Jill B Lewis

Georgia Health Sciences University, Augusta, GA, United States

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Publications (35)88.94 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The in vitro cytotoxic response to endodontic sealers was assessed for one year. AH-Plus (AHP), Epiphany (EPH), EndoRez (ER), Guttaflow (GF), InnoEndo (IN), and Pulp Canal Sealer (PCS) were exposed to mouse osteoblasts and human monocytes after curing, 52 weeks of aging, and after resurfacing post-aging; cellular response was estimated by succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity. The effect of materials on TNFα secretion from activated (LPS) and inactivated monocytes also was measured. Cell responses were compared with ANOVA and Tukey post hoc analysis (α = 0.05). Initially, all materials except GF suppressed osteoblastic SDH activity compared with Teflon (Tf) controls. SDH activity in cells exposed to some aged sealers improved significantly; but IN and ER remained cytotoxic. When aged materials were resurfaced then tested, AHP, ER, GF, and IN did not change. EPH and PCS were more toxic. Monocytes responded similarly to the osteoblasts. No endodontic sealer activated monocytic TNFα secretion (p > 0.05 vs. -LPS Tf-controls). LPS-activated monocytes exposed to unresurfaced AHP and IN significantly suppressed TNFα secretion. When activated monocytes were exposed to the resurfaced sealers, differential suppression of TNFα secretion was observed for three of the four sealers tested (EPH, IN, and PCS). The results suggest that long-term aging may be a useful adjunct to in vitro assessment of these materials. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2012.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 07/2012; 100B(7):1729-35. · 2.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies have reported that sealers may alter the secretion of specific cytokines from THP1 monocytic cells in vitro. In this study, a cytokine array was used to determine if endodontic sealers changed secretion of 42 cytokines. White mineral trioxide aggregate (WMTA), MTA preparation (CS), AH-Plus (AHP), and Pulp Canal Sealer (PCS) were mixed, allowed to set for 72 h, then "aged" in buffered-saline for 12 weeks. Aged specimens were placed in direct contact with THP1 for 72 h and their cytotoxicity (MTT assay) was assessed. Materials that were not severely toxic were then exposed to THP1 with or without lipolysaccharide (LPS), and the culture medium was assayed for cytokine secretion. Secretion of cytokines was quantified using infrared scanning (Odyssey(®)); replicate pairs were averaged. PCS severely suppressed MTT activity and was not assessed for its influence on cytokine secretion. WMTA, CS, and AHP induced a broad-based increase in cytokine secretion (>20% vs. Teflon controls), but AHP induced the greatest increase (>100% in 17 of 42 cytokines). The effects of the sealers on LPS-activated THP1 were biphasic, with some increases and decreases cytokine secretion of >20%, but few larger effects. This work shows endodontic sealers may alter the secretion of a broad cross section of cytokines from monocytic cells.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 02/2011; 97(1):49-57. · 2.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The in vitro cytotoxicity of five endodontic sealers was measured >8-12 weeks using L929 mouse fibroblasts, osteoblastic cells (ROS) 17/2.8 rat osteoblasts, and MC3T3-E1 mouse osteoblasts. Discs (n = 6) of AH-plus Jet (AHP), two versions of Endo Rez (ER, ERx), Epiphany (EPH), and Pulp Canal Sealer (PCS) were prepared. The sealers and Teflon (Tf, negative control) were placed in direct contact with cells after immersion in phosphate-buffered saline for 1-12 wk. Cellular succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity was estimated using the MTT method (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, a yellow tetrazole), and activities were normalized to Teflon® controls. The cellular responses to the materials were compared using analysis of variance with Tukey posthoc analyses (α = 0.05). Initially, all sealers suppressed normalized SDH activity of L929 fibroblasts by >90%. After 12 weeks of immersion in saline, AHP exhibited the SDH activity above Tf (120%), followed by ERx (78%), ER (58%), PCS (38%), and EPH (28%), all statistically distinct (p < 0.05). In general, the three cell lines responded similarly to the sealers. However, AHP caused unique responses: ROS cells were significantly (p < 0.05) less sensitive initially, and AHP was severely cytotoxic to MC3T3 cells (<35% of Tf) through 8 weeks. The data suggest that with "aging" in saline, current endodontic sealers decrease in in vitro cytotoxicity at different rates.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 11/2010; 95(2):380-6. · 2.