[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-regulated cation (HCN) channels generate the hyperpolarization-activated cation current Ih present in many neurons. These channels are directly regulated by the binding of cAMP, which both shifts the voltage dependence of HCN channel opening to more positive potentials and increases maximal Ih at extreme negative voltages where voltage gating is complete. Here we report that the HCN channel brain-specific auxiliary subunit TRIP8b produces opposing actions on these two effects of cAMP. In the first action, TRIP8b inhibits the effect of cAMP to shift voltage gating, decreasing both the sensitivity of the channel to cAMP (K1/2) and the efficacy of cAMP (maximal voltage shift); conversely, cAMP binding inhibits these actions of TRIP8b. These mutually antagonistic actions are well described by a cyclic allosteric mechanism in which TRIP8b binding reduces the affinity of the channel for cAMP, with the affinity of the open state for cAMP being reduced to a greater extent than the cAMP affinity of the closed state. In a second apparently independent action, TRIP8b enhances the action of cAMP to increase maximal Ih. This latter effect cannot be explained by the cyclic allosteric model but results from a previously uncharacterized action of TRIP8b to reduce maximal current through the channel in the absence of cAMP. Because the binding of cAMP also antagonizes this second effect of TRIP8b, application of cAMP produces a larger increase in maximal Ih in the presence of TRIP8b than in its absence. These findings may provide a mechanistic explanation for the wide variability in the effects of modulatory transmitters on the voltage gating and maximal amplitude of Ih reported for different neurons in the brain.
The Journal of General Physiology 12/2013; 142(6):599-612. · 4.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: HCN1 channel subunits, which contribute to the hyperpolarization-activated cation current (Ih), are selectively targeted to distal apical dendrites of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. Here, we addressed the importance of the brain-specific auxiliary subunit of HCN1, TRIP8b, in regulating HCN1 expression and localization. More than ten N-terminal splice variants of TRIP8b exist in brain and exert distinct effects on HCN1 trafficking when overexpressed. We found that isoform-wide disruption of the TRIP8b/HCN1 interaction caused HCN1 to be mistargeted throughout CA1 somatodendritic compartments. In contrast, HCN1 was targeted normally to CA1 distal dendrites in a TRIP8b knockout mouse that selectively lacked exons 1b and 2. Of the two remaining hippocampal TRIP8b isoforms, TRIP8b(1a-4) promoted HCN1 surface expression in dendrites, whereas TRIP8b(1a) suppressed HCN1 misexpression in axons. Thus, proper subcellular localization of HCN1 depends on its differential additive and subtractive sculpting by two isoforms of a single auxiliary subunit.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-regulated (HCN) channels in the brain associate with their auxiliary subunit TRIP8b (also known as PEX5R), a cytoplasmic protein expressed as a family of alternatively spliced isoforms. Recent in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that association of TRIP8b with HCN subunits both inhibits channel opening and alters channel membrane trafficking, with some splice variants increasing and others decreasing channel surface expression. Here, we address the structural bases of the regulatory interactions between mouse TRIP8b and HCN1. We find that HCN1 and TRIP8b interact at two distinct sites: an upstream site where the C-linker/cyclic nucleotide-binding domain of HCN1 interacts with an 80 aa domain in the conserved central core of TRIP8b; and a downstream site where the C-terminal SNL (Ser-Asn-Leu) tripeptide of the channel interacts with the tetratricopeptide repeat domain of TRIP8b. These two interaction sites play distinct functional roles in the effects of TRIP8b on HCN1 trafficking and gating. Binding at the upstream site is both necessary and sufficient for TRIP8b to inhibit channel opening. It is also sufficient to mediate the trafficking effects of those TRIP8b isoforms that downregulate channel surface expression, in combination with the trafficking motifs present in the N-terminal region of TRIP8b. In contrast, binding at the downstream interaction site serves to stabilize the C-terminal domain of TRIP8b, allowing for optimal interaction between HCN1 and TRIP8b as well as for proper assembly of the molecular complexes that mediate the effects of TRIP8b on HCN1 channel trafficking.
