Julia C A More

University of Bristol, Bristol, ENG, United Kingdom

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Publications (11)51.97 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Some N3-substituted analogues of willardiine such as 11 and 13 are selective kainate receptor antagonists. In an attempt to improve the potency and selectivity for kainate receptors, a range of analogues of 11 and 13 were synthesized with 5-substituents on the uracil ring. An X-ray crystal structure of the 5-methyl analogue of 13 bound to GLUK5 revealed that there was allowed volume around the 4- and 5-positions of the thiophene ring, and therefore the 4,5-dibromo and 5-phenyl (67) analogues were synthesized. Compound 67 (ACET) demonstrated low nanomolar antagonist potency on native and recombinant GLUK5-containing kainate receptors (KB values of 7 +/- 1 and 5 +/- 1 nM for antagonism of recombinant human GLUK5 and GLUK5/GLUK2, respectively) but displayed IC50 values >100 microM for antagonism of GLUA2, GLUK6, or GLUK6/GLUK2.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 04/2007; 50(7):1558-70. · 5.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the role of kainate receptors in the generation of theta oscillations using (S)-1-(2-amino-2-carboxyethyl)-3-(2-carboxythiophene-3-yl-methyl)pyrimidine-2,4-dione (UBP304), a novel, potent and highly selective antagonist of GLU(K5)-containing kainate receptors. EEG and single-unit recordings were made from the dorsal hippocampus of awake, freely moving rats trained to forage for food. Bilateral intracerebroventricular injections of UBP304 (2.0 microl, two times; 2.08 mM) caused a clear (approximately 25%) reduction in theta frequency that was dissociable from behavioral effects of the drug. The locations of firing fields of principal cells in the hippocampal formation were generally preserved, but both field firing rates and the precision of field organization decreased. UBP304 lowered the frequency of the theta modulation of hippocampal interneuron discharge, accurately matching the reduced frequency of the theta field oscillation. UBP308 [(R)-1-(2-amino-2-carboxyethyl)-3-(2-carboxythiophene-3-yl-methyl)pyrimidine-2,4-dione], the inactive enantiomer of UBP304, caused none of these effects. Our results suggest that GLU(K5) receptors have an important role in modulating theta activity. In addition, the effects on cellular responses provide both insight into the mechanisms of theta pacing, and useful information for models of temporal coding.
    Journal of Neuroscience 03/2007; 27(9):2212-23. · 6.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: N3-substitution of the uracil ring of willardiine with a variety of carboxyalkyl or carboxybenzyl substituents produces AMPA and kainate receptor antagonists. In an attempt to improve the potency and selectivity of these AMPA and kainate receptor antagonists a series of analogues with different terminal acidic groups and interacidic group spacers was synthesized and pharmacologically characterized. (S)-1-(2-Amino-2-carboxyethyl)-3-(2-carboxythiophene-3-ylmethyl)pyrimidine-2,4-dione (43, UBP304) demonstrated high potency and selectivity toward native GLU(K5)-containing kainate receptors (K(D) 0.105 +/- 0.007 microM vs kainate on native GLU(K5); K(D) 71.4 +/- 8.3 microM vs (S)-5-fluorowillardiine on native AMPA receptors). On recombinant human GLU(K5), GLU(K5)/GLU(K6), and GLU(K5)/GLU(K2), K(B) values of 0.12 +/- 0.03, 0.12 +/- 0.01, and 0.18 +/- 0.02 microM, respectively, were obtained for 43. However, 43 displayed no activity on homomeric GLU(K6) or GLU(K7) kainate receptors or homomeric GLU(A1-4) AMPA receptors (IC(50) values > 100 microM). Thus, 43 is a potent and selective GLU(K5) receptor antagonist.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 04/2006; 49(8):2579-92. · 5.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the involvement of different types of glutamate receptors in recognition memory, selective antagonists of NMDA and kainate receptors were locally infused into the perirhinal cortex of the rat temporal lobe. Such infusion of a selective kainate receptor antagonist produced an unusual pattern of recognition memory impairment: amnesia after a short (20 min) but not a long (24 h) delay. In contrast, antagonism of perirhinal NMDA glutamate receptors by locally infused AP-5 (2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid) impaired recognition memory after the long but not the short delay. For both drugs, impairment was found when the drug was present during acquisition but not when it was present during retrieval. Experiments in vitro indicate that selective antagonism of NMDA receptors containing NR2A subunits blocks perirhinal long-term potentiation (LTP), whereas