geographic differentials in health care spending have focused on patterns of spending in Medicare. We show in this article that when considering each state as a whole, there is almost no relationship between the level of spending for Medicare beneficiaries and that for other populations. In sharp contrast to these state-level results, there is a strong relationship between Medicare and Medicaid spending in comparing Hospital Referral Regions within each state. We suggest that the strong intrastate regional correlations demonstrate the importance of the supply of hospital beds, specialists, and other health care resources as determinants of use and spending. In contrast, the lack of correlation at the state level suggests that other factors, such as state-level poverty rates, influence use and spending at the state level, and that these other factors influence Medicare and non-Medicare use and spending differently. These findings demonstrate that it is important to broaden our analytic focus from Medicare beneficiaries to the larger population, and to consider the likely effects of changes in Medicare payment policy on the care received by other state residents.
    Health Affairs 05/2012; 31(5):948-55. · 4.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Illness Management and Recovery (IMR) scale was created to measure recovery outcomes produced by the IMR program. However, many other mental health care programs are now designed to impact recovery-oriented outcomes, and the IMR has been identified as a potentially valuable measure of recovery-oriented mental health outcomes. The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties and structural validity of the IMR clinician scale within a variety of therapeutic modalities other than IMR in a large multiethnic sample (N=10,659) of clients with mental illness from a large U.S. county mental health system. Clients completed the IMR on a single occasion. Our estimates of internal consistency were stronger than those found in previous studies (α=0.82). The scale also related to other measures of theoretically similar constructs, supporting construct and criterion validity claims. Additionally, confirmatory factor analyses supported the multidimensional representation of the IMR clinician scale. The three-factor model of illness self-management and recovery was represented by dimensions of recovery, management, and substance use. These reliable psychometric properties support the use of both the original one-factor and revised three-factor models to assess illness self-management and recovery among a broad spectrum of clients with mental illness.
    Psychiatry Research 04/2012; · 2.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined changes in service use associated with providing age-specific services for youths in their transitional years, ages 18–24. A quasi-experimental, difference-in-difference design with propensity score weighting was used to compare mental health service utilization (use of outpatient, inpatient, emergency, and justice system services) among 931 youths enrolled in outpatient programs specifically for transition-age youths and 1,574 youths enrolled in standard adult outpatient programs in San Diego County, California, from July 2004 through December 2009. Among youths enrolled in outpatient programs geared toward youths of transitional age, the mean number of annual outpatient mental health visits increased by 12.2 (p<.001) compared with youths enrolled in standard adult outpatient programs. Compared with traditional adult outpatient mental health programs, age-specific programs were associated with an increased use of outpatient mental health services. Future research is needed to assess the effectiveness of age-specific programs for transition-age youths and how use of these programs relates to improved clinical, educational, and vocational outcomes over time.
    Psychiatric services (Washington, D.C.) 03/2012; 63(6):592-6. · 2.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This qualitative study assessed the needs for mental health and other services among transition-age youths who were receiving services in youth-specific programs. Thirteen focus groups were conducted between June 2008 and January 2009. The purposefully sampled participants included transition-age youths age 18 to 24 who were receiving services in youth-specific programs (N=75, eight groups), parents of transition-age youths (N=14, two groups), and providers in the youth-specific programs (N=14, three groups). The qualitative analysis used an inductive approach in which investigators focused on generating themes and identifying relationships between themes. Through a process of repeated comparisons, the categories were further condensed into broad themes illustrating service needs. Youths expressed needs for improved scheduling of services, stronger patient-provider relationships, and group therapies that address past experiences of violence, loss, and sexual abuse and that provide skills for developing and nurturing healthy relationships. Parents and providers expressed needs for increased community-based and peer-led services. Youths, parents, and providers all expressed needs for more housing options and for mentors with similar life experiences who could serve as role models, information brokers, and sources of social support for youths who were pursuing education and employment goals. Findings from the focus groups suggest that there is room for improvement in the provision of services that are relevant to the current needs and life experiences of transition-age youths. Even within age-specific programs, improvements in services are needed to foster transitions to independence.
