Yoshitaka Tomigahara

Sumitomo Chemical, Tumasik, Singapore

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Publications (31)96.56 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: XLGα(olf) is an extra large transcriptional variant of the heterotrimeric G protein, Gα(olf), which we previously reported to be localized in the Golgi apparatus and interacted with Rab3A and Rab8A through its N-terminal region. However, many physiological functions of XLGα(olf) remain to be elucidated. In this study, performance of yeast two-hybrid screening with XLGα(olf) allowed isolation of COP9 signalosome subunit 5 (CSN5), known to regulate the p27(Kip1) protein level through a proteasome dependent pathway. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments followed by Western blotting also showed association of CSN5 with XLGα(olf) linked to down-regulation of p27(Kip1). Gene silencing of endogenous CSN5 by siRNA attenuated the XLGα(olf)-mediated down-regulation, which was also demonstrated to require CDK2. Both knock down of CDK2 and the treatment with a CDK2 inhibitor reversed the reduction of p27(Kip1) due to XLGα(olf). Our findings provide important clues to understanding physiological functions of XLGα(olf).
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 11/2011; 416(3-4):385-90. · 2.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is considered to be a major factor contributing to liver fibrosis. We have previously shown that nuclear translocation of YB-1 antagonizes the TGF-β/Smad3 signaling in regulating collagen gene expression. More recently, we have demonstrated that the novel small compound HSc025 promotes nuclear translocation of YB-1, resulting in the improvement of skin and pulmonary fibrosis. Here, we presented evidence as to the mechanism by which HSc025 stimulates nuclear translocation of YB-1 and the pharmacological effects of HSc025 on a murine model of hepatic fibrosis. A proteomics approach and binding assays using HSc025-immobilized resin showed that HSc025 binds to the amino acid sequence within the C-tail region of YB-1. In addition, immunoprecipitation experiments and glutathione S-transferase pulldown assays identified poly(A)-binding protein (PABP) as one of the cytoplasmic anchor proteins of YB-1. HSc025 directly binds to YB-1 and interrupts its interaction with PABP, resulting in accelerated nuclear translocation of YB-1. Transfection of cells with PABP siRNA promoted nuclear translocation of YB-1 and subsequently inhibited basal and TGF-β-stimulated collagen gene expression. Moreover, HSc025 significantly suppressed collagen gene expression in cultured activated hepatic stellate cells. Oral administration of HSc025 to mice with carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic fibrosis improved liver injury as well as the degree of hepatic fibrosis. Altogether, the results provide a novel insight into therapy for organ fibrosis using YB-1 modulators.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 02/2011; 286(6):4485-92. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats received repeated oral administration of 14C-2,6-dichloro-4-(3,3-dichloroallyloxy)phenyl 3- [5-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridyloxy]propyl ether (14C-pyridalyl) at 5 mg/kg/day for 14 consecutive days, and 14C excretion, 14C concentration in tissues, and the metabolic fate were determined. Most 14C was excreted into feces. The 14C concentrations in the blood and tissues attained steady-state levels at days 6 to 10, whereas those in white adipose tissues increased until day 14. Tissue 14C concentrations were highest in brown and white adipose tissue (38.37-57.50 ppm) but were 5.60 ppm or less in all the other tissues. Total 14C residues in blood and tissues on the 27th day after the first administration accounted for 2.6 to 3.2% of the total dose. A major fecal metabolite resulted from O-dealkylation. Analysis of metabolites in tissues revealed that the majority of 14C in perirenal adipose tissue and lungs was pyridalyl, accounting for greater than 90 and 60%, respectively, of the total, whereas a major metabolite in whole blood, kidneys, and liver was a dehalogenated metabolite. The experimental data were simulated with simple physiologically based pharmacokinetics using four-compartment models with assumption of lymphatic absorption and membrane permeability in adipose tissues. The different kinetics in brown and white adipose tissues was reasonably predicted in this model, with large distribution volume in adipose tissues and high hepatic clearance in liver. Sex-related difference of pyridalyl concentration in liver was considered to be a result of different unbound fraction times the hepatic intrinsic clearance (f x CL(int)) of 1.8 and 12 l/h for male and female, respectively.
    Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals 02/2010; 38(5):824-32. · 3.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 100 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a “Full Text” option. The original article is trackable via the “References” option.
    ChemInform 01/2010; 41(20).