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Few published studies describe the biological properties of calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) for dental applications. We measured several biologically relevant properties of 3 CPCs over an extended (8 wk) interval. Monocalcium phosphate, calcium oxide, and synthetic hydroxyapatite were combined with either modified polyacrylic acid, light-activated modified polyalkenoic acid, or 35% w/w polymethyl vinyl ether maleic acid to obtain Types I, II, and III CPCs, respectively. Set cements were placed in direct contact with L929 fibroblasts for up to 8 weeks. Media Ca(+2) and pH were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy and pH electrode respectively. Cell mitochondrial function was measured by MTT assay. Type I cements suppressed mitochondrial activity > 90% (vs. Teflon controls), but significantly (p < 0.05) improved to control levels over 8 weeks. Type II cements suppressed mitochondrial activity > 90% at all times. Type III cements elevated mitochondrial activity significantly after 7 wks. The pH profiles approached neutrality by 24 h, and all cements released calcium into the storage medium at all periods (24 h - 8 wk). We concluded that several types of cements had long-term biological profiles that show promise for dental applications.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 03/2010; 93(2):297-303. · 2.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Endosseous dental implants use is increasing in patients with systemic conditions that compromise wound healing. Manufacturers recently have redesigned implants to ensure more reliable and faster osseointegration. One design strategy has been to create a porous phosphate-enriched titanium oxide (TiUnite) surface to increase surface area and enhance interactions with bone. In the current study, the corrosion properties of TiUnite implants were studied in cultures of monocytic cells and solutions simulating inflammatory and hyperglycemic conditions. Furthermore, to investigate whether placement into bone causes enough mechanical damage to alter implant corrosion properties, the enhanced surface implants as well as machined titanium implants were placed into human cadaver mandibular bone, the bone removed, and the corrosion properties measured. Implant corrosion behavior was characterized by open circuit potentials, linear polarization resistance, and electrical impedance spectroscopy. In selected samples, THP1 cells were activated with lipopolysaccharide prior to implant exposure to simulate an inflammatory environment. No significant differences in corrosion potentials were measured between the TiUnite implants and the machined titanium implants in previous studies. TiUnite implants exhibited lower corrosion rates in all simulated conditions than observed in PBS, and EIS measurements revealed two time constants which shifted with protein-containing electrolytes. In addition, the TiUnite implants displayed a significantly lower corrosion rate than the machined titanium implants after placement into bone. The current study suggests that the corrosion risk of the enhanced oxide implant is lower than its machined surface titanium implant counterpart under simulated conditions of inflammation, elevated dextrose concentrations, and after implantation into bone.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 12/2009; 92(2):525-34. · 2.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Metal-based drugs are largely undeveloped in pharmacology. One limiting factor is the systemic toxicity of metal-based compounds. A solid-phase, sequestratable delivery agent for local delivery of metals could reduce systemic toxicity, facilitating new drug development in this nascent area. Amorphous peroxotitanates (APT) are ion-exchange materials with high affinity for several heavy metal ions and have been proposed to deliver or sequester metal ions in biological contexts. In the current study, we tested a hypothesis that APTs are able to deliver metals or metal compounds to cells. We exposed fibroblasts (L929) or monocytes (THP1) to metal-APT materials for 72 h in vitro and then measured cellular mitochondrial activity (SDH-MTT method) to assess the biological impact of the metal-APT materials versus metals or APT alone. APT alone did not significantly affect cellular mitochondrial activity, but all metal-APT materials suppressed the mitochondrial activity of fibroblasts (by 30-65% of controls). The concentration of metal-APT materials required to suppress cellular mitochondrial activity was below that required for metals alone, suggesting that simple extracellular release of the metals from the metal-APT materials was not the primary mechanism of mitochondrial suppression. In contrast to fibroblasts, no metal-APT material had a measurable effect on THP1 monocyte mitochondrial activity, despite potent suppression by metals alone. This latter result suggested that "biodelivery" by metal-APT materials may be cell type-specific. Therefore, it appears that APTs are plausible solid-phase delivery agents of metals or metal compounds to some types of cells for potential therapeutic effect.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 09/2009; 91(2):489-96. · 2.