Journal of Neuroscience 03/2011; 31(11):4074-86. · 6.91 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Persistent down-regulation in the expression of the hyperpolarization-activated HCN1 cation channel, a key determinant of intrinsic neuronal excitability, has been observed in febrile seizure, temporal lobe epilepsy, and generalized epilepsy animal models, as well as in patients with epilepsy. However, the role and importance of HCN1 down-regulation for seizure activity is unclear. To address this question we determined the susceptibility of mice with either a general or forebrain-restricted deletion of HCN1 to limbic seizure induction by amygdala kindling or pilocarpine administration. Loss of HCN1 expression in both mouse lines is associated with higher seizure severity and higher seizure-related mortality, independent of the seizure-induction method used. Therefore, down-regulation of HCN1 associated with human epilepsy and rodent models may be a contributing factor in seizure behavior.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hyperpolarisation-activation of HCN ion channels relies on the movement of a charged S4 transmembrane helix, preferentially stabilising the open conformation of the ion pore gate. The open state is additionally stabilised, (a) when cyclic AMP (cAMP) is bound to a cytoplasmic C-terminal domain or (b) when the "mode I" open state formed initially by gate opening undergoes a "mode shift" into a "mode II" open state with a new S4 conformation. We isolated a mutation (lysine 381 to glutamate) in S4 of mouse HCN4; patch-clamp of homomeric channels in excised inside-out membranes revealed a conditional phenotype. When cAMP-liganded K381E channels are previously activated by hyperpolarisation, tens of seconds are required for complete deactivation at a weakly depolarised potential; this "ultra-sustained activation" is not observed without cAMP. Whilst cAMP slows deactivation of wild-type channels, the K381E mutation amplifies this effect to enable extraordinary kinetic stabilisation of the open state. K381E channels retain S4-gate coupling, with strong voltage dependence of the rate-limiting step for deactivation of mode II channels near -40 mV. At these voltages, the mode I deactivation pathway shows a different rate-limiting step, lacking strong voltage or cAMP dependence. Ultra-sustained activation thus reflects stabilisation of the mode II open state by the K381E mutation in synergistic combination with cAMP binding. Thus, the voltage-sensing domain is subject to strong functional coupling not only to the pore domain but also to the cytoplasmic cAMP-sensing domain in a manner specific to the voltage sensor conformation.
Pflügers Archiv - European Journal of Physiology 07/2009; 458(5):877-89. · 4.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-regulated (HCN) channels, which generate the I(h) current, mediate a number of important brain functions. The HCN1 isoform regulates dendritic integration in cortical pyramidal neurons and provides an inhibitory constraint on both working memory in prefrontal cortex and spatial learning and memory in the hippocampus. Altered expression of HCN1 following seizures may contribute to the development of temporal lobe epilepsy. Yet the regulatory networks and pathways governing HCN channel expression and function in the brain are largely unknown. Here, we report the presence of nine alternative N-terminal splice forms of the brain-specific cytoplasmic protein TRIP8b and demonstrate the differential effects of six isoforms to downregulate or upregulate HCN1 surface expression. Furthermore, we find that all TRIP8b isoforms inhibit channel opening by shifting activation to more negative potentials. TRIP8b thus functions as an auxiliary subunit that provides a mechanism for the dynamic regulation of HCN1 channel expression and function.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Whereas recent studies have elucidated principles for representation of information within the entorhinal cortex, less is known about the molecular basis for information processing by entorhinal neurons. The HCN1 gene encodes ion channels that mediate hyperpolarization-activated currents (I(h)) that control synaptic integration and influence several forms of learning and memory. We asked whether hyperpolarization-activated, cation nonselective 1 (HCN1) channels control processing of information by stellate cells found within layer II of the entorhinal cortex. Axonal projections from these neurons form a major component of the synaptic input to the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. To determine whether HCN1 channels control either the resting or the active properties of stellate neurons, we performed whole-cell recordings in horizontal brain slices prepared from adult wild-type and HCN1 knock-out mice. We found that HCN1 channels are required for rapid and full activation of hyperpolarization-activated currents in stellate neurons. HCN1 channels dominate the membrane conductance at rest, are not required for theta frequency (4-12 Hz) membrane potential fluctuations, but suppress low-frequency (<4 Hz) components of spontaneous and evoked membrane potential activity. During sustained activation of stellate cells sufficient for firing of repeated action potentials, HCN1 channels control the pattern of spike output by promoting recovery of the spike afterhyperpolarization. These data suggest that HCN1 channels expressed by stellate neurons in layer II of the entorhinal cortex are key molecular components in the processing of inputs to the hippocampal dentate gyrus, with distinct integrative roles during resting and active states.
