T Spencer

Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, United States

Are you T Spencer?

Claim your profile

Publications (68)392.22 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although deficient emotional self-regulation (DESR) is associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), little research investigates this association and little is known about its etiology. Family studies provide a method of clarifying the co-occurrence of clinical features, but no family studies have yet addressed ADHD and DESR in children. Subjects were 242 children with ADHD and 224 children without ADHD. DESR was operationalized using an aggregate score ≥180 and <210 in the anxious/depressed, attention and aggression scales (AAA profile) of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), termed the CBCL-DESR profile. The CBCL-bipolar (CBCL-BP) profile was defined as ≥210 on the CBCL-AAA scale. We examined the familial transmission of ADHD and the CBCL-AAA scale in families selected through probands with and without these conditions. We found a linear increase in the prevalence of CBCL-DESR in siblings as indexed by the Control, ADHD, ADHD+CBCL-DESR and ADHD+CBCL-BP proband groups. While the ADHD siblings were at elevated risk for both the CBCL-DESR and CBCL-BP compared with non-ADHD siblings, a significantly higher rate of CBCL-BP in the siblings of ADHD+CBCL-BP probands was found compared with siblings of the Control probands. ADHD shows the same degree of familial transmission in the presence or absence of DESR. CBCL-DESR and CBCL-BP are familial, but further work is needed to determine if these definitions are distinctly familial or represent a continuum of the same psychopathology.
    Psychological Medicine 08/2011; 42(3):639-46. · 5.59 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although individuals with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) commonly exhibit deficits in executive functions that greatly increase the morbidity of the disorder, all available information on the subject is cross sectional. Males (n = 85) 9-22 years with ADHD followed over 7 years into young adulthood were assessed on measures of sustained attention/vigilance, planning and organization, response inhibition, set shifting and categorization, selective attention and visual scanning, verbal and visual learning, and memory. A binary definition of executive function deficits (EFDs) was defined based on a subject manifesting at least two abnormal tests 1.5 standard deviations from controls. The majority of subjects maintained EFDs over time (kappa: 0.41, P < 0.001; sensitivity: 55%, specificity: 85%, positive predictive value: 69%, and negative predictive value: 75%). Considering the morbidity of EFDs, these findings stress the importance of their early recognition for prevention and early intervention strategies. EFDs are stable over time.
    Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 09/2007; 116(2):129-36. · 4.86 Impact Factor
  • European Neuropsychopharmacology 01/2006; 16. · 4.60 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to assess tic persistence and tic-associated impairment in referred youth with Tourette's Disorder (TD). Subjects were 50 youth (ages 6-17 years) who met DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for TD, were referred to a specialized TD program, and were evaluated by clinical and structured diagnostic interview. Tic severity and impairment was measured using the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale. The total tic score at or above minimal range defined tic persistence, and a TD impairment score at or above moderate range defined tic-associated impairment. Results were assessed during administration of the Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Epidemiological Version. Mean age of onset of TD was 5.1 +/- 2.3 years, and mean illness duration was 5.6 +/- 3.2 years. At baseline, 88% of subjects met threshold criteria for at least mild tics, but only 30% met criteria for tic-associated impairment. At 2-year follow-up, 82% of these subjects met criteria for tic persistence (NS change from baseline), but only 14% met criteria for TD-associated impairment (p < .04 change from baseline). Although tics followed a persistent course in the majority of youth with TD, they were infrequently associated with impairment. There was a significant reduction in the proportion of youth with TD impairment from baseline to follow-up. These results support the view that TD is a persistent disorder, but suggest a dissociation between tic persistence and tic-associated dysfunction.
    Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease 12/2004; 192(11):776-80. · 1.84 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Using an empirically derived instrument to reduce the assessor bias inherent in structured diagnostic interviews, we sought to re-examine and validate the putative comorbidity between Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents. We examined the correlation between Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) syndrome, competence, and composite scores in children with: 1) OCD plus ADHD (OCD + ADHD), N = 47; 2) OCD without comorbid ADHD (OCD), N = 33; 3) ADHD without comorbid OCD (ADHD) N = 43; and 4) comparison controls recruited from general pediatric clinics,N = 32. CBCL findings in our ADHD children were similar to previous findings reported in ADHD youth, irrespective of the presence or absence of comorbid OCD. Comorbid youth generally had additive scores on the CBCL scales, reflecting the independent contribution of symptomatic and functional impairment from each disorder. These findings suggest that when ADHD-like symptoms are seen in OCD youth, they reflect a true comorbid state of OCD plus ADHD. The CBCL may provide a rapid assessment tool to identify comorbid ADHD in OCD youth.
