Mathieu Pilon

Hôpital du Sacré-Coeur de Montréal, Montréal, Quebec, Canada

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Publications (11)41.43 Total impact

  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: It has been suggested that sleepwalkers are more difficult to awaken from sleep than are controls. However, no quantified comparisons have been made between these two populations. The main goal of this study was to assess arousal responsiveness via the presentation of auditory stimuli (AS) in sleepwalkers and controls during normal sleep and recovery sleep following sleep deprivation. Ten adult sleepwalkers and 10 age-matched control subjects were investigated. After a screening night, participants were presented with AS during slow-wave sleep (SWS), REM, and stage 2 sleep either during normal sleep or daytime recovery sleep following 25 h of sleep deprivation. The AS conditions were then reversed one week later. When compared to controls sleepwalkers necessitated a significantly higher mean AS intensity (in dB) to induce awakenings and arousal responses during REM sleep whereas the two groups' mean values did not differ significantly during SWS and stage 2 sleep. Moreover, when compared to controls sleepwalkers had a significantly lower mean percentage of AS that induced arousal responses during REM sleep while the opposite pattern of results was found during SWS. The data indicate that sleepwalkers have a higher auditory awakening threshold than controls, but only for REM sleep. These findings may reflect a compensatory mechanism of the homeostatic process underlying sleep regulation during sleepwalkers' REM sleep in reaction to their difficulties maintaining consolidated periods of NREM sleep.
    Sleep Medicine 02/2012; 13(5):490-5. · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    Journal of clinical sleep medicine: JCSM: official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine 04/2011; 7(2):219. · 2.93 Impact Factor
  • Antonio Zadra, Mathieu Pilon
    Sleep Medicine Clinics 01/2011; 6(4):447-458.
  • Antonio Zadra, Mathieu Pilon
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    ABSTRACT: Considerable progress has been made in the systematic study of nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep parasomnias. This chapter focuses on the clinical features, prevalence, pathophysiology, associated sleep parameters, and clinical variants of the prototypic NREM sleep parasomnias, namely confusional arousals, sleepwalking, and sleep terrors. Whereas the occurrence of NREM parasomnias in children is frequently viewed as relatively benign, these disorders often pose greater problems, including sleep-related injuries, in affected adults. Most episodes arise from sudden but incomplete arousal from slow-wave sleep and sometimes from stage 2 sleep. Factors that deepen or fragment sleep can facilitate or precipitate NREM parasomnias in predisposed individuals. NREM parasomnias can be associated with various primary sleep disorders or with medical conditions. Diagnosis of NREM parasomnias can often be made based on a detailed history, although some patients may require more extensive evaluations, including polysomnographic study with an expanded EEG montage. Sleep deprivation and the presentation of auditory stimuli during slow-wave sleep are two techniques that can increase the occurrence of behavioral manifestations under laboratory conditions. A variety of nonpharmacological treatments have been recommended for long-term management of NREM parasomnias, whereas pharmacological agents should be considered only if the behaviors are hazardous or extremely disruptive.
    Handbook of Clinical Neurology 01/2011; 99:851-68.
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    ABSTRACT: STUDY OBJECTIVIES: several studies have investigated slow wave sleep EEG parameters, including slow-wave activity (SWA) in relation to somnambulism, but results have been both inconsistent and contradictory. The first goal of the present study was to conduct a quantitative analysis of sleepwalkers' sleep EEG by studying fluctuations in spectral power for delta (1-4 Hz) and slow delta (0.5-1 Hz) before the onset of somnambulistic episodes. A secondary aim was to detect slow-wave oscillations to examine changes in their amplitude and density prior to behavioral episodes. twenty-two adult sleepwalkers were investigated polysomnographically following 25 h of sleep deprivation. analysis of patients' sleep EEG over the 200 sec prior to the episodes' onset revealed that the episodes were not preceded by a gradual increase in spectral power for either delta or slow delta over frontal, central, or parietal leads. However, time course comparisons revealed significant changes in the density of slow-wave oscillations as well as in very slow oscillations with significant increases occurring during the final 20 sec immediately preceding episode onset. the specificity of these sleep EEG parameters for the occurrence and diagnosis of NREM parasomnias remains to be determined.
    Sleep 11/2010; 33(11):1511-6. · 5.10 Impact Factor
  • Medicine, science, and the law 05/2009; 49(2):139-43; author reply 144-9. · 0.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Experimental attempts to induce sleepwalking with forced arousals during slow-wave sleep (SWS) have yielded mixed results in children and have not been investigated in adult patients. We hypothesized that the combination of sleep deprivation and external stimulation would increase the probability of inducing somnambulistic episodes in sleepwalkers recorded in the sleep laboratory. The main goal of this study was to assess the effects of forced arousals from auditory stimuli (AS) in adult sleepwalkers and control subjects during normal sleep and following post-sleep deprivation recovery sleep. Ten sleepwalkers and 10 controls were investigated. After a baseline night, participants were presented with AS at predetermined sleep stages either during normal sleep or recovery sleep following 25 hours of sleep deprivation. One week later, the conditions with AS were reversed. No somnambulistic episodes were induced in controls. When compared to the effects of AS during sleepwalkers' normal sleep, the presentation of AS during sleepwalkers' recovery sleep significantly increased their efficacy in experimentally inducing somnambulistic events and a significantly greater proportion of sleepwalkers (100%) experienced at least one induced episode during recovery SWS as compared to normal SWS (30%). There was no significant difference between the mean intensity of AS that induced episodes during sleepwalkers' SWS and the mean intensity of AS that awakened sleepwalkers and controls from SWS. Sleep deprivation and forced arousals during slow-wave sleep can induce somnambulistic episodes in predisposed adults. The results highlight the potential value of this protocol in establishing a video-polysomnographically based diagnosis for sleepwalking.