Journal of Neuroscience 11/2007; 27(46):12440-51. · 6.91 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hyperpolarization-activated cation currents (I(h)) are carried by channels encoded by a family of four genes (HCN1-4) that are differentially expressed within the brain in specific cellular and subcellular compartments. HCN1 shows a high level of expression in apical dendrites of cortical pyramidal neurons and in presynaptic terminals of cerebellar basket cells, structures with a high density of I(h). Expression of I(h) is also regulated by neuronal activity. To isolate proteins that may control HCN channel expression or function, we performed yeast two-hybrid screens using the C-terminal cytoplasmic tails of the HCN proteins as bait. We identified a brain-specific protein, which has been previously termed TRIP8b (for TPR-containing Rab8b interacting protein) and PEX5Rp (for Pex5p-related protein), that specifically interacts with all four HCN channels through a conserved sequence in their C-terminal tails. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry show that TRIP8b and HCN1 are colocalized, particularly within dendritic arbors of hippocampal CA1 and neocortical layer V pyramidal neurons. The dendritic expression of TRIP8b in layer V pyramidal neurons is disrupted after deletion of HCN1 through homologous recombination, demonstrating a key in vivo interaction between HCN1 and TRIP8b. TRIP8b dramatically alters the trafficking of HCN channels heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes and human embryonic kidney 293 cells, causing a specific decrease in surface expression of HCN protein and I(h) density, with a pronounced intracellular accumulation of HCN protein that is colocalized in discrete cytoplasmic clusters with TRIP8b. Finally, TRIP8b expression in cultured pyramidal neurons markedly decreases native I(h) density. These data suggest a possible role for TRIP8b in regulating HCN channel density in the plasma membrane.
Journal of Neuroscience 12/2004; 24(47):10750-62. · 6.91 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The importance of long-term synaptic plasticity as a cellular substrate for learning and memory is well established. By contrast, little is known about how learning and memory are regulated by voltage-gated ion channels that integrate synaptic information. We investigated this question using mice with general or forebrain-restricted knockout of the HCN1 gene, which we find encodes a major component of the hyperpolarization-activated inward current (Ih) and is an important determinant of dendritic integration in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells. Deletion of HCN1 from forebrain neurons enhances hippocampal-dependent learning and memory, augments the power of theta oscillations, and enhances long-term potentiation (LTP) at the direct perforant path input to the distal dendrites of CA1 pyramidal neurons, but has little effect on LTP at the more proximal Schaffer collateral inputs. We suggest that HCN1 channels constrain learning and memory by regulating dendritic integration of distal synaptic inputs to pyramidal cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In contrast to our increasingly detailed understanding of how synaptic plasticity provides a cellular substrate for learning and memory, it is less clear how a neuron's voltage-gated ion channels interact with plastic changes in synaptic strength to influence behavior. We find, using generalized and regional knockout mice, that deletion of the HCN1 channel causes profound motor learning and memory deficits in swimming and rotarod tasks. In cerebellar Purkinje cells, which are a key component of the cerebellar circuit for learning of correctly timed movements, HCN1 mediates an inward current that stabilizes the integrative properties of Purkinje cells and ensures that their input-output function is independent of the previous history of their activity. We suggest that this nonsynaptic integrative function of HCN1 is required for accurate decoding of input patterns and thereby enables synaptic plasticity to appropriately influence the performance of motor activity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Concepts regarding the function of the hyperpolarization-activated current (Ih) in shaping the excitability of single cells and neuronal ensembles have been evolving rapidly following the recent cloning of genes that encode the underlying 'h-channels' - the HCN genes. This article reviews new information about the transcriptional regulation of these channels, highlighting novel studies that demonstrate short- and long-term modulation of HCN expression, and linking this modulation to mechanisms of neurological diseases.
