[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A total of 2,514,346 metric tons (Mt) of asbestos were imported into Spain from 1906 until the ban on asbestos in 2002. Our objective was to study pleural cancer mortality trends as an indicator of mesothelioma mortality and update mortality predictions for the periods 2011--2015 and 2016--2020 in Spain.
Log-linear Poisson models were fitted to study the effect of age, period of death and birth cohort (APC) on mortality trends. Change points in cohort- and period-effect curvatures were assessed using segmented regression. Fractional power-link APC models were used to predict mortality until 2020. In addition, an alternative model based on national asbestos consumption figures was also used to perform long-term predictions.
Pleural cancer deaths increased across the study period, rising from 491 in 1976--1980 to 1,249 in 2006--2010. Predictions for the five-year period 2016--2020 indicated a total of 1,319 pleural cancer deaths (264 deaths/year). Forecasts up to 2020 indicated that this increase would continue, though the age-adjusted rates showed a levelling-off in male mortality from 2001 to 2005, corresponding to the lower risk in post-1960 generations. Among women, rates were lower and the mortality trend was also different, indicating that occupational exposure was possibly the single factor having most influence on pleural cancer mortality.
The cancer mortality-related consequences of human exposure to asbestos are set to persist and remain in evidence until the last surviving members of the exposed cohorts have disappeared. It can thus be assumed that occupationally-related deaths due to pleural mesothelioma will continue to occur in Spain until at least 2040.
BMC Cancer 11/2013; 13(1):528. · 3.33 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The intervention program for autism known as Treatment and Education of Autistic and Related Communication Handicapped Children (TEACCH) is considered an emerging practice for autism. In the present study we used state-of-the-art meta-analytical procedures to examine the pooled clinical effects of TEACCH in a variety of outcomes. A total of 13 studies were selected for meta-analysis totaling 172 individuals with autism exposed to TEACCH. Standardized measures of perceptual, motor, adaptive, verbal and cognitive skills were identified as treatment outcomes. We used inverse-variance weighted random effects meta-analysis supplemented with quality assessment, sensitivity analysis, meta-regression, and heterogeneity and publication bias tests. The results suggested that TEACCH effects on perceptual, motor, verbal and cognitive skills were of small magnitude in the meta-analyzed studies. Effects over adaptive behavioral repertoires including communication, activities of daily living, and motor functioning were within the negligible to small range. There were moderate to large gains in social behavior and maladaptive behavior. The effects of the TEACCH program were not moderated by aspects of the intervention such as duration (total weeks), intensity (hours per week), and setting (home-based vs. center-based). While the present meta-analysis provided limited support for the TEACCH program as a comprehensive intervention, our results should be considered exploratory owing to the limited pool of studies available.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Gail model for predicting the absolute risk of invasive breast cancer has been validated extensively in US populations, but its performance in the international setting remains uncertain. We evaluated the predictive accuracy of the Gail model in 54,649 Spanish women aged 45-68 years who were free of breast cancer at the 1996-1998 baseline mammographic examination in the population-based Navarre Breast Cancer Screening Program. Incident cases of invasive breast cancer and competing deaths were ascertained until the end of 2005 (average follow-up of 7.7 years) through linkage with population-based cancer and mortality registries. The Gail model was tested for calibration and discrimination in its original form and after recalibration to the lower breast cancer incidence and risk factor prevalence in the study cohort, and compared through cross-validation with a Navarre model fully developed from this cohort. The original Gail model overpredicted significantly the 835 cases of invasive breast cancer observed in the cohort (ratio of expected to observed cases 1.46, 95 % CI 1.36-1.56). The recalibrated Gail model was well calibrated overall (expected-to-observed ratio 1.00, 95 % CI 0.94-1.07), but it tended to underestimate risk for women in low-risk quintiles and to overestimate risk in high-risk quintiles (P = 0.01). The Navarre model showed good cross-validated calibration overall (expected-to-observed ratio 0.98, 95 % CI 0.92-1.05) and in different cohort subsets. The Navarre and Gail models had modest cross-validated discrimination indexes of 0.542 (95 % CI 0.521-0.564) and 0.544 (95 % CI 0.523-0.565), respectively. Although the original Gail model cannot be applied directly to populations with different underlying rates of invasive breast cancer, it can readily be recalibrated to provide unbiased estimates of absolute risk in such populations. Nevertheless, its limited discrimination ability at the individual level highlights the need to develop extended models with additional strong risk factors.