  • Hirohisa Nagahori, Yoshitaka Tomigahara, Naohiko Isobe, Hideo Kaneko
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    ABSTRACT: Metabolism of pyridalyl [2,6-dichloro-4-(3,3-dichloroallyloxy)phenyl 3-[5-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridyloxy]propyl ether] labeled at position 2 of the dichloropropenyl group with 14C was investigated after single oral administration to male and female rats at 5 and 500 mg/kg. Absorbed 14C was excreted into feces (68-79%), urine (8-14%), and expired air (6-10%) in all of the groups. Regarding 14C-tissue residues on the seventh day after administration, fat showed the highest levels at 0.98-2.34 ppm and 219-221 ppm with the low and high doses, respectively. 14C-Residues in other tissues accounted for 0.03-0.32 ppm at the low dose and 3-70 ppm at the high dose. The percentages of the 14C-residue in fat were 1.50-3.16% of the dose, and those of muscle and hair and skin were also relatively high, accounting for 0.49-1.20%. Total 14C-residues in the whole body were 2.95-6.80% of the dose. Fecal metabolites in male rats treated with 500 mg/kg pyridalyl were purified by a combination of chromatographic techniques, and chemical structures of 8 metabolites were identified by NMR and MS spectrometry. The biotransformation reactions in rats were proposed to be as follows: (1) epoxidation of the double bond in the dichloropropenyl group followed by hydration, dehydrochlorination, decarboxylation, and/or mercapturic acid conjugation; (2) CO2 formation after O-dealkylation of pyridalyl and its metabolites; (3) hydroxylation of C3 in the pyridyl ring; (4) O-dealkylation of the pyridyloxy and the trimethylene groups; (5) dehydrochlorination and hydration in the dichloropropenyl group.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 11/2009; 57(22):10845-51. · 2.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tissue fibrosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in systemic sclerosis (SSc), and an increasing number of promising molecular targets for antifibrotic therapies have been described recently. Transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) is well known to be the principal factor that leads to tissue fibrosis. The present study was undertaken to investigate the ability of HSc025, a novel small compound that antagonizes TGFbeta/Smad signaling through the activation of nuclear translocation of Y-box binding protein 1, to prevent tissue fibrosis in vitro or in mouse models of SSc. Human dermal fibroblasts were exposed to HSc025 at various concentrations in the presence of TGFbeta, and levels of collagen or fibronectin expression were determined. HSc025 (15 mg/kg/day for 14 days) was administered orally to tight skin mice and to mice with bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Improvement of tissue fibrosis was evaluated by histologic or biochemical examination in each model. Pretreatment with HSc025 prevented Smad-dependent promoter activation, in a dose-dependent manner; however, HSc025 had no effect on TGFbeta-induced phosphorylation of Smad3. The inhibitory effects of HSc025 on TGFbeta-induced collagen or fibronectin expression were also confirmed in vitro. Orally administered HSc025 significantly reduced hypodermal thickness and hydroxyproline content in tight skin mice, and markedly decreased the histologic score and hydroxyproline content in the lungs of bleomycin-treated mice. These results demonstrate that HSc025 is a novel inhibitor of TGFbeta/Smad signaling, resulting in the improvement of skin and pulmonary fibrosis. Orally available HSc025 might therefore be useful in the treatment of SSc.
    Arthritis & Rheumatology 11/2009; 60(11):3465-75. · 7.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The synthesis and SAR studies of 3- and 4-substituted 7-hydroxycoumarins as novel 17beta-HSD3 inhibitors are discussed. The most potent compounds from this series exhibited low nanomolar inhibitory activity with acceptable selectivity versus other 17beta-HSD isoenzymes and nuclear receptors.
    Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters 11/2009; 20(1):272-5. · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PCM-CH2OH [N-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-1-hydroxymethyl-2-methylcyclopropane-1,2-dicarboximide] and PA-CH2OH [2-carboxyl-N-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-1-hydroxymethyl-2-methylcyclopropane-1-carboxamide] are metabolites of the fungicide procymidone [N-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-1,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1,2-dicarboximide] in rat. The distribution and metabolism of PCM-CH2OH and PA-CH2OH were here clarified by analyzing plasma and tissues (liver, kidney, heart, lung, spleen and ovary) of female rats after single subcutaneous administration of [phenyl-14C]PCM-CH2OH and [phenyl-14C]PA-CH2OH at 62.5 mg/kg, respectively. In both rats dosed with PCM-CH2OH and PA-CH2OH, the radioactivity was similarly distributed into plasma and tissues, and PA-CH2OH was detected as the main metabolite in plasma, whereas PCM-CH2OH predominated in tissues except for kidney at 1 h after administration of PA-CH2OH. Furthermore, the cyclization ratio [PCM-CH2OH/(PCM-CH2OH+PA-CH2OH)] increased in tissues of PA-CH2OH dosed rats with passage of time. Both procymidone and PCM-CH2OH have convertible conformations (closed and open ring forms), so influence of pH conditions to their conversion was examined. Both compounds demonstrated closed rings under acidic conditions, and open rings under alkaline conditions. Generally, intracellar pH is kept at approximately neutral, and extracellular pH is kept at 0.6-0.7 units higher in all the animal species, so that our in vitro results supported in vivo findings.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 10/2009; 57(22):10883-8. · 2.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Metabolism of pyridalyl [2,6-dichloro-4-(3,3-dichloroallyloxy)phenyl 3-[5-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridyloxy]propyl ether] was examined in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. After a single oral administration of [dichlorophenyl-(14)C]pyridalyl at 5 or 500 mg/kg, the (14)C concentration in blood reached maxima at 2 to 10 h and then decreased rapidly with a biological half-life of approximately 11 to 12 h. (14)C concentrations in liver, fat, adrenal gland, and spleen were relatively high at a low dose, reaching 2.3 to 2.7, 1.9 to 2.3, 1.1 to 1.9, and 1.4 ppm, respectively, in these tissues at 2 to 24 h after administration. Although (14)C elimination from fat and hair and skin was relatively slow compared with that from other tissues, the total residue on the 7th day was low, in the range of 1.3 to 2.3% of the dose. The (14)C distribution in tissues with a high dose, as examined by whole-body autoradiography, was similar to that observed for the low dose. Results revealed that more than 88% of the dosed radiocarbon was excreted within 1 day after administration, with cumulative (14)C excretion into urine and feces 7 days after administration of 1.7 to 2.6 and 98.7 to 101.7%, respectively. One urinary and fecal major metabolite (resulting from O-dealkylation) and two minor metabolites were identified by NMR and mass spectrometry. Residual (14)C in fat was extracted, and analysis by thin-layer chromatography showed it to be due to pyridalyl itself. No marked sex-related differences were observed in (14)C elimination, (14)C distribution, and metabolites.
    Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals 09/2009; 37(12):2284-9. · 3.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: High doses of Metofluthrin (MTF) have been shown to produce liver tumours in rats by a mode of action (MOA) involving activation of the constitutive androstane receptor leading to liver hypertrophy, induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP) forms and increased cell proliferation. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of MTF with those of the known rodent liver tumour promoter phenobarbital (PB) on the induction CYP2B forms and replicative DNA synthesis in cultured rat and human hepatocytes. Treatment with 50 microM MTF and 50 microM PB for 72 h increased CYP2B1 mRNA levels in male Wistar rat hepatocytes and CYP2B6 mRNA levels in human hepatocytes. Replicative DNA synthesis was determined by incorporation of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine over the last 24 h of a 48 h treatment period. Treatment with 10-1000 microM MTF and 100-500 microM PB resulted in significant increases in replicative DNA synthesis in rat hepatocytes. While replicative DNA synthesis was increased in human hepatocytes treated with 5-50 ng/ml epidermal growth factor or 5-100 ng/ml hepatocyte growth factor, treatment with MTF and PB had no effect. These results demonstrate that while both MTF and PB induce CYP2B forms in both species, MTF and PB only induced replicative DNA synthesis in rat and not in human hepatocytes. These results provide further evidence that the MOA for MTF-induced rat liver tumour formation is similar to that of PB and some other non-genotoxic CYP2B form inducers and that the key event of increased cell proliferation would not occur in human liver.