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Titanates are inorganic compounds with high affinity for specific metal ions or metal compounds, including gold. We have previously demonstrated that both monosodium titanate (MST) and amorphous peroxo-titanate (APT) alone do not suppress cellular metabolism of several cell types, and we have shown that MST and APT adsorb and release gold compounds in biological salt solutions. In the current study, we extend this work and show that MST and APT loaded with two gold compounds deliver sufficient levels of these compounds to alter the metabolism of mammalian cells. Fibroblasts (L929) or monocytes (THP1) were exposed to MST and APT loaded with either Au(III) or Auranofin(R), a Au(I)-organic compound, for 24-72 h, after which succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity of the cells was measured using the MTT method. MST or APT alone did not suppress SDH activity of either cell type. AF and Au(III) alone suppressed SDH activity completely above 2 muM or 300 muM, respectively. APT and MST loaded with either gold compound suppressed L929 fibroblast SDH activity by 30-80% after 72 h, but Au(III)-loaded APT was more potent than AF-loaded APT. Monocyte SDH activity was not affected by any loaded titanate. Our results suggest that titanates could be used for solid phase delivery of metal compounds to affect mammalian cell function of some types of cells.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A 09/2009; 93(3):864-9. · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dental endodontic sealers are in intimate contact with tissues around the root apex (periapical area) for extended periods. New endodontic sealers have been developed in the past decade, but the biological responses to many new products are not well documented. In this study, we assessed in vitro monocytic cytotoxic and inflammatory responses to several contemporary endodontic sealers. AH-Plus (AH), Pulp Canal Sealer (PC), Epiphany (EPH), Endo-Rez (ER), and an experimental Endo-Rez (ERx) were initially placed in buffered-saline for 12 weeks to simulate in vivo use. After "aging," specimens were placed in direct contact with THP1 monocytes for 72 h and their cytotoxicity (mitochondrial response; MTT) or ability to trigger or suppress cytokine secretion (ELISA; TNFalpha, IL1beta, IL=6; +/- lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure) were measured relative to Teflon (Tf) negative controls. Cellular responses among conditions were compared with ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc analysis (alpha = 0.05). Two of the five sealers, EPH and PC, still suppressed cell mitochondrial activity by 70% or more after 12 weeks of conditioning in saline. No sealer alone activated monocytic TNFalpha, IL1beta, or IL6 secretion (p > 0.05 vs. +LPS controls). When THP1 were activated by LPS after exposure to the sealers, differential suppression of TNFalpha, IL1beta, and IL6 secretion was observed for two of the five sealers tested. (EPH and PC) This data suggest that common endodontic sealers do not activate monocytic TNFalpha, IL1beta, and IL6 secretion in vitro by themselves, but degradation products of the sealers may suppress activation of monocytes.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 08/2009; 91(2):839-44. · 2.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of hyperglycemia, altered cell function, or inflammatory mediators on implant corrosion are not well studied; yet, these effects are critical to implant biocompatibility and osseointegration. Because implant placement is burgeoning, patients with medically compromising systemic conditions such as diabetes are increasingly receiving implants, and the role of other inflammatory diseases on implant corrosion also needs investigation. In the current study, the corrosion properties of commercially available, machined titanium implants were studied in blood, cultures of monocytic cells, and solutions containing elevated dextrose concentrations. Implant corrosion was estimated by open circuit potentials, linear polarization resistance, and electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) for 26 h. In selected samples, THP1 monocytic cells were activated for 2 h with Lipopolysaccharide prior to implant exposure, and IL-1beta secretion was measured to assess the affect of the implants on monocyte activation. Implants under conditions of inflammatory stress exhibited more negative E(corr) values, suggesting an increased potential for corrosion. Linear polarization measurements detected increased corrosion rates in the presence of elevated dextrose conditions over PBS conditions. EIS measurements suggested that implants underwent surface passivation reactions that may have limited corrosion over the short term of this test. This result was supported by cyclic polarization tests. IL-1beta secretion was not altered under conditions of corrosion or implant exposure. The results suggest that inflammatory stress and hyperglycemia may increase the corrosion of dental endosseous titanium-based implants, but that longer, more aggressive electrochemical conditions may be necessary to fully assess these effects.