antagonism of NMDA receptors containing NR2B subunits blocks long-term depression (LTD). However, recognition memory after a 24 h delay was impaired only when both an NR2A and an NR2B antagonist were infused together, not when either was infused separately. These results establish that kainate receptors have a role in recognition memory that is distinct from that of NMDA receptors, that there must be at least two independent underlying memory mechanisms in the infused region, that this region and no other is necessary for both short-term and long-term familiarity discrimination, and that perirhinal-dependent long-term recognition memory does not rely solely on processes used in NMDA-dependent LTP or LTD (although it might be independently supported by components of each type of process with one substituting for the other).
    Journal of Neuroscience 04/2006; 26(13):3561-6. · 6.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The natural product willardiine (8) is an AMPA receptor agonist while 5-iodowillardiine (10) is a selective kainate receptor agonist. In an attempt to produce antagonists of kainate and AMPA receptors analogues of willardiine with substituents at the N3 position of the uracil ring were synthesized. The N3-4-carboxybenzyl substituted analogue (38c) was found to be equipotent at AMPA and GLUK5-containing kainate receptors in the neonatal rat spinal cord. The N3-2-carboxybenzyl substituted analogue (38a) proved to be a potent and selective GLUK5 subunit containing kainate receptor antagonist when tested on native rat and human recombinant AMPA and kainate receptor subtypes. The GLUK5 kainate receptor antagonist activity was found to reside in the S enantiomer (44a) whereas the R enantiomer (44b) was almost inactive. 5-Iodo substitution of the uracil ring of 44a gave 45, which was found to have enhanced potency and selectivity for GLUK5.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 01/2006; 48(24):7867-81. · 5.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is considerable interest in understanding long-term potentiation (LTP) of glutamatergic synaptic transmission because the molecular mechanisms involved in its induction and expression are believed to be critical for learning and memory. There are two distinct forms of LTP. One type is triggered by synaptic activation of NMDA receptors and the other is NMDA receptor-independent. The latter type of LTP has been mostly studied at mossy fiber/CA3 synapses. Here we summarise some of our recent studies concerning the mechanisms of the induction of the NMDA receptor-independent form of LTP at these CA3 synapses. This form of LTP is triggered by the synaptic activation of kainate receptors. We also address the importance of Ca2+ availability in the extracellular environment and the release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores for this form of LTP.
    NeuroToxicology 11/2005; 26(5):769-77. · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: l-Glutamate is the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate central nervous system (CNS) (1–5). This conclusion, based on innumerable pharmacological, physiological, and biochemical studies, is now succinctly confirmed by the characterization of the vesicular glutamate transporters and their localization throughout the brain (6). In contrast to the neuromodulatory neurotransmitters that are commonly released by brainstem nuclei projecting diffusely to large regions of the brain, and in contrast to the inhibitory, nonprojecting, local circuit neurons that use γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) or glycine, glutamate-using pathways provide fast signaling between discrete brain regions. (For further discussion of glutamate-using pathways, see Chapter 3). l-Glutamate released from presynaptic nerve terminals binds to glutamate receptors on the receiving neuron. The ionotropic glutamate receptors span the plasma membrane and the binding of l-Glutamate causes a conformational change that opens a pore in the membrane formed by the receptor complex. The opened ion channel allows the influx of Na+, and sometimes Ca++ ions, causing the cell to depolarize. If sufficiently depolarized, the neuron is activated. It is the fast-acting ionotropic glutamate receptors that underlie fast electrical responses in the CNS. Unexpectedly, there is also a wealth of slower-acting G protein-coupled glutamate receptors, the metabotropic glutamate receptors. The metabotropic receptors are the subject of Chapter 5 in this volume. The discovery and characterization of l-glutamate as the major CNS neurotransmitter was a major breakthrough and has opened the door to understanding many essential aspects of brain function at all levels of investigation.