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 02/2013; · 4.47 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: It is not clear whether high mammographic density (MD) is equally associated with all subtypes of breast cancer (BC). We investigated the association between MD and subsequent BC, considering invasiveness, means of detection, pathologic subtype and the time elapsed since mammographic exploration and BC diagnosis. METHODS: BC cases occurring in the population of women who attended screening from 1997 through 2004 in Navarre, a Spanish region with a fully consolidated screening program, were identified via record-linkage with the Navarre Cancer Registry (N=1,172). Information was extracted from the records of their first attendance at screening in that period. For each case, we randomly selected four controls, matched by screening round, year of birth, and place of residence. Cases were classified according to invasiveness (ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) versus invasive tumors), pathologic subtype (considering hormonal receptors and HER2), and type of diagnosis (screen-detected versus interval cases). MD was evaluated by a single, experienced radiologist using a semiquantitative scale. Data on BC risk factors were obtained by the screening program in the corresponding round. The association between MD and tumor subtype was assessed using conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: MD was clearly associated with subsequent BC. The odds ratio (OR) for the highest MD category (MD>75%) compared to the reference category (MD<10%) was similar for DCIS (OR=3.47; 95%CI=1.46-8.27) and invasive tumors (OR=2.95; 95%CI=2.01-4.35). The excess risk was particularly high for interval cases (OR=7.72; 95%CI=4.02-14.81) in comparison to screened detected tumors (OR=2.17; 95%CI=1.40-3.36). Sensitivity analyses excluding interval cases diagnosed in the first year after MD assessment or immediately after an early recall to screening yielded similar results. No differences were seen regarding pathologic subtypes. The excess risk associated with MD persisted for at least 7-8 years after mammographic exploration. CONCLUSIONS: Our results confirm that MD is an important risk factor for all types of breast cancer. High breast density strongly increases the risk of developing an interval tumor and this excess risk is not completely explained by a possible masking effect.
Breast cancer research: BCR 01/2013; 15(1):R9. · 5.87 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Falls have enormous impact in older adults. Yet, there is insufficient evidence regarding the effectiveness of preventive interventions in this setting. The objectives were to measure the frequency of falls and associated factors among older people living institutions. METHODS: Data were obtained from a survey on a probabilistic sample of residents aged >=65 years, drawn in 1998-99 from institutions of Madrid (Spain). Residents, their caregivers, and facility physicians were interviewed. Fall rates were computed based on the number of physician-reported falls in the preceding 30 days. Adjusted rate ratios were computed using negative binomial regression models, including age, sex, cognitive status, functional dependence, number of diseases, and polypharmacy. RESULTS: The final sample comprised 733 residents. The fall rate was 2.4 falls per person-year (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.04-2.82). The strongest risk factor was number of diseases, with an adjusted rate ratio (RR) of 1.32 (95% CI, 1.17-1.50) for each additional diagnosis. Other variables associated with falls were: urinary incontinence (RR = 2.56 [95% CI, 1.32-4.94]); antidepressant use (RR = 2.32 [95% CI, 1.22-4.40]); arrhythmias (RR = 2.00 [95% CI, 1.05-3.81]); and polypharmacy (RR = 1.07 [95% CI, 0.95-1.21], for each additional medication). The attributable fraction for number of diseases (with reference to those with <= 1 condition) was 84% (95% CI, 45-95%). CONCLUSIONS: Number of diseases was the main risk factor for falls in this population of institutionalized older adults. Other variables associated with falls, probably more amenable to preventive action, were urinary incontinence, antidepressants, arrhythmias, and polypharmacy.Virtual slides: The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here:http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/3916151157277337.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human biomonitoring (HBM), defined as the measurement of concentrations of chemicals or of their metabolites in human biological matrices, is considered the method of choice for determining internal exposures in individuals. HBM is part of environmental exposure surveillance systems in several countries. In 2007, the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment promoted BIOAMBIENT.ES project, a national-level HBM study on environmental pollutants carried out in Spain to estimate levels of heavy metals, persistent organic pollutants, and other substances on the Spanish active workforce. BIOAMBIENT.ES is a nationwide cross-sectional study, with a stratified cluster sampling designed to cover all geographical areas, sex and occupational sectors, and aimed to obtain a representative sample of the Spanish workforce. Participants were recruited among people residing in Spain for 5 years or more, which underwent their annual occupational medical check-up in the health facilities of the Societies for Prevention of IBERMUTUAMUR, MUTUALIA, MC-PREVENCIÓN, MUGATRA, UNIMAT PREVENCIÓN, and PREVIMAC (March 2009-July 2010). A total of 1,892 subjects fulfilled the criteria for inclusion, donated biological samples (1,880 blood, 1,770 urine, and 577 hair) and completed a short self-administrated epidemiological questionnaire on environmental and lifestyle-related exposures. Additionally, clinical information from participant's health exams was obtained. This project will provide a first overview of the body burden of selected pollutants in a representative sample of the Spanish-occupied population. This information will be useful to establish reference values of the studied population and, eventually, to evaluate temporal trends and the effectiveness of environmental and health policies.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research 11/2012; · 2.62 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mammographic density (MD), or the proportion of the breast with respect to its overall area that is composed of dense tissue,
is a strong risk factor for breast cancer. Studies support a positive association of mammographic density and alcohol drinking.