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 07/2008; 88(2):474-81. · 2.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Alloys with high nickel content have been increasingly used for dental prostheses. These alloys have excellent hardness, elastic modulus, and strength, yet have high corrosion rates when exposed to chemical or physical forces that are common intraorally. The purpose of the current study was to measure the susceptibility of several types of nickel-based alloys to brushing abrasion relative to gold- and palladium-based alloys. Au-Pt, Au-Pd, Pd-Ag, Ni-Cr, and Ni-Cr-Be dental alloys were brushed with a toothbrush (Oral-B Soft) and toothpaste (Ultrabrite) in a linear brushing machine, then the surface roughness was measured by profilometry (R(a), R(v), R(p)). Specimens (n=4) were brushed for 48 hours in a saline solution (pH 7). The effect of brushing was determined using 2-sided t tests (alpha=.05), and roughness among alloys postbrushing was compared using 1-way ANOVA with Tukey post hoc analyses (alpha=.05). All polished alloy surfaces (before brushing) had roughnesses of <or=0.1 microm (R(a)). The Pd-Ag alloy was the most resistant to brushing. The Ni-Cr-Be alloy abraded the most, with a postbrushing surface roughness of >1 microm (R(a)). Ni-Cr alloys without Be had a postbrushing surface roughness of 0.25 microm (R(a)). Postbrushing roughness of all other alloys ranged from 0.1-0.25 microm (R(a)). R(v) and R(p) values behaved similarly to R(a) values for all alloys. Although they have many excellent mechanical properties, Ni-Cr-Be alloys may be prone to degradation from brushing.
    Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry 06/2008; 99(6):455-60. · 1.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nickel-containing alloys are used in dentistry because of their low cost, but poor corrosion behavior increases their risk of causing adverse biological responses. Intraorally, nickel-containing alloys accumulate bacterial plaque that triggers periodontal inflammation via toxins such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Recent evidence suggests that in monocytes, Ni(II) amplifies LPS-induced secretion of several cytokines that mediate periodontal destruction. Thus, we investigated the effects of Ni(II), with or without LPS, on the secretion of a broader array of cytokines from monocytes. We then measured monocytic expression of two proteins, Nrf2 and thioredoxin-1 (Trx1), that influence the regulation of cytokine secretion. Cytokine arrays were used to measure the effects of 0-50 microM Ni(II) on cytokine secretion from human THP1 monocytes, with or without LPS activation. Immunoblots were used to estimate Nrf2 and Trx1 levels. Our results indicate that both Ni(II) alone and Ni(II) with LPS have broad-based effects on cytokine secretion. Ni(II) increased Nrf2 levels by threefold, and LPS amplified the effects of Ni(II) by 10-fold. Trx1 levels did not change under any condition tested. Our results suggest that Ni(II)-induced changes in cytokine secretion by monocytes are diverse and may be influenced by Nrf2 but are not likely influenced by changes in whole-cell Trx1 levels.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B Applied Biomaterials 05/2008; 88(2):358-65. · 2.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The use of lithium disilicate dental ceramics is increasing in dentistry and previous reports have suggested that they may have greater biological risks than previously thought. We tested a hypothesis that composition and processing influence the biological properties of these ceramics. The cytotoxicity of two machined and three pressed lithium disilicate materials (n=6) were tested in vitro using mouse fibroblasts in direct contact with the materials for 72h. Cellular response was estimated by mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase activity (MTT method). Mitochondrial activity was expressed as a percentage of Teflon controls, then compared to Teflon using 2-sided t-tests (alpha=0.05). Polished materials were aged in artificial saliva and tested for cytotoxicity periodically over 6 weeks, then were repolished (320grit SiC paper), aged and tested again for 4 weeks. All materials significantly (50-70%) suppressed cellular mitochondrial activity in the initial week, but suppression decreased by 25-30% over the next 2 weeks. In weeks 4 and 6 some materials exhibited a cytotoxic 'relapse' of 10-20%. The cytotoxic response was no different for machined or pressed materials, but the presence of ZnO had at least an association with longer-term cytotoxicity and relapse. Repolishing to 320grit did not increase cytotoxicity significantly. Our results suggest that lithium disilicates are not biologically inert, and that many have a similar cytotoxicity dynamic regardless of small differences in composition or processing.
    Dental Materials 05/2008; 24(4):450-6. · 3.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ObjectivesHuman blood levels of mercury are commonly 10 nM, but may transiently reach 50–75 nM after dental amalgam placement or removal. Controversy persists about the use of mercury because the effects of these ‘trace’ levels of mercury are not clear. Concentrations of mercury ≥5000 nM unequivocally alter redox balance in blood cells including monocytes. In the current study, we tested a hypothesis that concentrations of mercury <100 nM altered levels and activities of key proteins that maintain monocytic redox balance.MethodsHuman THP1 monocytes were exposed to 10–75 nM of Hg(II) for 6–72 h, with or without activation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The redox management proteins Nrf2 and thioredoxin-1 (Trx1) were separated by electrophoresis, then quantified by immunoblotting. The activity of the seleno-enzyme thioredoxin reductase (TrxR1), important in maintaining Trx1 redox balance, was measured by cell-free and cell-dependent assays.ResultsConcentrations of Hg(II) between 10–75 nM increased Nrf2 levels (3.5–4.5 fold) and decreased Trx1 levels (2–3 fold), but these changes persisted <24 h. Hg(II) potently inhibited (at concentrations of 5–50 nM) TrxR1 activity in both cell-free and intracellular assays. Furthermore, Hg(II) transiently amplified LPS-induced Nrf2 levels by 2–3 fold and limited LPS-induced decreases in Trx1. All effects of Hg(II) were mitigated by pre-adding N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) or sodium selenide (Na2SeO3), supplements of cellular thiols and selenols, respectively.SignificanceOur results suggest that nanomolar concentrations of Hg(II) transiently alter cellular redox balance in monocytes that trigger changes in Nrf2 and Trx1 levels. These changes indicate that monocytes have a capacity to adapt to trace concentrations of Hg(II) that are introduced into the bloodstream after dental amalgam procedures or fish consumption. The ability of monocytes to adapt suggests that low levels of mercury exposure from dental amalgam may not overtly compromise monocyte function.
    Dental Materials 01/2008; · 3.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Angioplasty with stent placement is commonly used to treat coronary atherosclerosis. However, 20-40% of stainless steel stents restenose within 6 months via a prolonged inflammatory response mediated by monocytic infiltration and cytokine secretion. In the current study, we tested a hypothesis that blood flow and monocytes interact to alter stent corrosion. We assessed the effects of THP1 monocytes on the corrosion rate of 316L stainless steel (316LSS) under shear stress (0.5-50 dyn/cm(2)). In addition, THP1 cytokine secretion was determined using cytokine arrays and ELISA analyses. Data were compared using ANOVA and Tukey post hoc analysis (alpha = 0.05). Monocytes significantly lowered 316LSS corrosion rates without limiting current density. However, shear stress alone did not alter the corrosion rate of 316LSS. THP1 cells adhered to the 316LSS surface at all flow rates. Exposure to the 316LSS/corrosion test under high fluid flow rates increased (>twofold) the secretion of 7 of the 42 cytokines tested (angeogenin, GRO, I309, interleukin 8, interleukin 6, interleukin 1beta, and macrophage chemoattractant protein-1). Each of these cytokines play a role in wound healing, macrophage differentiation, and cell proliferation, all hallmarks of in-stent restenosis. Furthermore, only IL8 levels were significantly higher than any of the system controls during the 316LSS/corrosion test conditions. The IL8 levels from the 316LSS/corrosion tests were not significantly different from the +LPS control. Together, these data suggest that monocytic cells maybe activated by exposure to 316LSS stents and could contribute to in-stent restenosis and altered corrosion of the stent.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A 12/2007; 87(1):229-35. · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nickel is a component of biomedical alloys that is released during corrosion and causes inflammation in tissues by as yet unknown mechanisms. Recent data show that Ni(II) at concentrations of 10-50 microM amplifies lipopolysaccharide-triggered, NFkappaB-mediated cytokine secretion from monocytes. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that Ni(II) amplifies cytokine secretion by activating the Nrf2 antioxidant pathway rather than by enhancing activity of the NFkappaB signaling pathway. Human THP1 monocytes were exposed to Ni(II) concentrations of 10-30 microM for 6-72 h, then immunoblots of whole-cell lysates or cytosolic and nuclear proteins were used to detect changes in Nrf2 or NFkappaB signaling. Our results show that Ni(II) increased (by 1-2 fold) whole-cell Nrf2 levels and nuclear translocation of Nrf2, and amplified lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induction of Nrf2 (by 3-5 fold), but had no detectable effect on the initial activation or nuclear translocation of NFkappaB. Because Nrf2 target gene products are known regulators of NFkappaB nuclear activity, our results suggest that Ni(II) may affect cytokine secretion indirectly via modulation of the Nrf2 pathway.
    Biomaterials 12/2006; 27(31):5348-56. · 8.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A goal of treatment in periodontal therapy is to regenerate a new fibroblastic attachment rather than to repair lost attachment with a long junctional epithelium. To date, there is no evidence that fibroblastic attachment formed during regeneration is stronger or less susceptible to periodontal breakdown than a long junctional epithelial attachment. We measured the rate and strength of attachment of epithelial cells (NHEK) and periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PDLF) cultured individually and cocultured to dentin surfaces to determine which cell type has a faster attachment rate and greater adhesive strength to human dentin, and whether the cell types attach independently. Longitudinal dentin slices were seeded with either PDLF or NHEK for 2 or 24 h. The specimens were placed into a parallel plate flow chamber and defined laminar shear stresses were applied. Shear stress was created by step increases in fluid flow rate. Effluent fluid was collected and cell numbers (detached) were counted using a hemocytometer. Cocultures of PDLF and NHEK at three seeding ratios (10:1, 1:1, 1:10) were also tested. Each cell type attached equally well to polystyrene or dentin. PDLF showed a stronger attachment to polystyrene and dentin at 24 versus 2 h. NHEK attached to polystyrene or dentin equally well at 2 and 24 h. NHEK were more strongly attached after 2 h when compared to PDLF. PDLF were more strongly attached after 24 h versus NHEK. When NHEK and PDLF were seeded together on dentin at a 1:1 ratio, PDLF appeared to be more strongly attached than NHEK at 2 but not 24 h. At a ratio of 10 PDLF:1 NHEK, PDLF appeared to be more strongly attached at 2 and 24 h. At a ratio of 1 PDLF:10 NHEK, NHEK appeared to be more strongly attached at 2 h, but PDLF showed a trend of stronger attachment at 24 h. We conclude that epithelial cells attach more quickly to dentin surfaces than PDLF, but do not demonstrate increased attachment strength over time (PDLF do show increased attachment strength overtime). The purported advantages of periodontal regeneration over periodontal repair are supported by our results. Furthermore, our results support the concept of guided tissue regeneration. On the basis of on cellular competition experiments, epithelial cells and PDLF do not act independently, because epithelial cells enhanced the attachment rate of PDLF.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A 11/2006; 79(1):16-22. · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) reduces thioredoxin (Trx), thereby contributing to cellular redox balance, facilitating the synthesis of deoxy-ribose sugars for DNA synthesis, and regulating redox-sensitive gene expression. Auranofin is a gold compound that potently inhibits TrxR. This inhibition is one suspected mechanism of auranofin's therapeutic benefit in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. The use of other gold compounds to treat cancer or inflammatory disease may rely on their ability to inhibit TrxR. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that a variety of gold compounds may inhibit TrxR. We exposed rat-TrxR1 to auranofin, gold sodium thiomalate, sodium aurothiosulfate, triphenyl phosphine gold chloride, or gold acetate, and measured TrxR activity ex vivo. We then compared TrxR1 inhibitory levels of gold compounds to those that inhibited mitochondrial activity of THP1 monocytes and OSC2 epithelial cells, estimated by succinate dehydrogenase activity. All gold compounds inhibited TrxR1 at concentrations ranging from 5 to 4000 nM (50% inhibitory concentration). The oxidation state of gold did not correlate with inhibitory potency, but ligand configuration was important. Au(I)-phosphine compounds (triphenyl phosphine gold chloride and auranofin) were the most potent inhibitors of TrxR. All TrxR1 inhibitory concentrations were sublethal to mitochondrial activity in both THP1 and OSC2 cells. Diverse types of gold compounds may be effective inhibitors of TrxR1 at concentrations that do not suppress cellular mitochondrial function. Inhibition may be optimized to some degree by altering the ligand configuration of the compounds. These results support future study of a variety of Au compounds for therapeutic development as inhibitors of TrxR1.