    12/2004: pages 79-116;
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    ABSTRACT: Willardiine derivatives with an N3-benzyl substituent bearing an acidic group have been synthesized with the aim of producing selective antagonists for GLUK5-containing kainate receptors. UBP296 was found to be a potent and selective antagonist of native GLUK5-containing kainate receptors in the spinal cord, with activity residing in the S enantiomer (UBP302). In cells expressing human kainate receptor subunits, UBP296 selectively depressed glutamate-induced calcium influx in cells containing GLUK5 in homomeric or heteromeric forms. In radioligand displacement binding studies, the willardiine analogues displaced [3H]kainate binding with IC50 values >100 microM at rat GLUK6, GLUK2 or GLUK6/GLUK2. An explanation of the GLUK5 selectivity of UBP296 was obtained using homology models of the antagonist bound forms of GLUK5 and GLUK6. In rat hippocampal slices, UBP296 reversibly blocked ATPA-induced depressions of synaptic transmission at concentrations subthreshold for affecting AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission directly. UBP296 also completely blocked the induction of mossy fibre LTP, in medium containing 2 mM (but not 4 mM) Ca2+. These data provide further evidence for a role for GLUK5-containing kainate receptors in mossy fibre LTP. In conclusion, UBP296 is the most potent and selective antagonist of GLUK5-containing kainate receptors so far described.
    Neuropharmacology 07/2004; 47(1):46-64. · 4.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we characterized the effects of activation of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) on the internalization and functional coupling of the metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR1) splice variants mGluR1a and mGluR1b. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique to assess receptor internalization, we found that the glutamate-induced internalization of mGluR1a or mGluR1b transiently expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells was inhibited by coactivation of endogenous beta2-adrenoceptors with isoprenaline or by direct activation of adenylyl cyclase with forskolin. The PKA inhibitor N-(2-[p-bromocinnamylamino]ethyl)-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide hydrochloride (H89) blocked the effects of both isoprenaline and forskolin. The heterologous internalization of the mGluR1 splice variants triggered by carbachol was also inhibited by isoprenaline and forskolin in a PKA-sensitive fashion, whereas the constitutive (agonist-independent) internalization of mGluR1a was inhibited only modestly by PKA activation. Using inositol phosphate (IP) accumulation in cells prelabeled with [3H]inositol to assess receptor coupling, PKA activation increased basal IP accumulation in mGluR1a receptor-expressing cells and also increased glutamate-stimulated IP accumulation in both mGluR1a- and mGluR1b-expressing cells, but only at short times of glutamate addition. Furthermore, PKA activation completely blocked the carbachol-induced heterologous desensitization of glutamate-stimulated IP accumulation in both mGluR1a- and mGluR1b-expressing cells. In coimmunoprecipitation experiments, the ability of glutamate to increase association of GRK2 and arrestin-2 with mGluR1a and mGluR1b was inhibited by PKA activation with forskolin. Together, these results indicate that PKA activation inhibits the agonist-induced internalization and desensitization of mGluR1a and mGluR1b, probably by reducing their interaction with GRK2 and nonvisual arrestins.