This was a cross-sectional multicenter study based on 3584 women, aged 45–68years, recruited from seven screening centers
within the Spanish breast cancer screening program network. The association between MD, alcohol consumption and tobacco use
was evaluated by using ordinal logistic models with random center-specific intercepts. We found a weak positive association
between current alcohol intake and higher MD, with current alcohol consumption increasing the odds of high MD by 13% (OR=1.13;
95% CI 0.99–1.28) and high daily grams of alcohol being positively associated with increased MD (P for trend=0.045). There were no statistically significant differences in MD between smokers and non-smokers. Nevertheless,
increased number of daily cigarettes and increased number of accumulated lifetime cigarettes were negatively associated with
high MD (P for trend 0.017 and 0.021). The effect of alcohol on MD was modified by menopausal status and tobacco smoking: whereas,
alcohol consumption and daily grams of alcohol were positively associated with higher MD in postmenopausal women and in women
who were not currently smoking, alcohol consumption had no effect on MD in premenopausal women and current smokers. Our results
support an association between recent alcohol consumption and high MD, characterized by a modest increase in risk at low levels
of current consumption and a decrease in risk among heavier drinkers. Our study also shows how the effects of alcohol in the
breast can be modified by other factors, such as smoking.
KeywordsMammographic density–Alcohol–Smoking–Breast cancer–Ordinal logistic models
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 04/2012; 129(1):135-147. · 4.47 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Urine cadmium concentrations were associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in men in the 1988-1994 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) population. Since 1988, cadmium exposure has decreased substantially in the United States. The associations between blood and urine cadmium and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality at more recent levels of exposure are unknown.
We evaluated the prospective association of blood and urine cadmium concentrations with all-cause and CVD mortality in the 1999-2004 U.S. population.
We followed 8,989 participants who were ≥ 20 years of age for an average of 4.8 years. Hazard ratios for mortality end points comparing the 80th to the 20th percentiles of cadmium distributions were estimated using Cox regression.
The multivariable adjusted hazard ratios [95% confidence intervals (CIs)] for blood and urine cadmium were 1.50 (95% CI: 1.07, 2.10) and 1.52 (95% CI: 1.00, 2.29), respectively, for all-cause mortality, 1.69 (95% CI: 1.03, 2.77) and 1.74 (95% CI: 1.07, 2.83) for CVD mortality, 1.98 (95% CI: 1.11, 3.54) and 2.53 (95% CI: 1.54, 4.16) for heart disease mortality, and 1.73 (95% CI: 0.88, 3.40) and 2.09 (95% CI: 1.06, 4.13) for coronary heart disease mortality. The population attributable risks associated with the 80th percentile of the blood (0.80 μg/L) and urine (0.57 μg/g) cadmium distributions were 7.0 and 8.8%, respectively, for all-cause mortality and 7.5 and 9.2%, respectively, for CVD mortality.
We found strongly suggestive evidence that cadmium, at substantially low levels of exposure, remains an important determinant of all-cause and CVD mortality in a representative sample of U.S. adults. Efforts to further reduce cadmium exposure in the population could contribute to a substantial decrease in CVD disease burden.