    Toxicology in Vitro 10/2006; 20(6):882-90. · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The toxicity of anti-rheumatic gold compounds has limited their use and development, yet both the toxicological and therapeutic actions of these compounds remain unclear. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by Au(I) or Au(III) compounds mediate their ability to suppress mitochondrial activity. Human THP1 monocytes were exposed to HAuCl(4) x 3H(2)O (Au(III)), or the anti-rheumatic compounds auranofin (AF) or gold sodium thiomalate (GSTM) for 6-72 h, after which mitochondrial activity (succinate dehydrogenase) was measured. To assess the role of cellular redox status as a mediator of mitochondrial suppression, monocytes were pre-treated with a pro-oxidant (t-butyl hydroquinone, t-BHQ) or antioxidant (N-acetyl cysteine, NAC ). ROS levels were measured 0-24h post-gold addition to determine their role as mediators of mitochondrial activity suppression. AF was the most potent inhibitor of mitochondrial activity, followed by Au(III) and GSTM. Only Au(III) induced intracellular ROS; no ROS formation was observed in response to AF or GSTM exposure. Although anti- and pro-oxidants had some effects on mitochondrial suppression of Au compounds, collectively the data do not support redox effects or ROS formation as major mediators of Au-compound mitochondrial suppression. Our results do not indicate that ROS and redox effects play major roles in mediating the cytotoxicity of AF, GSTM or Au(III).
    Toxicology in Vitro 09/2006; 20(5):625-33. · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The current study tested the hypothesis that the extracellular environment mediates mitochondrial suppression of oral epithelial cells and fibroblasts by blue light. We exposed Balb fibroblasts (Balb), normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK), and oral squamous carcinoma cells (OSC2) to blue light (30-120J/cm2) in different cell-culture media and in phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Mitochondrial activity (MTT method) was used to assess cellular response 72 h post-light exposure. Cell-culture media were replaced or supplemented before or after light exposure to assess the variables of exposure time and medium degradation as mediators of blue light-induced effects. Mitochondrial activity of NHEK was not suppressed by exposure to blue light regardless of extracellular conditions. The mitochondrial activity of OSC2 and Balb cells was suppressed most when cells were exposed to light in cell-culture medium (versus PBS). Blue light suppressed mitochondrial activity more when irradiated medium remained in contact with the cells at least 1h, indicating a time-dependence of the medium effects. Neither a replacement nor a supplementation of medium components reduced blue light-induced mitochondrial suppression. Our results suggest that tissue environments influence cellular responses to blue light and that these environments should be considered when assessing any biological effects of blue light during the photopolymerization of restorative resins.
    Dental Materials 09/2006; 22(8):759-64. · 3.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to measure the time-sequence response of RNA and protein synthesis to transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) by human periodontal ligament (HPDLF) and gingival (HGF) fibroblasts in culture. HPDLF and HGF were cultured from explants of healthy gingival tissue and freshly extracted teeth. Cultures of 8×104 cells/ml were exposed to medium containing 3H-uridine and 35S-methionine with TGF-β1 at concentrations from 10-9 M to 10-21 M, or control medium, for up to 60 hours in order to assess RNA and protein synthesis. Protein concentrations of comparable cultures were also assayed colorimetrically. Results were reported as specific activity (CPM/μMg protein). The results indicate that 10-9 M TGF-β1 treated cultures showed a significant increase in RNA synthesis by HPDLF and HGF over time, as compared to the control cultures. HPDLF showed a significant increase in protein synthesis over time while that by HGF was not significant as compared to the control cultures. Lower concentrations of TGF-β1 demonstraled no significant differences from control. Results suggest that the effects of TGF-β1 on HPDLF and HGF are both time and dose dependent, with 10-9 M TGF-β1 providing the best response of those concentrations tested. These findings support the concept that TGF-β1 may play a role in periodontal regeneration due to its ability to promote fibroblast RNA and protein synthesis. The results also demonstrate that although these two cells types appear morphologically similar, they exhibit distinct biological responses to growth factors such as TGF-β1.
    Journal Of Clinical Periodontology 12/2005; 22(9):679 - 685. · 3.69 Impact Factor