    Neurology 07/2008; 70(24):2284-90. · 8.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Somnambulism affects up to 4% of adults and constitutes one of the leading causes of sleep-related violence and self-injury. Diagnosing somnambulism with objective instruments is often difficult because episodes rarely occur in the laboratory. Because sleep deprivation can precipitate sleepwalking, we aimed to determine the effects of 25 hours of sleep deprivation on the frequency and complexity of somnambulistic episodes recorded in the laboratory. Thirty consecutive sleepwalkers were evaluated prospectively by video-polysomnography for one baseline night and during recovery sleep after 25 hours of sleep deprivation. Ten sleepwalkers with a concomitant sleep disturbance were investigated with the same protocol. Sleepwalkers experienced a significant increase in the mean frequency of somnambulistic episodes during postdeprivation recovery sleep. Postsleep deprivation also resulted in a significantly greater proportion of patients experiencing more complex forms of somnambulism. Sleep deprivation was similarly effective in 9 of the 10 patients presenting with a comorbid sleep disturbance. Combining data from all 40 patients shows that whereas 32 episodes were recorded from 20 sleepwalkers (50%) at baseline, recovery sleep resulted in 92 episodes being recorded from 36 patients (90%). The findings support the view that sleepwalkers suffer from a dysfunction of the mechanisms responsible for sustaining stable slow-wave sleep and suggest that these patients are particularly vulnerable to increased homeostatic sleep pressure. Strong evidence is provided that 25 hours of sleep deprivation can be a valuable tool that facilitates the polysomnographically based diagnosis of somnambulism in predisposed patients.
    Annals of Neurology 05/2008; 63(4):513-9. · 11.19 Impact Factor
  • Antonio Zadra, Mathieu Pilon, Don C Donderi
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    ABSTRACT: Nightmares are usually defined as frightening dreams that awaken the sleeper. This study uses the waking criterion to distinguish between nightmares and bad dreams and investigated the variety and intensity of emotions reported in each form of disturbing dream. Ninety participants recorded their dreams for 4 consecutive weeks and, for each dream recalled, noted the emotions present and their intensities on a 9-point scale. Thirty-six participants reported at least one nightmare and one bad dream over the 4 weeks covered by the log, while 29 reported having had at least one bad dream but no nightmares. Nightmares were rated as being significantly (p < 0.001) more intense than bad dreams. Thirty percent of nightmares and 51% of bad dreams contained primary emotions other than fear. The findings support the claim that awakening can serve as an indirect measure of nightmare intensity and raise important implications for the operational definition of nightmares.
    Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease 05/2006; 194(4):249-54. · 1.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hypersynchronous delta activity (HSD) is usually described as several continuous high-voltage delta waves (> or = 150 microV) in the sleep electroencephalogram of somnambulistic patients. However, studies have yielded varied and contradictory results. The goal of the present study was to evaluate HSD over different electroencephalographic derivations during the non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep of somnambulistic patients and controls during normal sleep and following 38 hours of sleep deprivation, as well as prior to sleepwalking episodes. N/A. Sleep disorders clinic. Ten adult sleepwalkers and 10 sex- and age-matched control subjects were investigated polysomnographically during a baseline night and following 38 hours of sleep deprivation. N/A. During normal sleep, sleepwalkers had a significantly higher ratio of HSD over the time spent in stage 2, 3 and 4 on frontal and central derivations when compared with controls. Sleep deprivation resulted in a significant increase in the ratio of the time in HSD over the time in stage 4 on the frontal lead in both groups and on the central lead in controls. There was no evidence for a temporal accumulation of HSD prior to the episodes. HSD shows a clear frontocentral gradient across all subjects during both baseline and recovery sleep and has relatively low specificity for the diagnosis of NREM parasomnias. Increases in HSD after sleep deprivation may reflect an enhancement of the homeostatic process underlying sleep regulation.
    Sleep 01/2006; 29(1):77-84. · 5.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Early studies found that electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings during somnambulistic episodes were characterized by a combination of alpha, theta, and delta frequencies, without evidence of clear wakefulness. Three postarousal EEG patterns associated with slow-wave sleep (SWS) arousals were recently identified in adults with sleepwalking and sleep terrors. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the distribution of these postarousal EEG patterns in 10 somnambulistic patients (three males, seven females, mean age: 25.1, SD: 4.1) evaluated at baseline and following 38 h of sleep deprivation. A total of 44 behavioral arousals were recorded in the laboratory; seven episodes at baseline (five from SWS, two from stage 2 sleep) and 37 episodes during recovery sleep (30 from SWS, seven from stage 2 sleep). There was no significant difference in the distribution of postarousal EEG patterns identified during baseline and recovery sleep. One pattern, comprised of diffuse rhythmic and synchronous delta activity, was preferentially associated with relatively simple behavioral episodes but did not occur during episodes from stage 2 sleep. Overall, delta activity was detected in 48% of the behavioral episodes from SWS and in 22% of those from stage 2. There was no evidence of complete awakening during any of the episodes. The results support the view of somnambulism as a disorder of arousal and suggest that sleepwalkers' atypical arousal reactions can manifest themselves in stage 2 sleep in addition to SWS.
    Journal of Sleep Research 10/2004; 13(3):279-84. · 3.04 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

113 Citations
1 Download
1k Views
41.43 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2004–2012
    • Hôpital du Sacré-Coeur de Montréal
      • Center for Advanced Research in Sleep Medicine
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 2008–2011
    • Université de Montréal
      • Department of Psychology
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada