[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background A safe and effective vaccine for the prevention of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is a global priority. We tested the efficacy of a DNA prime-recombinant adenovirus type 5 boost (DNA/rAd5) vaccine regimen in persons at increased risk for HIV-1 infection in the United States. Methods At 21 sites, we randomly assigned 2504 men or transgender women who have sex with men to receive the DNA/rAd5 vaccine (1253 participants) or placebo (1251 participants). We assessed HIV-1 acquisition from week 28 through month 24 (termed week 28+ infection), viral-load set point (mean plasma HIV-1 RNA level 10 to 20 weeks after diagnosis), and safety. The 6-plasmid DNA vaccine (expressing clade B Gag, Pol, and Nef and Env proteins from clades A, B, and C) was administered at weeks 0, 4, and 8. The rAd5 vector boost (expressing clade B Gag-Pol fusion protein and Env glycoproteins from clades A, B, and C) was administered at week 24. Results In April 2013, the data and safety monitoring board recommended halting vaccinations for lack of efficacy. The primary analysis showed that week 28+ infection had been diagnosed in 27 participants in the vaccine group and 21 in the placebo group (vaccine efficacy, -25.0%; 95% confidence interval, -121.2 to 29.3; P=0.44), with mean viral-load set points of 4.46 and 4.47 HIV-1 RNA log10 copies per milliliter, respectively. Analysis of all infections during the study period (41 in the vaccine group and 31 in the placebo group) also showed lack of vaccine efficacy (P=0.28). The vaccine regimen had an acceptable side-effect profile. Conclusions The DNA/rAd5 vaccine regimen did not reduce either the rate of HIV-1 acquisition or the viral-load set point in the population studied. (Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00865566 .).
New England Journal of Medicine 10/2013; · 51.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Federal meaningful use standards are promoting adoption of online portals to personal health records (PHRs). However, relatively little is known regarding barriers and facilitators for vulnerable groups such as persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLWH).
The objective of this study was to assess barriers and facilitators to use of online PHRs among PLWH.
We conducted formative research using a written waiting room survey among 120 PLWH regarding barriers and facilitators of portal PHR use. We supplemented findings with data collected from a PLWH focus group, where some members had personal experience with use of a portal.
The survey had 90 respondents. Eight PLWH participated in the focus group. Most patients (77/90, 86%) reported having at least some experience using the Internet and most expressed interest in features offered by the portal. Notably, 70% (63/90) expressed some interest in being taught how to use it to communicate with their provider. Focus group themes reinforced these findings, but also voiced concern regarding access to private computers.
Many PLWH in our sample have experience using computers and most are interested in PHR features. However, computer or broadband access and privacy are important barriers.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Potent HIV-1 specific broadly neutralizing antibodies (BNA) are uncommon in HIV infected individuals, and have proven hard to elicit by vaccination. Several, isolated monoclonal BNA are polyreactive and also recognize self-antigens, suggesting a breach of immune tolerance in persons living with HIV (PLWH). Persons with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) often have elevated levels of autoreactive antibodies encoded by the VH4-34 heavy chain immunoglobulin gene whose protein product can be detected by the 9G4 rat monoclonal antibody. We have recently found that levels of these "9G4+" antibodies are also elevated in PLWH. However, the putative autoreactive nature of these antibodies and the relationship of such reactivities with HIV neutralization have not been investigated. We therefore examined the autoreactivity and HIV neutralization potential of 9G4+ antibodies from PLWH. Results show that 9G4+ antibodies from PLWH bound to recombinant HIV-1 envelope (Env) and neutralized viral infectivity in vitro, whereas 9G4+ antibodies from persons with SLE did not bind to Env and failed to neutralize viral infectivity. In addition, while 9G4+ antibodies from PLWH retained the canonical anti-i reactivity that mediates B cell binding, they did not display other autoreactivities common to SLE 9G4+ antibodies, such as binding to cardiolipin and DNA and had much lower reactivity with apoptotic cells. Taken together, these data indicate that the autoreactivity of 9G4+ antibodies from PLWH is distinct from that of SLE patients, and therefore, their expansion is not due to a general breakdown of B cell tolerance but is instead determined in a more disease-specific manner by self-antigens that become immunogenic in the context of, and possibly due to HIV infection. Further studies of 9G4+ B cells may shed light on the regulation of B cell tolerance and interface between the generation of specific autoreactivities and the induction of antiviral immunity in persons living with HIV.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(12):e85098. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vaccinia-associated myo/pericarditis was observed during the US smallpox vaccination (DryVax) campaign initiated in 2002. A highly-attenuated vaccinia strain, modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) has been evaluated in clinical trials as a safer alternative to DryVax and as a vector for recombinant vaccines. Due to the lack of prospectively collected cardiac safety data, the US Food and Drug Administration required cardiac screening and surveillance in all clinical trials of MVA since 2004. Here, we report cardiac safety surveillance from 6 phase I trials of MVA vaccines.