    Toxicology 05/2009; 258(1):64-9. · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The metabolism of flufenpyr-ethyl [ethyl 2-chloro-5-[1,6-dihydro-5-methyl-6-oxo-4-(trifluoromethyl)pyridazin-1-yl]-4-fluorophenoxyacetate] was examined in rats and mice. [Phenyl-(14)C]flufenpyr-ethyl was administered to rats and mice as a single oral dose at a level of 500 mg/kg, and (14)C-excretion was examined. Total (14)C-recoveries within 7 days after administration were 93.2 to 97.5% (feces, 42.0 to 46.0%; and urine, 47.2 to 55.5%) in rats and 92.6 to 96.4% (feces, 26.7 to 32.7%; and urine, 59.9 to 69.7%) in mice. (14)C-Excretion into expired air was not detected in rats (expired air of mice was not analyzed). No marked species- or sex-related differences were observed in the rate of (14)C-elimination, but a relatively higher excretion into the urine of mice was observed compared to that in rats. (14)C-residues in tissue 7 days after administration were relatively high for liver, hair, skin, and kidney, but total (14)C-residues were low, below 0.2% of the dose. An ester cleaved metabolite (S-3153acid) was the major metabolite in feces and urine. Hydroxylation of the methyl group on the C5 of the pyridazine ring and ether cleavage were also observed. No sex-related differences were observed in (14)C-elimination, (14)C-distribution, and metabolite profiles, and metabolism of flufenpyr-ethyl in rats and mice was similar. In vitro metabolism of flufenpyr-ethyl was examined using stomach and intestinal contents and blood and liver S9 fractions (postmitochondrial supernatant fractions) in rats. S-3153acid was detected as a major metabolite in the presence of intestinal contents and blood and liver S9 fractions, and a small amount was also formed in the presence of stomach contents, indicating that the parent compound is rapidly metabolized by intestinal contents and blood and liver S9 fractions through ester cleavage.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 05/2009; 57(11):4872-7. · 2.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To verify whether anti-androgens cause transgenerational effects on spermatogenesis and DNA methylation in rats, gravid Crl:CD(SD) female rats (4 or 5/group, gestational day (GD) 0=day sperm detected) were intraperitoneally treated with anti-androgenic compounds, such as vinclozolin (100 mg/kg/day), procymidone (100 mg/kg/day), or flutamide (10 mg/kg/day), from GD 8 to GD 15. Testes were collected from F1 male pups at postnatal day (PND) 6 for DNA methylation analysis of the region (210 bp including 7 CpG sites) within the lysophospholipase gene by bisulfite DNA sequencing method. F0 and F1 males underwent the sperm analysis (count, motility and morphology), followed by DNA methylation analysis of the sperm. Remaining F1 males were cohabited with untreated-females to obtain F2 male pups for subsequent DNA methylation analysis of the testes at PND 6. These analyses showed no effects on spermatogenesis and fertility in F1 males of any treatment group. DNA methylation status in testes (F1 and F2 pups at PND 6) or sperms (F1 males at 13 weeks old) of the treatment groups were comparable to the control at all observation points, although DNA methylation rates in testes were slightly lower than those in sperm. In F0 males, no abnormalities in the spermatogenesis, fertility and DNA methylation status of sperm were observed. No transgenerational abnormalities of spermatogenesis and DNA methylation status caused by anti-androgenic compounds were observed.
    Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 04/2009; 237(2):178-87. · 3.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Two-year treatment with high doses of Metofluthrin produced hepatocellular tumors in both sexes of Wistar rats. To understand the mode of action (MOA) by which the tumors are produced, a series of studies examined the effects of Metofluthrin on hepatic microsomal cytochrome P450 (CYP) content, hepatocellular proliferation, hepatic gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC), oxidative stress and apoptosis was conducted after one or two weeks of treatment. The global gene expression profile indicated that most genes with upregulated expression with Metofluthrin were metabolic enzymes that were also upregulated with phenobarbital. Metofluthrin induced CYP2B and increased liver weights associated with centrilobular hepatocyte hypertrophy (increased smooth endoplasmic reticulum [SER]), and induction of increased hepatocellular DNA replication. CYP2B1 mRNA induction by Metofluthrin was not observed in CAR knockdown rat hepatocytes using the RNA interference technique, demonstrating that Metofluthrin induces CYP2B1 through CAR activation. Metofluthrin also suppressed hepatic GJIC and induced oxidative stress and increased antioxidant enzymes, but showed no alteration in apoptosis. The above parameters related to the key events in Metofluthrin-induced liver tumors were observed at or below tumorigenic dose levels. All of these effects were reversible upon cessation of treatment. Metofluthrin did not cause cytotoxicity or peroxisome proliferation. Thus, it is highly likely that the MOA for Metofluthrin-induced liver tumors in rats is through CYP induction and increased hepatocyte proliferation, similar to that seen for phenobarbital. Based on analysis with the International Life Sciences Institute/Risk Science Institute MOA framework, it is reasonable to conclude that Metofluthrin will not have any hepatocarcinogenic activity in humans, at least at expected levels of exposure.