Environmental Health Perspectives 04/2012; 120(7):1017-22. · 7.26 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In recent decades, breast cancer cases have increased steadily worldwide. However, the increases do not hold across all demographics and breast cancer cases in low and middle income countries have increased much faster than the global trend. Colombia is not an exception. Breast cancer was the most frequent tumor and the second cause of cancer-related deaths in women in 2008, with an estimated of 6,700 new cases and 2,100 deaths. We present here an analysis of breast cancer mortality rates and trends in Colombia, over the period 1985-2008. We studied overall and age-specific changes in breast cancer mortality using change-point Poisson regression models. Between 1985 and 2008, there were 32,375 breast cancer deaths in women in Colombia. Breast cancer mortality increased since 1985, although the annual increase varied between age groups and socioeconomic levels. Only in women aged 45-64 years old that live in areas of high socioeconomic levels, breast cancer mortality was stable or decreasing. Hence, successful cancer control is possible in middle income countries, as shown by the progress observed in certain groups. The development of an integrated strategy of early detection and early access to proper treatment, suitable for areas with limited resources, is an urgent necessity.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 03/2012; 134(3):1199-207. · 4.47 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Evidence that selenium affects the risk of type-2 diabetes is conflicting, with observational studies and a few randomized trials showing both lower and higher risk linked to the level of selenium intake and status. We investigated the effect of selenium supplementation on the risk of type-2 diabetes in a population of relatively low selenium status as part of the UK PRECISE (PREvention of Cancer by Intervention with SElenium) pilot study. Plasma adiponectin concentration, a recognised independent predictor of type-2 diabetes risk and known to be correlated with circulating selenoprotein P, was the biomarker chosen.
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, five hundred and one elderly volunteers were randomly assigned to a six-month intervention with 100, 200 or 300 µg selenium/d as high-selenium or placebo yeast. Adiponectin concentration was measured by ELISA at baseline and after six months of treatment in 473 participants with one or both plasma samples available.
Mean (SD) plasma selenium concentration was 88.5 ng/g (19.1) at baseline and increased significantly in the selenium-treatment groups. In baseline cross-sectional analyses, the fully adjusted geometric mean of plasma adiponectin was 14% lower (95% CI, 0-27%) in the highest than in the lowest quartile of plasma selenium (P for linear trend = 0.04). In analyses across randomized groups, however, selenium supplementation had no effect on adiponectin levels after six months of treatment (P = 0.96).
These findings are reassuring as they did not show a diabetogenic effect of a six-month supplementation with selenium in this sample of elderly individuals of relatively low selenium status.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(9):e45269. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Animal-assisted therapy (AAT) may affect health via an increase in perceived social support and social interaction. A meta-analysis was conducted to determine its effects on selected populations with poor social functioning. Studies involving elderly participants and those with depression and schizophrenia were searched in Medline, PsycINFO and Cochrane up to January 2009. Matched or controlled trials incorporating pre- and post-test outcome measures and with at least five participants subjected to a multiple-day AAT intervention were selected (n=21). Participants' characteristics, study design, intervention features, outcome variables, reported effects and study quality were retrieved. Design-specific effect sizes were pooled using random-effects models. Heterogeneity of effects by study characteristics, including target population and intervention features, was explored through meta-regression. Pooled effect sizes were calculated for social functioning, depression, anxiety, behavioural disturbances, loneliness, daily living skills and cognitive status. As hypothesised, AAT improved social functioning (pooled effect size = 1.06, n=275). Moderate effects were found for depression (−0.34, n=447), anxiety (−0.29, n=291) and behavioural disturbances (−0.32, n=367). Effects on social functioning and depression were larger in individuals with psychiatric conditions while behavioural disturbances were reduced in patients with dementia. The inconsistent methodological characteristics of the studies meta-analysed suggest a conservative interpretation of these findings.
Health Psychology Review 01/2012; 6(2):197-221. · 2.06 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High selenium status has been linked to elevated blood cholesterol levels in cross-sectional studies.
To investigate the effect of selenium supplementation on plasma lipids.
Randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study stratified by age and sex. Participants, research nurses, and persons assessing outcomes were blinded to treatment assignment. (International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number Register registration number: ISRCTN25193534)
4 general practices in the United Kingdom.
501 volunteers aged 60 to 74 years.
Participants received selenium, 100 mcg/d (n = 127), 200 mcg/d (n = 127), or 300 mcg/d (n = 126), as high-selenium yeast or a yeast-based placebo (n = 121) for 6 months.
Total and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentrations were measured in nonfasting plasma samples stored from participants in the UK PRECISE (United Kingdom PREvention of Cancer by Intervention with SElenium) Pilot Study at baseline (n = 454) and at 6 months (n = 394). Non-HDL cholesterol levels were calculated.