Four clinical research organizations contributed cardiac safety data using common surveillance methods in trials administering MVA or recombinant MVA vaccines to healthy participants. 'Routine cardiac investigations' (ECGs and cardiac enzymes obtained 2 weeks after injections of MVA or MVA-HIV recombinants, or placebo-controls), and 'Symptom-driven cardiac investigations' are reported. The outcome measure is the number of participants who met the CDC-case definition for vaccinia-related myo/pericarditis or who experienced cardiac adverse events from an MVA vaccine.
Four hundred twenty-five study participants had post-vaccination safety data analyzed, 382 received at least one MVA-containing vaccine and 43 received placebo; 717 routine ECGs and 930 cardiac troponin assays were performed. Forty-five MVA recipients (12%) had additional cardiac testing performed; 22 for cardiac symptoms, 19 for ECG/laboratory changes, and 4 for cardiac symptoms with an ECG/laboratory change. No participant had evidence of symptomatic or asymptomatic myo/pericarditis meeting the CDC-case definition and judged to be related to an MVA vaccine.
Prospective surveillance of MVA recipients for myo/pericarditis did not detect cardiac adverse reactions in 382 study participants.
ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00082446 NCT003766090 NCT00252148 NCT00083603 NCT00301184 NCT00428337.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(1):e54407. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The impact of anti-vector immunity on the elicitation of insert-specific immune responses is important to understand in vaccine development. HVTN 055 was a 150 person phase I randomized, controlled HIV vaccine trial of recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara (rMVA) and fowlpox (rFPV) with matched HIV-1 inserts which demonstrated increased CD8+ T-cell immune responses in the heterologous vaccine group. The controls used in this study were the empty vectors (MVA and FPV). METHODS: Anti-MVA and anti-vaccinia neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) were measured and compared with cellular and humoral HIV-1-specific immune responses. RESULTS: Elicitation of anti-vector responses increased with increasing dose of MVA and up to 2 administrations. Further inoculations of MVA (up to 5) did not increase the magnitude of the anti-MVA response but did delay the anti-vector NAb titre decay. There was no evidence that the insert impaired the anti-vector response, nor that anti-vector immunity attenuated the insert-specific responses. CONCLUSION: Two doses of MVA may be ideal for the elicitation of orthopoxvirus immune responses with further doses maintaining increased titres against the vector. We found no evidence that eliciting HIV insert- or MVA vector-specific immune responses interfered with elicitation of immune responses to the other.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Persons living with HIV (PLWH) need practical tools to self-manage their condition. METHODS: We conducted a proof-of-concept study among PLWH to assess whether patients could learn to use a personal health record (PHR) on a hand-held device (iPod Touch) to manage their condition. We began individual trainings and later adapted this to group training. We assessed usability, acceptability and also effects on self-efficacy for treatment adherence using the HIV Treatment Adherence Self-Efficacy Scale (HIV-ASES). RESULTS: Nine PLWH participated in the individual training and 29 participated in the group sessions. The participants were largely middle aged, low-income and of racial/ethnic minorities. The sessions were well attended and participants fully engaged in tasks and shared learning. Most participants stated they intended to use the PHR and reported improved self-efficacy in treatment adherence (P = .05) particularly on the integration of treatment adherence into one's routine (P < .02). Conclusions: Training PLWH in use of a handheld PHR shows promise.
Journal of the International Association of Physicians in AIDS Care (JIAPAC) 09/2012;
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, more clinical trials are being conducted in Africa and Asia, therefore, background morbidity in the respective populations is of interest. Between 2000 and 2007, the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative sponsored 19 Phase 1 or 2A preventive HIV vaccine trials in the US, Europe, Sub-Saharan Africa and India, enrolling 900 healthy HIV-1 uninfected volunteers.