    Psychiatric services (Washington, D.C.) 02/2012; 63(4):338-42. · 2.81 Impact Factor
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    Todd P Gilmer, Patrick J O'Connor
    Diabetes care 11/2011; 34(11):2486-7. · 7.74 Impact Factor
  • Todd P Gilmer, Richard G Kronick
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    ABSTRACT: It is well known that Medicaid spending per beneficiary varies widely across states. However, less is known about the cause of this variation, or about whether increased spending is associated with better outcomes. In this article we describe and analyze sources of interstate variation in Medicaid spending over several years. We find substantial variations both in the volume of services and in prices. Overall, per capita spending in the ten highest-spending states was $1,650 above the average national per capita spending, of which $1,186, or 72 percent, was due to the volume of services delivered. Spending in the ten lowest-spending states was $1,161 below the national average, of which $672, or 58 percent, was due to volume. In the mid-Atlantic region, increased price and volume resulted in the most expensive care among regions, whereas reduced price and volume in the South Central region resulted in the least expensive care among regions. Understanding these variations in greater detail should help improve the quality and efficiency of care-a task that will become more important as Medicaid is greatly expanded under the Affordable Care Act of 2010.
    Health Affairs 07/2011; 30(7):1316-24. · 4.64 Impact Factor
  • Todd Gilmer
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    ABSTRACT: Healthcare reform will result in substantial numbers of newly insured, low-income adults with chronic conditions. This paper examines the costs of a chronic disease management program among newly insured adults with diabetes and/or hypertension. Low-income adults with diabetes and/or hypertension were provided County-sponsored health insurance coverage and access to disease management. Health econometric methods were used to compare costs among participants in disease management to nonparticipants, both overall and in comparison between those who were newly insured versus previously insured under an alternative County-sponsored insurance product. Costs were also compared between those who qualified for County-sponsored coverage due to diabetes versus hypertension. Annual inpatient costs were $1260 lower, and outpatient costs were $723 greater, among participants in disease management (P<0.001 each). Participants in disease management without previous County-sponsored coverage had higher pharmacy costs ($154, P=0.002) than nonparticipants; whereas participants with diabetes had marginally significant lower overall costs compared with nonparticipants ($-685, P=0.070). Disease management was successful in increasing the use of outpatient services among participants. The offsetting costs of the program suggest that disease management should be considered for some newly insured populations, especially for adults with diabetes.
    Medical care 04/2011; 49(9):e22-7. · 3.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The types of pharmacist-provided medication therapy management (MTM) services provided to patients with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) and the effects of MTM on medication adherence and patient outcomes have only recently begun to be studied. Although available studies suggest that patients receiving MTM services have better antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and outcomes, only 1 study has examined a large group of patients with HIV/AIDS, and none has examined adherence or outcomes for more than 1 year. A pilot program conducted by the California Department of Health Care Services (DHCS) and Medi-Cal (California's Medicaid program) provided an opportunity to examine ART adherence and outcomes in a large patient population receiving MTM services in community pharmacies over 3 years. To examine an HIV/AIDS pharmacy MTM compensation pilot program over a 3-year period (2005- 2007) in a sample of Medi-Cal beneficiaries by describing the associations between use of pilot pharmacies and (a) adherence to ART regimens; (b) medication utilization, including number and type of ART medication regimens and use of contraindicated ART regimens; (c) occurrence of opportunistic infections; and (d) all-cause pharmacy and medical costs. This was a cohort study examining Medi-Cal pharmacy and medical claims data (2005-2007) for patients with HIV/AIDS who were served by pilot pharmacies versus other (nonpilot) pharmacies. The study groups, pilot and nonpilot pharmacy patients with HIV/AIDS, consisted of Medi-Cal beneficiaries aged 18 years or older as of January 1, 2005, who were continuously enrolled from January 1, 2004, through December 31, 2007, and who received both a diagnosis of HIV/AIDS