    Toxicological Sciences 02/2009; 108(1):69-80. · 4.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In order to clarify the effects of ALDH2 polymorphism on the carcinogenicity and organ damage caused by ethanol consumption, labeled ethanol was administered to wild-type (C57BL/6, Aldh2+/+) and Aldh2 knock-out (Aldh2-/-) mice, and DNA adduct levels of organs were compared according to Aldh2 genotype. Aldh2-/- mice, which have the same genetic background as C57BL/6 mice except in the Aldh2 gene, were used as a model of lack of ALDH2 activity in humans. The DNA adduct levels in liver, stomach, and kidney and radioactivity in liver, stomach, kidney, and serum were measured by liquid scintillation counting 6, 12, and 24h after administration. Though radioactivity levels in all organs decreased over time, there were no significant differences in radioactivity between Aldh2+/+ and Aldh2-/- mice. On the other hand, the DNA radioactivity in each organ tested differed significantly between Aldh2+/+ and Aldh2-/- mice 24h after administration. These findings show that ethanol consumption affects DNA in Aldh2-/- mice much more strongly than in Aldh2+/+ mice. According to the IARC document, ethanol consumption is carcinogenic to humans (Group 1). Moreover, several studies have shown that ALDH2-deficient humans who habitually consume ethanol have higher rates of cancer than humans with ALDH2. Our results support these findings of epidemiological studies.
    Toxicology Letters 02/2007; 168(2):148-54. · 3.15 Impact Factor
  • Yoshitaka Tomigahara, Naohiko Isobe, Hideo Kaneko, Iwao Nakatsuka
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    ABSTRACT: Rats were orally dosed with a 1:1 diastereomixture of N-[(R)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)ethyl]-2-cyano-3,3-dimethylbutanamide (Delaus, S-2900) and N-[(S)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)ethyl]-2-cyano-3,3-dimethylbutanamide (S-2900S), both labeled with 14C, at 200 mg/kg/day for 5 consecutive days, and 16 metabolites in urine and feces were purified by a combination of several chromatographic techniques. The chemical structures of all isolated metabolites were identified by spectroanalyses (NMR and MS). Several of them were unique decyanated and/or cyclic compounds (lactone, imide, cyclic amide, cyclic imino ether forms). Major biotransformation reactions of the mixture of S-2900 and S-2900S in rats are proposed on the basis of the metabolites identified in this study.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 07/2006; 54(12):4333-42. · 2.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rats were orally given a diethofencarb (isopropyl 3,4-diethoxyphenylcarbamate) labeled with (14)C, at 300 mg/kg/day, for 4 consecutive days, and 11 metabolites in urine were purified by a combination of several chromatographic techniques. The chemical structures of all isolated metabolites were identified by spectroanalyses (NMR and MS). Ten of them were newly identified forms. Five of them were S-conjugates: three mercapturic acid conjugates, one S-methyl conjugate, and one SO-methyl conjugate. The others were two phenoxyacetic acids, hydroxyacetanilide, hydroxyisopropyl carbamate, and oxazolinone derivatives. From the results, the existence of the following reactions in rats can be concluded: (1) deethylation of the 4-ethoxy group; (2) conjugation of phenols with glutathione, gamma-glutamyltranspeptidation and depeptidation of the glutathione to form cysteine conjugates, and N-acetylation of the cysteine; (3) cleavage of the C-S linkage of cysteine conjugates followed by methylation; (4) oxidation of the S-methyl group; (5) cleavage of the carbamate linkage; (6) acetylation of the resultant amino group; (7) oxidation of the acetyl group; (8) oxidation of the isopropyl group; (9) cyclization of the oxidized isopropyl carbamate group; and (10) oxidation of the 4-ethoxy group.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 03/2004; 52(3):538-44. · 2.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The influence of sex (anti)hormones on expression of alpha(2u)-globulin (a2uG) is complex and has not been sufficiently detailed. In order to assess the specificity of sex (anti)hormone action on a2uG expression and the utility of this approach as a sensitive screening method, mature male rats were given daily intraperitoneal injections of 17beta-estradiol (E2), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), tamoxifen (TX) and flutamide (FL) for 5 consecutive days. They were employed as representatives of estrogen, androgen, antiestrogen and antiandrogen categories, respectively. Urinary a2uG was specifically altered with E2 (1 microg/kg/day) and TX (50 mg/kg/day), but not by DHT (1 mg/kg/day) or FL (50 mg/kg/day). E2 and TX temporarily increased urinary a2uG on days 1 or 2, and days 2-4, respectively, followed by a return to the control level, and then a decrease with E2. The reduction in urinary a2uG on day 6 was more pronounced than the drop in serum a2uG. Serum hormone levels, and liver and testis weights were not remarkably altered with any treatment. Another strong xenoestrogen, diethylstilbestrol, also significantly reduced urinary and serum a2uG at 1 mg/kg/day on day 6. However, the other xenoestrogens (100 mg/kg/day of bisphenol A, nonylphenol, and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, and 10 mg/kg/day of dieldrin) and phytoestrogens (10 mg/kg/day of genistein and daidzein) were without any appreciable influence. The results indicate that urinary a2uG is a sensitive indicator of estrogen action in mature male rats, with two different responses, initial induction and subsequent reduction.