    European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 05/2004; 13(2):83-91. · 3.70 Impact Factor
  • European Neuropsychopharmacology - EUR NEUROPSYCHOPHARMACOL. 01/2004; 14.
  • European Neuropsychopharmacology - EUR NEUROPSYCHOPHARMACOL. 01/2003; 13.
  • European Neuropsychopharmacology - EUR NEUROPSYCHOPHARMACOL. 01/2003; 13.
  • European Neuropsychopharmacology - EUR NEUROPSYCHOPHARMACOL. 01/2003; 13.
  • J Biederman, T Spencer
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) can persist into adulthood with a continuation of the pattern of childhood psychopathology, cognition and functioning. Adult comorbidities include substance use disorders, antisocial personality disorder, anxiety, and depression. Studies have shown that as in children, methylphenidate treatment for adults can lead to a robust, dose-dependent improvement in ADHD symptoms. Future research is needed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of long-term treatment with methylphenidate (MPH).
    Journal of Attention Disorders 02/2002; 6 Suppl 1:S101-7. · 2.16 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To review published algorithms for guiding the use of methylphenidate (MPH) in the treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents. A consensus roundtable of 12 experts was convened to review the evidence for the safety and efficacy of MPH in the treatment of ADHD, as well as the published algorithms and practice guidelines for using MPH. The experts reviewed the algorithms for practicality and acceptability by clinicians. Algorithms that included MPH commonly selected it as the initial medication to be employed in the treatment of children with ADHD. Factors involved included its high efficacy, good safety record, and the ubiquitous nature of its appearance in the ADHD treatment literature. MPH should be considered as the first medication to be used in a treatment algorithm for children and adolescents with ADHD.
    Journal of Attention Disorders 02/2002; 6 Suppl 1:S89-100. · 2.16 Impact Factor
  • T Spencer, J Biederman
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A variety of compounds with a common noradrenergic/dopaminergic activity have shown documented anti-Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) activity. There is a substantial body of literature documenting the efficacy of tricyclic antidepressants on ADHD in over 1,000 subjects. There is an equally large database on the efficacy of the specific norepinephrlne reuptake inhibitor, atomoxetine, of greater than 2,000 Individuals. In addition, the atypical antidepressant buproplon also has been documented to be effective in the treatment of ADHD in controlled clinical trials. Despite wide use, the scientific base supporting the efficacy of alpha-2, noradrenergic agonists is somewhat limited. Several lines of evidence provide preliminary support for the potential benefits of cholinergic cognitive enhandng drugs, such as anticholinesterase inhibitors (tacrine, donepezil) as well as novel nicotinic analogues (ABT-418). Despite these promising results, more research is needed on alternative pharmacological treatments for the treatment of ADHD.
    Journal of Attention Disorders 02/2002; 6 Suppl 1:S109-19. · 2.16 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Atomoxetine is an investigational, nonstimulant pharmacotherapy being studied as potential treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It is thought to act via blockade of the presynaptic norepinephrine transporter in the brain. We assessed the efficacy of 3 doses of atomoxetine compared with placebo in children and adolescents with ADHD. A total of 297 children and adolescents who were 8 to 18 years of age and had ADHD as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, were randomized to placebo or atomoxetine dosed on a weight-adjusted basis at 0.5 mg/kg/day, 1.2 mg/kg/day, or 1.8 mg/kg/day for an 8-week period. ADHD symptoms, affective symptoms, and social and family functioning were assessed using parent and investigator rating scales. Approximately 71% of children enrolled were male, approximately 67% met criteria for mixed subtype (both inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive symptoms), and the only common psychiatric comorbidity was oppositional defiant disorder (approximately 38% of the sample). At baseline, symptom severity was rated as moderate to severe for most children. At endpoint, atomoxetine 1.2 mg/kg/day and 1.8 mg/kg/day were consistently associated with superior outcomes in ADHD symptoms compared with placebo and were not different from each other. The dose of 0.5 mg/kg/day was associated with intermediate efficacy between placebo and the 2 higher doses, suggesting a graded dose-response. Social and family functioning also were improved in the atomoxetine groups compared with placebo with statistically significant improvements in measures of children's ability to meet psychosocial role expectations and parental impact. Discontinuations as a result of adverse events were <5% for all groups. Among children and adolescents aged 8 to 18, atomoxetine was superior to placebo in reducing ADHD symptoms and in improving social and family functioning symptoms. Atomoxetine was associated with a graded dose-response, and 1.2 mg/kg/day seems to be as effective as 1.8 mg/kg/day and is likely to be the appropriate initial target dose for most patients. Treatment with atomoxetine was safe and well tolerated.