and at least 1 ART pharmacy claim during both the index period (2004) and the study period (January 1, 2005, through December 31, 2007). Pilot pharmacy patients were identified as having filled 50% or more of their ART prescriptions each year at 1 of the 10 pilot pharmacies. Patients for whom comprehensive medication data were not available, including those enrolled in managed care plans and/or Medicare, were excluded. Adherence was defined as a medication possession ratio (MPR) of 80%-120% and excess medication fills as MPR greater than 120%. Logistic regression was used to investigate the factors associated with adherence. Comparisons were made between groups using bivariate statistics (Pearson chi-square for categorical variables and t-tests for continuous variables). For comparisons of costs, generalized linear models were used including predictor variables for age, gender, and race/ethnicity. RESEARCH RESULTS: The study sample consisted of 2,234 patients meeting the study inclusion criteria. The proportion of study patients receiving the majority of their prescription medications (ART plus non-ART) at pilot pharmacies was 19.7% in 2005 and increased to 27.6% in 2006 and 28.1% in 2007. The demographic profile of pilot pharmacy patients was similar to that of patients receiving medications at nonpilot pharmacies, except that pilot pharmacies had a higher proportion of Latino patients (e.g., 19.7% vs. 14.9% in 2007, respectively, P = 0.006). A greater percentage of pilot than nonpilot pharmacy patients were adherent to their ART medication regimens (e.g., 2007: 69.4% vs. 47.3%, respectively, P < 0.001). After controlling for age, gender, and ethnicity/race in logistic regression analysis, use of a pilot pharmacy (odds ratio [OR] = 2.74, 95% CI = 2.44-3.10) was the most important factor associated with likelihood of adherence. Each year, pilot pharmacy patients were more likely than nonpilot pharmacy patients to remain on a single type of ART regimen (e.g., 2007: 71.7% vs. 49.1%, respectively, P < 0.001) and less likely to have excess fills (e.g., 2007: 12.9% vs. 35.5%, respectively, P < 0.001) and to use contraindicated regimens (e.g., 2007: 8.9% vs. 12.2%, respectively, P = 0.027). The percentages of patients experiencing opportunistic infections were similar between groups each year, approximately 35% (P = 0.809-0.945). In the generalized linear model analyses, the between-group differences in predicted mean (standard error [SE]) total health care costs per patient were not significantly different in any year (e.g., 2007: $38,983 [$1,023] vs. $38,856 [$633], respectively, P = 0.915). In each year, predicted non- ART medication costs were approximately 30%-40% greater in the pilot pharmacy than nonpilot pharmacy group (e.g., 2007: $10,815 [$538] vs. $8,190 [$252], respectively, P < 0.001); however, predicted expenditures for inpatient services were significantly lower (e.g., 2007: $3,083 [$293] vs. $5,186 [$300], respectively, P < 0.001). Payment from the DHCS Medi-Cal program for MTM services was approximately $1,000 per pilot pharmacy patient per year. Over a 3-year period, patients at pilot pharmacies consistently had higher medication adherence rates, were more likely to remain on a single type of ART regimen throughout the year, had fewer excess fills, and used fewer contraindicated regimens than nonpilot pharmacy patients. There were no significant differences in mean total cost per patient per group, and the additional MTM services payment added less than 3% to the total cost.
    Journal of managed care pharmacy: JMCP 04/2011; 17(3):213-23. · 2.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We evaluated psychosocial, built-environmental, and policy-related correlates of adolescents' indoor tanning use. We developed 5 discrete data sets in the 100 most populous US cities, based on interviews of 6125 adolescents (aged 14-17 years) and their parents, analysis of state indoor tanning laws, interviews with enforcement experts, computed density of tanning facilities, and evaluations of these 3399 facilities' practices regarding access by youths. After univariate analyses, we constructed multilevel models with generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs). In the past year, 17.1% of girls and 3.2% of boys had used indoor tanning. The GLMMs indicated that several psychosocial or demographic variables significantly predicted use, including being female, older, and White; having a larger allowance and a parent who used indoor tanning and allowed their adolescent to use it; and holding certain beliefs about indoor tanning's consequences. Living within 2 miles of a tanning facility also was a significant predictor. Residing in a state with youth-access legislation was not significantly associated with use. Current laws appear ineffective in reducing indoor tanning; bans likely are needed. Parents have an important role in prevention efforts.