To assess background morbidity as reflected by unsolicited adverse events (AEs), unrelated to study vaccine, reported in clinical trials from four continents.
All but three clinical trials were double-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled. Study procedures and data collection methods were standardized. The frequency and severity of AEs reported during the first year of the trials were analyzed. To avoid confounding by vaccine-related events, solicited reactogenicity and other AEs occurring within 28 d after any vaccination were excluded.
In total, 2134 AEs were reported by 76% of all participants; 73% of all events were mild. The rate of AEs did not differ between placebo and vaccine recipients. Overall, the percentage of participants with any AE was higher in Africa (83%) compared with Europe (71%), US (74%) and India (65%), while the percentage of participants with AEs of moderate or greater severity was similar in all regions except India. In all regions, the most frequently reported AEs were infectious diseases, followed by gastrointestinal disorders.
Despite some regional differences, in these healthy participants selected for low risk of HIV infection, background morbidity posed no obstacle to clinical trial conduct and interpretation. Data from controlled clinical trials of preventive interventions can offer valuable insights into the health of the eligible population.
Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics. 05/2012; 8(5):630-8.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We conducted a phase I, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to assess the safety and immunogenicity of escalating doses of two recombinant replication defective adenovirus serotype 35 (Ad35) vectors containing gag, reverse transcriptase, integrase and nef (Ad35-GRIN) and env (Ad35-ENV), both derived from HIV-1 subtype A isolates. The trial enrolled 56 healthy HIV-uninfected adults.
Ad35-GRIN/ENV (Ad35-GRIN and Ad35-ENV mixed in the same vial in equal proportions) or Ad35-GRIN was administered intramuscularly at 0 and 6 months. Participants were randomized to receive either vaccine or placebo (10/4 per group, respectively) within one of four dosage groups: Ad35-GRIN/ENV 2×10(9) (A), 2×10(10) (B), 2×10(11) (C), or Ad35-GRIN 1×10(10) (D) viral particles.
No vaccine-related serious adverse event was reported. Reactogenicity events reported were dose-dependent, mostly mild or moderate, some severe in Group C volunteers, all transient and resolving spontaneously. IFN-γ ELISPOT responses to any vaccine antigen were detected in 50, 56, 70 and 90% after the first vaccination, and in 75, 100, 88 and 86% of Groups A-D vaccine recipients after the second vaccination, respectively. The median spot forming cells (SFC) per 10(6) PBMC to any antigen was 78-139 across Groups A-C and 158-174 in Group D, after each of the vaccinations with a maximum of 2991 SFC. Four to five HIV proteins were commonly recognized across all the groups and over multiple timepoints. CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses were polyfunctional. Env antibodies were detected in all Group A-C vaccinees and Gag antibodies in most vaccinees after the second immunization. Ad35 neutralizing titers remained low after the second vaccination.
Ad35-GRIN/ENV reactogenicity was dose-related. HIV-specific cellular and humoral responses were seen in the majority of volunteers immunized with Ad35-GRIN/ENV or Ad35-GRIN and increased after the second vaccination. T-cell responses were broad and polyfunctional.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(8):e41936. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The induction of a broadly neutralizing antibody (BNAb) response against HIV-1 would be a desirable feature of a protective vaccine. Vaccine strategies thus far have failed to elicit broadly neutralizing antibody responses; however a minority of HIV-infected patients do develop circulating BNAbs, from which several potent broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been isolated. The findings that several BNmAbs exhibit autoreactivity and that autoreactive serum antibodies are observed in some HIV patients have advanced the possibility that enforcement of self-tolerance may contribute to the rarity of BNAbs. To examine the possible breakdown of tolerance in HIV patients, we utilized the 9G4 anti-idiotype antibody system, enabling resolution of both autoreactive VH4-34 gene-expressing B cells and serum antibodies. Compared with healthy controls, HIV patients had significantly elevated 9G4+ serum IgG antibody concentrations and frequencies of 9G4+ B cells, a finding characteristic of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients, both of which positively correlated with HIV viral load. Compared to the global 9G4-IgD--memory B cell population, the 9G4+IgD--memory fraction in HIV patients was dominated by isotype switched IgG+ B cells, but had a more prominent bias toward "IgM only" memory. HIV envelope reactivity was observed both in the 9G4+ serum antibody and 9G4+ B cell population. 