    PEDIATRICS 11/2001; 108(5):E83. · 4.47 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Because attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is relatively infrequent among girls, little is known about the nature and causes of psychiatric comorbidity in girls and the reason for gender differences in the prevalence of these comorbidities. Using blinded, structured psychiatric interviews, we studied two groups of boys: 140 ADHD probands and 120 non-ADHD comparisons. These groups had 454 and 368 first-degree biological relatives, respectively. We also studied two groups of girls: 140 ADHD probands and 122 non-ADHD comparisons. These groups had 417 and 369 first-degree biological relatives, respectively. The co-occurrence of ADHD and comorbid psychopathology in families was the same for families ascertained through boy and girl probands. Our results suggest that boys and girls do not differ in the familial risk factors that mediate comorbid psychopathology and the familial aggregation of comorbid disorders in ADHD families. Although this is consistent with prior work suggesting more similarities than differences in the nature of psychiatric comorbidity in ADHD boys and girls, we cannot make strong conclusions, owing to the possibility of cohort effects.
    Biological Psychiatry 11/2001; 50(8):586-92. · 9.25 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The goal of this study was to evaluate the tolerability and effectiveness of the experimental, noradrenergic specific reuptake inhibitor atomoxetine in the treatment of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This was an open, prospective, dose-ranging study of atomoxetine monotherapy in the treatment of 30 children with ADHD between the ages of 7 and 14 years. Atomoxetine was started at 10-20 mg/day and titrated weekly up to 90 mg over 11 weeks, depending on response and adverse effects. Twenty-two children completed the full 11 weeks. We assessed efficacy with weekly clinician and parent ratings of ADHD and oppositional symptoms and monitored adverse effects, laboratory findings, and cardiovascular parameters. Treatment with atomoxetine (mean final, total daily dose of 1.9 mg/kg/day) was very well tolerated without meaningful adverse effects. Atomoxetine significantly reduced core symptoms of ADHD (ADHD-Rating Scale-IV; 38.6% decrease vs. baseline, p < 0.001) with significant improvement (p < 0.05) in all but 1 of the 18 individual items in the ADHD-Rating Scale-IV. More than 75% of subjects who completed 10 weeks of treatment showed > 25% decrease in ADHD symptoms. These findings extend to children the positive results previously reported in adults diagnosed with ADHD who were treated with atomoxetine. These results support additional controlled trials of atomoxetine in cases of pediatric ADHD.
    Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology 09/2001; 11(3):251-65. · 2.77 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We report on a controlled trial of a mixed amphetamine salts compound (Adderall, dextroamphetamine sulfate, dextro-, levoamphetamine sulfate, dextroamphetamine aspartate, levoamphetamine aspartate, and dextroamphetamine saccharate) in the treatment of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This was a 7-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study of Adderall in 27 well-characterized adults satisfying full DSM-IV criteria for ADHD of childhood onset and persistent symptoms into adulthood. Medication was titrated up to 30 mg twice a day. Outcome measures included the ADHD Rating Scale and the Clinical Global Impression Score. Comorbid psychiatric disorders were assessed to test for potential effects on treatment outcome. Treatment with Adderall at an average oral dose of 54 mg (administered in 2 daily doses) was effective and well tolerated. Drug-specific improvement in ADHD symptoms was highly significant overall (42% decrease on the ADHD Rating Scale, P<.001), and sufficiently robust to be detectable in a parallel groups comparison restricted to the first 3 weeks of the protocol (P<.001). The percentage of subjects who improved (reduction in the ADHD rating scale of > or =30%) was significantly higher with Adderall treatment than with a placebo (70% vs 7%; P =.001). Adderall was effective and well tolerated in the short-term treatment of adults with ADHD. More work is needed to evaluate the long-term effects of Adderall, or other amphetamine compounds, in the treatment of adults with ADHD.
    Archives of General Psychiatry 09/2001; 58(8):775-82. · 13.77 Impact Factor
  • Advances in neurology 02/2001; 85:57-77.
  • European Neuropsychopharmacology 01/2001; 11. · 4.60 Impact Factor
  • European Neuropsychopharmacology 01/2001; 11. · 4.60 Impact Factor
  • European Neuropsychopharmacology 01/2001; 11. · 4.60 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

5k Citations
392.22 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1992–2011
    • Massachusetts General Hospital
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 2001
    • Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis
      Indianapolis, Indiana, United States
  • 1994–1998
    • Harvard Medical School
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Boston, MA, United States