    Molecular Pharmacology 07/2004; 65(6):1507-16. · 4.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 1. The natural product willardiine is an AMPA receptor agonist. We have examined the structural changes required to convert willardiine into an antagonist at AMPA and kainate receptors. Structure-activity analysis has been carried out to discover the structural features required to increase the potency and/or selectivity of the antagonists at AMPA or kainate receptors. 2. Reduction of the fast component of the dorsal root-evoked ventral root potential (fDR-VRP) has been used to investigate AMPA receptor antagonist activity. To examine antagonist activity at kainate receptors, the ability of compounds to depress kainate-induced depolarisations of dorsal root fibres was assessed. 3. Blocking ionisation of the uracil ring by adding a methyl group to the N(3) position was not sufficient to convert willardiine into an antagonist. However, willardiine derivatives with a side-chain bearing a carboxylic acid group at the N(3)-position of the uracil ring could antagonise AMPA and kainate receptors. 4. S stereochemistry was optimal for antagonism. When compounds with differing interacidic group chain lengths were compared, a group chain length of two methylene groups was preferable for AMPA receptor antagonism in the series of compounds bearing a carboxyalkyl side chain (UBP275, UBP277 and UBP279 reduced the fDR-VRP with IC(50) values of 287+/-41, 23.8+/-3.9 and 136+/-17 micro M, respectively). For kainate receptor antagonism, two or three methylene groups were almost equally acceptable (UBP277 and UBP279 reduced dorsal root kainate responses with apparent K(D) values of 73.1+/-4.5 and 60.5+/-4.1 micro M, respectively). 5. Adding an iodo group to the 5-position of UBP277 and UBP282 enhanced activity at kainate receptors (UBP291 and UBP301 antagonised kainate responses on the dorsal root with apparent K(D) values of 9.83+/-1.62 and 5.94+/-0.63 micro M, respectively). 6. The most useful antagonist identified in this study was UBP301, which was a potent and approximately 30-fold selective kainate receptor antagonist. UBP282 may also be of use in isolating a non-GluR5-mediated kainate response.
    British Journal of Pharmacology 04/2003; 138(6):1093-100. · 5.07 Impact Factor
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    Julia C A More, Helen M Troop, David E Jane
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    ABSTRACT: 1. The natural product willardiine is a selective AMPA receptor agonist. We report that an N(3)-substituted analogue of willardiine, (S)-3-(4-carboxybenzyl)willardiine 3-CBW, antagonizes AMPA and kainate receptors expressed on motoneurones and dorsal root C-fibres, respectively. 2. Reduction of the fast component of the dorsal root-evoked ventral root potential (fDR-VRP) has been used as a novel method to compare AMPA receptor antagonists. 3-CBW, NBQX and GYKI53655 depressed the fDR-VRP with IC(50) values of 10.3+/-2.4, 0.214+/-0.043 and 4.03+/-0.31 micro M, respectively. That 3-CBW depressed the fDR-VRP by acting at AMPA and not metabotropic glutamate receptors was demonstrated by the lack of effect of LY341495 (100 micro M). 3. The Schild plot for antagonism of responses to (S)-5-fluorowillardiine on motoneurones by 3-CBW had a slope of 1.11+/-0.13 giving a pA(2) value of 4.48. The Schild plot for antagonism of kainate responses on the dorsal root by 3-CBW had a slope of 1.05+/-0.05 giving a pA(2) value of 4.96. 4. On neonatal rat motoneurones 3-CBW (200 micro M) almost completely abolished responses to AMPA while responses to NMDA, kainate and DHPG were 101.6+/-11.6%, 39.4+/-5.8% and 110.5+/-9.0% of control, respectively. 3-CBW can therefore be used to isolate kainate receptor responses from those mediated by AMPA receptors. 5 3-CBW antagonized kainate-induced responses on dorsal root C-fibres with a pA(2) value of 4.96 whereas kainate receptor mediated responses (isolated by including GYKI53655 in the medium) on motoneurones were not completely blocked by 200 micro M 3-CBW, substantiating evidence that kainate receptors on neonatal rat motoneurones differ from those on dorsal root C-fibres.
    British Journal of Pharmacology 01/2003; 137(7):1125-33. · 5.07 Impact Factor