    American Journal of Public Health 03/2011; 101(5):930-8. · 3.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pharmacist-provided medication therapy management services (MTMS) have been shown to increase patient's adherence to medications, improve health outcomes and reduce overall medical costs. The purpose of this study was to describe a pilot programme that provided pharmacy-based MTMS for patients with HIV/AIDS in the state of California, USA. Pharmacists from the 10 pilot pharmacies were surveyed using an online data collection tool. Information was collected to describe the types of MTMS offered, proportion of patients actively using specific MTMS, pharmacist beliefs regarding effect on patient outcomes and barriers to providing MTMS, ability to offer MTMS without pilot programme funding and specialized pharmacist or staff training. Each responding pharmacy (7 of 10) varied in the number of HIV/AIDS patients served and prescription volume. All pharmacists had completed HIV/AIDS-related continuing education programmes, and some had other advanced training. The type of MTMS being offered varied at each pharmacy with 'individualized counselling by a pharmacist when overuse or underuse was detected' and 'refill reminders by telephone' being actively used by the largest proportion of patients. Most, but not all, pharmacists cited reimbursement as a barrier to MTMS provision. Pharmacists believed the MTMS they provide resulted in improved satisfaction (patient and provider), medication usage, therapeutics response and patient quality of life. The type of MTMS offered, and proportion of patients actively using, varied among participating pilot pharmacies.
    Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 12/2010; 16(6):1142-6. · 1.51 Impact Factor
  • Todd Gilmer
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    ABSTRACT: During the fiscal year 2004-2005, the County of San Diego engaged in a contracting process whereby non-profit mental health (MH) providers were allowed to bid on the outpatient services provided by five County owned and operated mental health clinics. As a result of this process, the services of two outpatient clinics were contracted to non-profit providers; three clinics remained operated by the County, although existing as reengineered organizations under revised budgets. This study describes changes in service utilization and costs among five outpatient MH programs involved in the contracting process. Analyses were performed at the person level, using generalized linear models embedded in a quasi-experimental difference-in-difference design. Twelve non-profit providers not participating in the contracting process served as a comparison group. Service utilization data was obtained from an encounter-based management information system; cost data were determined from a detailed examination of cost reports. Service hours, costs, and the probability of inpatient or emergency service admission were compared pre and post contracting. Multivariate models were used to adjust for a number of socio-demographic and clinical characteristics expected to affect service use. Difference-in-difference estimates showed a 10% increase in outpatient mental health service hours and a 31% decline in outpatient service costs among the five clinics participating in the contracting process, in comparison to clients in twelve non- contracting clinics. Use of inpatient / emergency MH services increased among clients who intermittently used services. Contracting for outpatient mental health services achieved a primary objective, reducing outpatient costs by 31%. There was some indication of reduction in service quality among contracting clinics, as evidenced by an increase in the probability of using inpatient / emergency services. Staff reductions may have led to longer wait times and fewer walk-in appointments; clients with immediate needs may have discovered easier access to care in the emergency psychiatric unit. Limitations of this study include a lack of detailed information on illness severity and outcomes. The explicit consideration of quality measurement coupled with structured evaluation of implemented programs may inform the adoption of the most cost-effective programs.
    The Journal of Mental Health Policy and Economics 09/2010; 13(3):121-6. · 0.97 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
310.08 Total Impact Points


  • 2001–2013
    • University of California, San Diego
      • • Department of Family and Preventive Medicine
      • • Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
      San Diego, California, United States
  • 2012
    • Partners in Health
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2011
    • San Diego State University
      • Graduate School of Public Health
      San Diego, CA, United States
  • 1997
    • University of Minnesota Duluth
      Duluth, Minnesota, United States