Mean plasma selenium concentration was 88.8 ng/g (SD, 19.2) at baseline and increased statistically significantly in the treatment groups. The adjusted difference in change in total cholesterol levels for selenium compared with placebo was -0.22 mmol/L (-8.5 mg/dL) (95% CI, -0.42 to -0.03 mmol/L [-16.2 to -1.2 mg/dL]; P = 0.02) for 100 mcg of selenium per day, -0.25 mmol/L (-9.7 mg/dL) (CI, -0.44 to -0.07 mmol/L [-17.0 to -2.7 mg/dL]; P = 0.008) for 200 mcg of selenium per day, and -0.07 mmol/L (-2.7 mg/dL) (CI, -0.26 to 0.12 mmol/L [-10.1 to 4.6 mg/dL]; P = 0.46) for 300 mcg of selenium per day. Similar reductions were observed for non-HDL cholesterol levels. There was no apparent difference in change in HDL cholesterol levels with 100 and 200 mcg of selenium per day, but the difference was an adjusted 0.06 mmol/L (2.3 mg/dL) (CI, 0.00 to 0.11 mmol/L [0.0 to 4.3 mg/dL]; P = 0.045) with 300 mcg of selenium per day. The total-HDL cholesterol ratio decreased progressively with increasing selenium dose (overall P = 0.01).
The duration of supplementation was limited, as was the age range of the participants.
Selenium supplementation seemed to have modestly beneficial effects on plasma lipid levels in this sample of persons with relatively low selenium status. The clinical significance of the findings is unclear and should not be used to justify the use of selenium supplementation as additional or alternative therapy for dyslipidemia. This is particularly true for persons with higher selenium status, given the limitations of the trial and the potential additional risk in other metabolic dimensions.
The Cancer Research Campaign (now Cancer Research UK) and the University of Surrey.
Annals of internal medicine 05/2011; 154(10):656-65. · 13.98 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Experimental models and observational studies suggest that homocysteine-lowering therapy with folic acid (FA) may prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, FA also stimulates cell proliferation and might promote progression of atherosclerosis. Our objectives were to perform a meta-analysis of FA supplementation trials on CVD events and to explore a potential interaction between FA supplementation and baseline homocysteine levels on CVD events. We searched MEDLINE for randomized controlled trials of FA supplementation to prevent CVD events (January 1966 to July 2009) and performed meta-analyses using random effects models. For trials that reported responses to FA supplementation stratified by baseline levels of homocysteine, we pooled within-trial estimates of differences in log-relative risks by baseline homocysteine levels using a random effects model. Overall, FA supplementation did not affect primary cardiovascular clinical end points (relative risk 1.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.93 to 1.13, p = 0.66) or stroke (relative risk 0.95, 95% CI 0.84 to 1.08, p = 0.43). However, in trials that reported analyses stratified by baseline homocysteine, effect of FA supplementation differed by strata of baseline homocysteine (p for interaction = 0.030). Specifically, risks of primary clinical CVD events comparing FA supplementation to control were 1.06 (95% CI 1.00 to 1.13) in strata with mean baseline homocysteine levels >12 mumol/L and 0.94 (95% CI 0.86 to 1.03) in strata with baseline homocysteine levels <12 micromol/L. In conclusion, FA had no effect on CVD or stroke. However, analysis of within-trial results stratified by baseline homocysteine suggests potential harm in those with high homocysteine at baseline. This interaction may have important implications for recommendations of FA supplement use. In the meantime, FA supplementation should not be recommended as a means to prevent or treat CVD or stroke.
The American journal of cardiology 08/2010; 106(4):517-27. · 3.58 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To measure the prevalence and associated factors of undetected depression in institutionalized older people.
Epidemiologic cross-sectional study in nursing homes and residential facilities.
A stratified cluster sample of residents 65 years of age and older living in institutions of Madrid (Spain).
Residents were considered to be depressed if they met at least 1 of the following 3 criteria: 10-item Geriatric Depression Scale score of 4 or higher, physician's diagnosis, or antidepressant use. Prevalence of undetected depression was defined as the proportion of depressed residents without documented diagnosis or treatment.