9G4+ IgG serum antibody levels positively correlated (r = 0.403, p = 0.0019) with the serum HIV BNAbs. Interestingly, other serum autoantibodies commonly found in SLE (anti-dsDNA, ANA, anti-CL) did not correlate with serum HIV BNAbs. 9G4-associated autoreactivity is preferentially expanded in chronic HIV infection as compared to other SLE autoreactivities. Therefore, the 9G4 system provides an effective tool to examine autoreactivity in HIV patients. Our results suggest that the development of HIV BNAbs is not merely a consequence of a general breakdown in tolerance, but rather a more intricate expansion of selective autoreactive B cells and antibodies.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(4):e35356. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated replication-defective poxvirus vectors (modified vaccinia Ankara [MVA] and fowlpox [FPV]) in a homologous and heterologous vector prime-boost vaccination regimen containing matching HIV inserts (MVA-HIV and FPV-HIV) given at months 0, 1, 3, 5 and 7 in 150 healthy HIV-negative vaccinia-naïve participants. FPV-HIV alone was poorly immunogenic, while the high dose (10(9)pfu/2 ml) of MVA-HIV alone elicited maximal responses after two injections: CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses in 26/55 (47.3%) and 5/60 (8.3%) of participants, respectively, and IFN-γ ELISpot responses in 28/62 (45.2%). The infrequent CD8+ T-cell responses following MVA-HIV priming were boosted only by the heterologous (FPV-HIV) construct in 14/27 (51.9%) of participants post 4th vaccination. Alternatively, HIV envelope-specific binding antibodies were demonstrated in approximately two-thirds of recipients of the homologous boosting regimen, but in less than 20% of subjects after the heterologous vector boost. Thus, a heterologous poxvirus vector prime-boost regimen can induce HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell and CD4+ T-cell responses, which may be an important feature of an optimal regimen for preventive HIV vaccination.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The safety and immunogenicity of a vaccine regimen consisting of a 6-plasmid HIV-1 DNA prime (envA, envB, envC, gagB, polB, nefB) boosted by a recombinant adenovirus serotype-5 (rAd5) HIV-1 with matching inserts was evaluated in HIV-seronegative participants from South Africa, United States, Latin America and the Caribbean.
480 participants were evenly randomized to receive either: DNA (4 mg i.m. by Biojector) at 0, 1 and 2 months, followed by rAd5 (10(10) PU i.m. by needle/syringe) at 6 months; or placebo. Participants were monitored for reactogenicity and adverse events throughout the 12-month study. Peak and duration of HIV-specific humoral and cellular immune responses were evaluated after the prime and boost.
The vaccine was well tolerated and safe. T-cell responses, detected by interferon-γ (IFN-γ) ELISpot to global potential T-cell epitopes (PTEs) were observed in 70.8% (136/192) of vaccine recipients overall, most frequently to Gag (54.7%) and to Env (54.2%). In U.S. vaccine recipients T-cell responses were less frequent in Ad5 sero-positive versus sero-negative vaccine recipients (62.5% versus 85.7% respectively, p = 0.035). The frequency of HIV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses detected by intracellular cytokine staining were similar (41.8% and 47.2% respectively) and most secreted ≥2 cytokines. The vaccine induced a high frequency (83.7%-94.6%) of binding antibody responses to consensus Group M, and Clades A, B and C gp140 Env oligomers. Antibody responses to Gag were elicited in 46% of vaccine recipients.
The vaccine regimen was well-tolerated and induced polyfunctional CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells and multi-clade anti-Env binding antibodies.
PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(8):e21225. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The prominent role of antiviral cytotoxic CD8(+) T-lymphocytes (CD8-TL) in containing the acute viremia of human and simian immunodeficiency viruses (HIV-1 and SIV) has rationalized the development of T-cell-based vaccines. However, the presence of escape mutations in the acute stage of infection has raised a concern that accelerated escape from vaccine-induced CD8-TL responses might undermine vaccine efficacy. We reanalyzed previously published data of 101,822 viral genomes of three CD8-TL epitopes, Nef(103-111)RM9 (RM9), Tat(28-35)SL8 (SL8), and Gag(181-189)CM9 (CM9), sampled by ultradeep pyrosequencing from eight macaques. Multiple epitope variants appeared during the resolution of acute viremia, followed by the predominance of a single mutant epitope. By fitting a mathematical model, we estimated the first acute escape rate as 0.36 day(-1) within escape-prone epitopes, RM9 and SL8, and the chronic escape rate as 0.014 day(-1) within the CM9 epitope. Our estimate of SIV acute escape rates was found to be comparable to very early HIV-1 escape rates. The timing of the first escape was more highly correlated with the timing of the peak CD8-TL response than with the magnitude of the CD8-TL response. The transmitted epitope decayed more than 400 times faster during the acute viral decline stage than predicted by a neutral evolution model. However, the founder epitope persisted as a minor population even at the viral set point; in contrast, the majority of acute escape epitopes were completely cleared. Our results suggest that a reservoir of SIV infection is preferentially formed by virus with the transmitted epitope.
Journal of Virology 03/2010; 84(11):5802-14. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A peptide vaccine was produced containing B and T cell epitopes from the V3 and C4 Envelope domains of 4 subtype B HIV-1 isolates (MN, RF, CanO, & Ev91). The peptide mixture was formulated as an emulsion in incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA).
Low-risk, healthy adult subjects were enrolled in a randomized, placebo-controlled dose-escalation study, and selected using criteria specifying that 50% in each study group would be HLA-B7+. Immunizations were scheduled at 0, 1, and 6 months using a total peptide dose of 1 or 4 mg. Adaptive immune responses in16 vaccine recipients and two placebo recipients after the 2nd immunization were evaluated using neutralization assays of sera, as well as ELISpot and ICS assays of cryopreserved PBMCs to assess CD4 and CD8 T-cell responses. In addition, (51)Cr release assays were performed on fresh PBMCs following 14-day stimulation with individual vaccine peptide antigens.
24 subjects were enrolled; 18 completed 2 injections. The study was prematurely terminated because 4 vaccinees developed prolonged pain and sterile abscess formation at the injection site-2 after dose 1, and 2 after dose 2. Two other subjects experienced severe systemic reactions consisting of headache, chills, nausea, and myalgia. Both reactions occurred after the second 4 mg dose. The immunogenicity assessments showed that 6/8 vaccinees at each dose level had detectable MN-specific neutralizing (NT) activity, and 2/7 HLA-B7+ vaccinees had classical CD8 CTL activity detected. However, using both ELISpot and ICS, 8/16 vaccinees (5/7 HLA-B7+) and 0/2 controls had detectable vaccine-specific CD8 T-cell responses. Subjects with moderate or severe systemic or local reactions tended to have more frequent T cell responses and higher antibody responses than those with mild or no reactions.
The severity of local responses related to the formulation of these four peptides in IFA is clinically unacceptable for continued development. Both HIV-specific antibody and T cell responses were induced and the magnitude of response correlated with the severity of local and systemic reactions. If potent adjuvants are necessary for subunit vaccines to induce broad and durable immune responses, careful, incremental clinical evaluation is warranted to minimize the risk of adverse events.
PLoS ONE 01/2010; 5(8):e11995. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We conducted a Phase I dose escalation trial of ADVAX, a DNA-based candidate HIV-1 vaccine expressing Clade C/B' env, gag, pol, nef, and tat genes. Sequences were derived from a prevalent circulating recombinant form in Yunnan, China, an area of high HIV-1 incidence. The objective was to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of ADVAX in human volunteers.
ADVAX or placebo was administered intramuscularly at months 0, 1 and 3 to 45 healthy volunteers not at high risk for HIV-1. Three dosage levels [0.2 mg (low), 1.0 mg (mid), and 4.0 mg (high)] were tested. Twelve volunteers in each dosage group were assigned to receive ADVAX and three to receive placebo in a double-blind design. Subjects were followed for local and systemic reactogenicity, adverse events, and clinical laboratory parameters. Study follow up was 18 months. Humoral immunogenicity was evaluated by anti-gp120 binding ELISA. Cellular immunogenicity was assessed by a validated IFNgamma ELISpot assay and intracellular cytokine staining. ADVAX was safe and well-tolerated, with no vaccine-related serious adverse events. Local and systemic reactogenicity events were reported by 64% and 42% of vaccine recipients, respectively. The majority of events were mild. The IFNgamma ELISpot response rates to any HIV antigen were 0/9 (0%) in the placebo group, 3/12 (25%) in the low-dosage group, 4/12 (33%) in the mid-dosage group, and 2/12 (17%) in the high-dosage group. Overall, responses were generally transient and occurred to each gene product, although volunteers responded to single antigens only. Binding antibodies to gp120 were not detected in any volunteers, and HIV seroconversion did not occur.