Trends in Neurosciences 11/2003; 26(10):550-4. · 13.58 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ventricular pacemaker current (I(f)) shows distinct voltage dependence as a function of age, activating outside the physiological range in normal adult ventricle, but less negatively in neonatal ventricle. However, heterologously expressed HCN2 and HCN4, the putative molecular correlates of ventricular I(f), exhibit only a modest difference in activation voltage. We therefore prepared an adenoviral construct (AdHCN2) of HCN2, the dominant ventricular isoform at either age, and used it to infect neonatal and adult rat ventricular myocytes to investigate the role of maturation on current gating. The expressed current exhibited an 18-mV difference in activation (V(1/2) -95.9+/-1.9 in adult; -77.6+/-1.6 mV in neonate), comparable to the 22-mV difference between native I(f) in adult and neonatal cultures (V(1/2) -98.7 versus -77.0 mV). This did not result from developmental differences in basal cAMP, because saturating cAMP in the pipette caused an equivalent positive shift in both preparations. In the neonate, AdHCN2 caused a significant increase in spontaneous rate compared with control (88+/-5 versus 48+/-4 bpm). In adult, where HCN2 activates more negatively, the effect was evident only during anodal excitation, requiring significantly less stimulus energy than control (2149+/-266 versus 3140+/-279 mV. ms). Thus, ventricular maturational state influences the voltage dependence of expressed HCN2, resulting in distinct physiological impact of expressed channels in neonate and adult myocytes. The full text of this article is available at http://www.circresaha.org.
Circulation Research 08/2001; 89(1):E8-14. · 11.86 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hyperpolarization-activated cation channels of the HCN gene family contribute to spontaneous rhythmic activity in both heart and brain. All four family members contain both a core transmembrane segment domain, homologous to the S1-S6 regions of voltage-gated K+ channels, and a carboxy-terminal 120 amino-acid cyclic nucleotide-binding domain (CNBD) motif. Homologous CNBDs are responsible for the direct activation of cyclic nucleotide-gated channels and for modulation of the HERG voltage-gated K+ channel--important for visual and olfactory signalling and for cardiac repolarization, respectively. The direct binding of cyclic AMP to the cytoplasmic site on HCN channels permits the channels to open more rapidly and completely after repolarization of the action potential, thereby accelerating rhythmogenesis. However, the mechanism by which cAMP binding modulates HCN channel gating and the basis for functional differences between HCN isoforms remain unknown. Here we demonstrate by constructing truncation mutants that the CNBD inhibits activation of the core transmembrane domain. cAMP binding relieves this inhibition. Differences in activation gating and extent of cAMP modulation between the HCN1 and HCN2 isoforms result largely from differences in the efficacy of CNBD inhibition.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hyperpolarization-activated cation currents (I(h)) are found in several brain regions including thalamus and hippocampus. Important functions of these currents in promoting synchronized network activity and in determining neuronal membrane properties have been progressively recognized, but the molecular underpinnings of these currents are only emerging. I(h) currents are generated by hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide-gated cation channels (HCNs). These channel proteins are encoded by at least four HCN genes, that govern the kinetic and functional properties of the resulting channels. Because of the potential impact of I(h)-mediated coordinated neuronal activity on the maturation of the functional hippocampal network, this study focused on determining the expression of the four members of the HCN gene family throughout postnatal hippocampal development at both the regional and single cell level.The results of these experiments demonstrated that HCNs 1, 2 and 4 are differentially expressed in interneuronal and principal cell populations of the rat hippocampal formation. Expression profiles of each HCN isoform evolve during postnatal development, and patterns observed during early postnatal ages differ significantly from those in mature hippocampus. The onset of HCN expression in interneurons of the hippocampus proper precedes that in the dentate gyrus, suggesting that HCN-mediated pacing activity may be generated in hippocampal interneurons prior to those in the hilus. Taken together, these findings indicate an age-dependent spatiotemporal evolution of specific HCN expression in distinct hippocampal cell populations, and suggest that these channels serve differing and evolving functions in the maturation of coordinated hippocampal