    Toxicology 06/2001; 162(2):73-80. · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Urinary and fecal metabolites in male rats treated with a (14)C-labeled fungicide, furametpyr [N-(1,3-dihydro-1,1, 3-trimethylisobenzofuran-4-yl)-5-chloro-1, 3-dimethylpyrazole-4-carboxamide, Limber], were purified by a combination of chromatographic techniques, and chemical structures of 14 metabolites were identified by spectroanalyses (NMR and MS). The major biotransformation reactions of furametpyr in rats were found to be (1) N-demethylation, (2) oxidation of the methyl group at C3 of the pyrazole ring, (3) oxidation of the methyl group at C1 of the 1,3-dihydroisobenzofuran ring, (4) hydroxylation at C3 of the 1,3-dihydroisobenzofuran ring, and (5) hydroxylation at C7 of the 1, 3-dihydroisobenzofuran ring. In vitro metabolism by recombinant human cytochrome P450 revealed that a major biotransformation in humans is N-demethylation, catalyzed by CYP1A1, 1A2, 2C19, and 3A4.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 12/2000; 48(11):5754-9. · 2.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 14C-Labeled furametpyr [N-(1,3-dihydro-1,1, 3-trimethylisobenzofuran-4-yl)-5-chloro-1, 3-dimethylpyrazole-4-carboxamide, Limber] was dosed to male and female rats at 1 (low dose) and 200 or 300 mg/kg (high dose). Elimination of furametpyr was rapid, and the dosed (14)C was substantially excreted within 7 days (45.5-53.3% in feces, 44.1-53. 8% in urine, and 0.01% in expired air). However, (14)C excretion rate showed sex- and dose-related differences, more rapid in males at low dose. (14)C concentrations in tissues decreased rapidly to generally low levels at 7 days (<0.004 ppm with the low dose and <1. 1 ppm with the high dose). Forty metabolites were detected, and 13 metabolites and 4 glucuronides were identified. A small amount of unchanged furametpyr was detected in feces (0.1-0.5% of the dose). The major metabolites in tissues were N-demethylated metabolites. In a bile study, 52.5-54.2% of the dosed (14)C was rapidly excreted into bile within 2 days. The absorption ratio was estimated to be >93.7% for the low dose (1 mg/kg). Major metabolites in bile were glucuronic acid conjugates of furametpyr hydroxides. On the basis of the results, furametpyr is substantially absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract after oral administration, rapidly distributed to tissues, extensively metabolized, and excreted into urine and bile or feces.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 11/2000; 48(11):5760-7. · 2.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Estrogenic and antiestrogenic activity of pyrethroid insecticides (d-trans-allethrin, cypermethrin, empenthrin, fenvalerate, imiprothrin, permethrin, d-phenothrin and prallethrin) was evaluated using a suite of three in vitro assays based on classic human estrogen receptor alpha (hER alpha)-mediated mechanisms. A mammalian cell-based luciferase reporter gene assay was developed for examining effects on hER alpha-mediated gene activation. hER alpha-independent effects on the gene activation were examined using control cells with constitutive luciferase activation by a herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) promoter for determining appropriate dose levels of test chemicals. Moreover, the test chemical-dependent interaction between hER alpha and a coactivator (transcriptional intermediary factor 2: TIF2) was analyzed by a yeast two-hybrid method, competitive binding to hER alpha being assayed by a fluorescence polarization method. Significant (p < 0.05) positive effects of estrogenic substances (E2/estradiol, diethylstilbestrol, and p-nonylphenol) were detected in all assays. An antiestrogen, 4-hydroxytamoxifen, significantly inhibited E2-mediated transactivation and interaction between hER alpha and TIF2 through hER alpha binding (p < 0.05). However, none of the pyrethroids tested showed significant (p < 0.05) estrogenic or antiestrogenic effects (100 nM-10 microM), indicating that they do not impact on the classic hER alpha-mediated activation pathway in vitro.
    Toxicological Sciences 09/2000; 57(1):54-60. · 4.33 Impact Factor