ADVAX delivered intramuscularly is safe, well-tolerated, and elicits modest but transient cellular immune responses.
PLoS ONE 01/2010; 5(1):e8617. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We conducted a Phase I dose-escalation trial of ADMVA, a Clade-B'/C-based HIV-1 candidate vaccine expressing env, gag, pol, nef, and tat in a modified vaccinia Ankara viral vector. Sequences were derived from a prevalent circulating HIV-1 recombinant form in Yunnan, China, an area of high HIV incidence. The objective was to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of ADMVA in human volunteers.
ADMVA or placebo was administered intramuscularly at months 0, 1 and 6 to 50 healthy adult volunteers not at high risk for HIV-1. In each dosage group [1x10(7) (low), 5x10(7) (mid), or 2.5x10(8) pfu (high)] volunteers were randomized in a 3:1 ratio to receive ADMVA or placebo in a double-blinded design. Subjects were followed for local and systemic reactogenicity, adverse events including cardiac adverse events, and clinical laboratory parameters. Study follow up was 18 months. Humoral immunogenicity was evaluated by anti-gp120 binding ELISA, immunoflourescent staining, and HIV-1 neutralization. Cellular immunogenicity was assessed by a validated IFNgamma ELISpot assay and intracellular cytokine staining. Anti-vaccinia binding titers were measured by ELISA. ADMVA was generally well-tolerated, with no vaccine-related serious adverse events or cardiac adverse events. Local or systemic reactogenicity events were reported by 77% and 78% of volunteers, respectively. The majority of events were of mild intensity. The IFNgamma ELISpot response rate to any HIV antigen was 0/12 (0%) in the placebo group, 3/12 (25%) in the low dosage group, 6/12 (50%) in the mid dosage group, and 8/13 (62%) in the high dosage group. Responses were often multigenic and occasionally persisted up to one year post vaccination. Antibodies to gp120 were detected in 0/12 (0%), 8/13 (62%), 6/12 (50%) and 10/13 (77%) in the placebo, low, mid, and high dosage groups, respectively. Antibodies persisted up to 12 months after vaccination, with a trend toward agreement with the ability to neutralize HIV-1 SF162 in vitro. Two volunteers mounted antibodies that were able to neutralize clade-matched viruses.
ADMVA was well-tolerated and elicited durable humoral and cellular immune responses.
PLoS ONE 01/2010; 5(1):e8816. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report composite results from the Merck phase I program of near-consensus clade B human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 gag vaccines.
Healthy HIV-uninfected adults were enrolled in 6 blinded placebo-controlled studies evaluating the immunogenicity of (1) a 4-dose regimen of a DNA vaccine, (2) a 3-dose priming regimen of the DNA vaccine with a booster dose of an adenovirus type 5 (Ad5)-vectored vaccine, or (3) a 3-dose regimen of the Ad5 vaccine. The DNA plasmid was provided with or without an aluminum phosphate or CRL1005 adjuvant. The primary end point was the unfractionated HIV-1 gag-specific interferon gamma enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISpot) response 4 weeks after the final dose.
Overall, 254 (83%) of 307 subjects randomized to the vaccine groups were evaluable. Adjuvants did not enhance immunogenicity of the DNA vaccine. Postboost ELISpot responder frequencies were higher for Ad5-containing regimens than for the DNA/DNA regimen (33%) but were similar for DNA/Ad5 (55%) and Ad5/Ad5 (50%). DNA/DNA elicited mainly a CD4 response, whereas Ad5/Ad5 elicited mainly a CD8 response; DNA/Ad5 generated CD4 and CD8 responses comparable to those of DNA/DNA and Ad5/Ad5, respectively.
The DNA vaccine alone or as a priming regimen for the Ad5 vaccine did not increase unfractionated ELISpot responses compared with the Ad5 vaccine alone. Qualitative T cell responses to different vaccine regimens deserve further study.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 11/2009; 201(1):132-41. · 5.85 Impact Factor