activity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The hyperpolarization-activated cation current (termed I(h), I(q), or I(f)) was recently shown to be encoded by a new family of genes, named HCN for hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-sensitive cation nonselective. When expressed in heterologous cells, each HCN isoform generates channels with distinct activation kinetics, mirroring the range of biophysical properties of native I(h) currents recorded in different classes of neurons. To determine whether the functional diversity of I(h) currents is attributable to different patterns of HCN gene expression, we determined the mRNA distribution across different regions of the mouse CNS of the three mouse HCN genes that are prominently expressed there (mHCN1, 2 and 4). We observe distinct patterns of distribution for each of the three genes. Whereas mHCN2 shows a widespread expression throughout the CNS, the expression of mHCN1 and mHCN4 is more limited, and generally complementary. mHCN1 is primarily expressed within neurons of the neocortex, hippocampus, and cerebellar cortex, but also in selected nuclei of the brainstem. mHCN4 is most highly expressed within neurons of the medial habenula, thalamus, and olfactory bulb, but also in distinct neuronal populations of the basal ganglia. Based on a comparison of mRNA expression with an electrophysiological characterization of native I(h) currents in hippocampal and thalamic neurons, our data support the idea that the functional heterogeneity of I(h) channels is attributable, in part, to differential isoform expression. Moreover, in some neurons, specific functional roles can be proposed for I(h) channels with defined subunit composition.
Journal of Neuroscience 08/2000; 20(14):5264-75. · 6.91 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The molecular basis of the hyperpolarization-activated cation channels that underlie the anomalous rectifying current variously termed Ih, Iq, or I(f) is discussed. On the basis of the expression patterns and biophysical properties of the newly cloned HCN ion channels, an initial attempt at defining the identity and subunit composition of channels underlying native Ih is undertaken. By comparing the sequences of HCN channels to other members of the K channel superfamily, we discuss how channel opening may be coupled to membrane hyperpolarization and to direct binding of cyclic nucleotide. Finally, we consider some of the questions in cardiovascular physiology and neurobiology that can be addressed as a result of the demonstration that Ih is encoded by the HCN gene family.
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 05/1999; 868:741-64. · 4.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The generation of pacemaker activity in heart and brain is mediated by hyperpolarization-activated cation channels that are directly regulated by cyclic nucleotides. We previously cloned a novel member of the voltage-gated K channel family from mouse brain (mBCNG-1) that contained a carboxy-terminal cyclic nucleotide-binding domain (Santoro et al., 1997) and hence proposed it to be a candidate gene for pacemaker channels. Heterologous expression of mBCNG-1 demonstrates that it does indeed code for a channel with properties indistinguishable from pacemaker channels in brain and similar to those in heart. Three additional mouse genes and two human genes closely related to mBCNG-1 display unique patterns of mRNA expression in different tissues, including brain and heart, demonstrating that these channels constitute a widely expressed gene family.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have isolated a novel cDNA, that appears to represent a new class of ion channels, by using the yeast two-hybrid system and the SH3 domain of the neural form of Src (N-src) as a bait. The encoded polypeptide, BCNG-1, is distantly related to cyclic nucleotide-gated channels and the voltage-gated channels, Eag and H-erg. BCNG-1 is expressed exclusively in the brain, as a glycosylated protein of approximately 132 kDa. Immunohistochemical analysis indicates that BCNG-1 is preferentially expressed in specific subsets of neurons in the neocortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum, in particular pyramidal neurons and basket cells. Within individual neurons, the BCNG-1 protein is localized to either the dendrites or the axon terminals depending on the cell type. Southern blot analysis shows that several other BCNG-related sequences are present in the mouse genome, indicating the emergence of an entire subfamily of ion channel coding genes. These findings suggest the existence of a new type of ion channel, which is potentially able to modulate membrane excitability in the brain and could respond to regulation by cyclic nucleotides.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 01/1998; 94(26):14815-20. · 9.74 Impact Factor