A total of 255 of 579 residents had depression (weighted prevalence 46.1%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 41.0%-51.3%) and 108 depressed residents were undetected (undetection prevalence 41.5%, 95% CI 33.2%-50.2%). Undetection was lower in younger residents, private versus public facilities (sex-, age-, and size-adjusted prevalence ratio [PR] 0.59, 95% CI 0.37-0.94), and larger facilities (sex-, age-, and ownership-adjusted PR 0.94 per 50-bed increase, 95% CI 0.88-1.00). Undetected depression was higher in residents with poor self-rated health (sex- and age-adjusted PR 1.83, 95% CI 1.24-2.73), whereas the opposite came about for physician-rated health (PR 0.65, 95% CI 0.44-0.95). Undetection decreased 11% (95% CI 4%-17%) per 1-medication increase, and it was lower in patients with Alzheimer disease, anxiety, and arrhythmia.
Number of medications and self-rated health were the main determinants of undetected depression. Physician-rated health, facility characteristics (size and ownership), and some diseases could also be considered.
Journal of the American Medical Directors Association 06/2010; 11(5):312-9. · 5.30 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although prostate cancer has recently registered increasing incidence and decreasing mortality in Spain, no analysis has yet been made of these two indicators to ascertain the magnitude of and reasons for these trends.
The time trend in invasive prostate cancer incidence from 1975 to 2004 was studied by combining data from 13 Spanish population-based cancer registries. Change-point Poisson regression models were fitted for all men and for two age groups (45-64 and 65+ years). Age-period-cohort models were used to study cohort and period effects. In addition, we studied the time trend in prostate cancer mortality in Spain for the period 1980-2007.
Incidence increased annually by 1.3% from 1975 to 1990 and by 7.3% thereafter. Until 1990, the percentage increase was low and indeed similar for both age groups. While the subsequent increase in the two age groups was greater, this was particularly marked among the youngest men, with a decrease being observed in age groups >85 years in the last quinquennium. Mortality increased by an annual figure of 0.7% until 1998, after which it decreased by 3.6% per annum until 2007.
Despite the dramatic rise in incidence from 1990 onwards, mainly due to opportunistic screening, prostate cancer mortality was only observed to decline slowly from 1998. If prostate-specific antigen screening remains at a similar level in Spain, overdiagnosis may well become an important chronic side-effect and health problem.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This article describes the methods of a door-to-door screening survey exploring the distribution of disability and its major determinants in northeastern Spain. This study will set the basis for the development of disability-related services for the rural elderly in northeastern Spain.
The probabilistic sample was composed of 1,354 de facto residents from a population of 12,784 Social Security card holders (age: > or = 50 years). Cognitive and disability screenings were conducted (period: June 2008-June 2009). Screening instruments were the MMSE and the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule. Participants screened positive for disability underwent an assessment protocol focusing on primary care diagnoses, disability, lifestyle, and social and health service usage. Participants screened positive for cognitive functioning went through in-depth neurological evaluation.
The study sample is described. Usable data were available for 1,216 participants. A total of 625 individuals (51.4%) scored within the positive range in the disability screening, while 135 (11.1%) scored within the positive range of the cognitive screening. The proportion of positively screened individuals was higher for women and increased with age.
Screening surveys represent a feasible design for examining the distribution of disability and its determinants among the elderly. Data quality may benefit from methodological developments tailored to rural populations with a low education level.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High-chronic arsenic exposure in drinking water is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk. At low-chronic levels, as those present in Spain, evidence is scarce. In this ecological study, we evaluated the association of municipal drinking water arsenic concentrations during the period 1998-2002 with cardiovascular mortality in the population of Spain.
Arsenic concentrations in drinking water were available for 1721 municipalities, covering 24.8 million people. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for cardiovascular (361,750 deaths), coronary (113,000 deaths), and cerebrovascular (103,590 deaths) disease were analyzed for the period 1999-2003. Two-level hierarchical Poisson models were used to evaluate the association of municipal drinking water arsenic concentrations with mortality adjusting for social determinants, cardiovascular risk factors, diet, and water characteristics at municipal or provincial level in 651 municipalities (200,376 cardiovascular deaths) with complete covariate information.
Mean municipal drinking water arsenic concentrations ranged from <1 to 118 microg/L. Compared to the overall Spanish population, sex- and age-adjusted mortality rates for cardiovascular (SMR 1.10), coronary (SMR 1.18), and cerebrovascular (SMR 1.04) disease were increased in municipalities with arsenic concentrations in drinking water > 10 microg/L. Compared to municipalities with arsenic concentrations < 1 microg/L, fully adjusted cardiovascular mortality rates were increased by 2.2% (-0.9% to 5.5%) and 2.6% (-2.0% to 7.5%) in municipalities with arsenic concentrations between 1-10 and >10 microg/L, respectively (P-value for trend 0.032). The corresponding figures were 5.2% (0.8% to 9.8%) and 1.5% (-4.5% to 7.9%) for coronary heart disease mortality, and 0.3% (-4.1% to 4.9%) and 1.7% (-4.9% to 8.8%) for cerebrovascular disease mortality.
In this ecological study, elevated low-to-moderate arsenic concentrations in drinking water were associated with increased cardiovascular mortality at the municipal level. Prospective cohort studies with individual measures of arsenic exposure, standardized cardiovascular outcomes, and adequate adjustment for confounders are needed to confirm these ecological findings. Our study, however, reinforces the need to implement arsenic remediation treatments in water supply systems above the World Health Organization safety standard of 10 microg/L.
Environmental Research 10/2009; 110(5):448-54. · 3.24 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Since the 1980s, Spain experienced two decades of sharply increasing breast cancer incidence. Declines in breast cancer incidence have recently been reported in many developed countries. We examined whether a similar downturn might have taken place in Spain in recent years.
Cases of invasive female breast cancer were drawn from all population-based Spanish cancer registries that had at least 10 years of uninterrupted registration over the period 1980-2004. Overall and age-specific changes in incidence rates were evaluated using change-point Poisson models, which allow for accurate detection and estimation of trend changes. All statistical tests were two-sided.
A total of 80,453 incident cases of invasive breast cancer were identified. Overall age- and registry-adjusted incidence rates rose by 2.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.7% to 3.1%) annually during the 1980s and 1990s; there was a statistically significant change in this trend in 2001 (95% CI = 1998 to 2004; P value for the existence of a change point <.001), after which incidence declined annually by 3.0% (95% CI = 1.8% to 4.1%). This trend differed by age group: There was a steady increase in incidence for women younger than 45 years, an abrupt downturn in 2001 for women aged 45-64 years, and a gradual leveling off in 1995 for women aged 65 years or older. Separate analyses for registries that had at least 15 years of uninterrupted registration detected a statistically significant interruption of the previous upward trend in breast cancer incidence in provinces that had aggressive breast cancer screening programs and high screening participation rates, including Navarra (change point = 1991, P < .001), Granada (change point = 2002, P = .003), Bizkaia (change point = 1998, P < .001), Gipuzkoa (change point = 1998, P = .001), and Araba (change point = 1997, P = .002).
The recent downturn in breast cancer incidence among Spanish women older than 45 years is best explained by a period effect linked to screening saturation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The risks associated with the use of the combination of aspirin and clopidogrel before surgery are incompletely understood. Pharmacologic suppression of platelet function may increase the risk of postoperative infection by inhibiting hemostasis, immunity, or both.
We performed a retrospective cohort study of 1677 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery to determine the relationship of the preoperative use of aspirin plus clopidogrel vs aspirin alone to the 30-day incidence of postoperative surgical site infection and bacteremia.
The cumulative incidence of infection at 30 days was 23.1% and 16.1% in patients who were receiving dual antiplatelet therapy and aspirin monotherapy, respectively (unadjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09-2.08). The risk of infection remained higher among patients who were receiving dual antiplatelet therapy after adjustment for demographic, socioeconomic, preoperative, and intraoperative risk factors (HR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.01-2.00) and propensity score (HR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.01-2.01]). Transfusion rates were also higher among patients who were receiving dual antiplatelet therapy than among patients who were receiving aspirin monotherapy (68.4% vs 60.4%, P = .04), but transfusion played a modest role in mediating the risk of infection (adjusted HR, 1.37; 95% CI, 0.96-1.93]). Mortality rates at 30 days were 5.2% and 3.1% in patients who were receiving dual antiplatelet and aspirin monotherapy, respectively (adjusted HR, 1.44; 95% CI, 0.70-2.99]).
Preoperative use of aspirin plus clopidogrel is associated with an increased risk of infection after coronary artery bypass surgery. These findings merit additional work to clarify the risks and benefits of uninterrupted dual antiplatelet therapy in surgical patients and the impact of platelet inhibition on infectious outcomes in populations that are at heightened infectious risk.
Archives of internal medicine 05/2009; 169(8):788-96. · 11.46 Impact Factor