Geoffrey M Calvert

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Michigan, United States

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Publications (84)384.3 Total impact

  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Alternative shift work is classified as a probable human carcinogen. Certain cancer screening tests reduce cancer mortality. The 2010 National Health Interview Survey was used to examine associations between adherence to breast, cervical, and colon cancer screening recommendations and alternative shift work among female workers. Workers on alternative shifts, compared to workers on daytime shifts, were more likely to be non-adherent to screening recommendations for breast (34% vs. 23%) and colorectal (55% vs. 48%) cancer (P < 0.05). Workers on alternative shifts in two industries ("Manufacturing" and "Accommodation/Food Services") and three occupations ("Food Preparation/Serving," "Personal Care Services," and "Production") were more likely to be non-adherent to screening recommendations for at least two cancers (P < 0.05). The Affordable Care Act eliminates out-of-pocket screening expenses for these three cancers. Greater efforts are needed to promote this benefit, particularly among workers with demonstrated non-adherence. Am. J. Ind. Med. 57:265-275, 2014. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
    American Journal of Industrial Medicine 03/2014; 57(3):265-75. · 1.97 Impact Factor
  • Sara E Luckhaupt, Martha A Cohen, Jia Li, Geoffrey M Calvert
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    ABSTRACT: Along with public health and clinical professionals, employers are taking note of rising obesity rates among their employees, as obesity is strongly related to chronic health problems and concomitant increased healthcare costs. Contributors to the obesity epidemic are complex and numerous, and may include several work characteristics. To explore associations between occupational factors and obesity among U.S. workers. Data from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey were utilized to calculate weighted prevalence rates and prevalence ratios (PRs) for obesity in relation to workweek length, work schedule, work arrangement, hostile work environment, job insecurity, work-family imbalance, and industry and occupation of employment. Data were collected in 2010 and analyzed in 2012-2013. Overall, 27.7% of U.S. workers met the BMI criterion for obesity. Among all workers, employment for more than 40 hours per week and exposure to a hostile work environment were significantly associated with an increased prevalence of obesity, although the differences were modest. Employment in health care and social assistance and public administration industries, as well as architecture and engineering, community and social service, protective service, and office and administrative support occupations was also associated with increased obesity prevalence. Work-related factors may contribute to the high prevalence of obesity in the U.S. working population. Public health professionals and employers should consider workplace interventions that target organization-level factors, such as scheduling and prevention of workplace hostility, along with individual-level factors such as diet and exercise.
    American journal of preventive medicine 03/2014; 46(3):237-48. · 4.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the most common type of leukemia found in adults. Identifying jobs that pose a risk for AML may be useful for identifying new risk factors. A matched case-control analysis was conducted using California Cancer Registry data from 1988 to 2007. This study included 8,999 AML cases and 24,822 controls. Industries with a statistically significant increased AML risk were construction (matched odds ratio [mOR]=1.13), crop production (mOR=1.41), support activities for agriculture and forestry (mOR = 2.05), and animal slaughtering and processing (mOR = 2.09). Among occupations with a statistically significant increased AML risk were miscellaneous agricultural workers (mOR = 1.76); fishers and related fishing workers (mOR = 2.02); nursing, psychiatric, and home health aides (mOR = 1.65); and janitors and building cleaners (mOR = 1.54). Further investigation is needed to confirm study findings and to identify specific exposures responsible for the increased risks.
    Leukemia & lymphoma 02/2014; · 2.40 Impact Factor
  • Lee C Yong, Sara E Luckhaupt, Jia Li, Geoffrey M Calvert
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the prevalence of cigarette smoking cessation and examine the association between cessation and various factors among workers in a nationally representative sample of US adults. Data were derived from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey. Prevalence rates were calculated for interest in quitting smoking, making an attempt to quit smoking, and successful smoking cessation (defined as smokers who had quit for 6-12 months). Logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with cessation after adjustment for demographic characteristics (age group, race/ethnicity, educational level and marital status). Data were available for 17 524 adults who were employed in the 12 months prior to interview. The prevalence of quit interest, quit attempt and recent cessation was 65.2%, 53.8% and 6.8%, respectively. Quit interest was less likely among workers with long work hours, but more likely among workers with job insecurity, or frequent workplace skin and/or respiratory exposures. Quit attempt was more likely among workers with a hostile work environment but less likely among workers living in a home that permitted smoking or who smoked ≥11 cigarettes/day. Recent smoking cessation was less likely among workers with frequent exposure to others smoking at work or living in a home that permitted smoking, but more likely among workers with health insurance. Factors associated with cessation interest or attempt differed from those associated with successful cessation. Cessation success might be improved by reducing exposure to others smoking at work and home, and by improving access to health insurance.
    Occupational and environmental medicine 02/2014; · 3.64 Impact Factor
  • American Journal of Industrial Medicine 01/2014; 57(1):127-8. · 1.97 Impact Factor
  • Barbara Morrissey, jennifer Sievert, Geoffrey Calvert
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT. Acute severe pesticide-related illness among farm worker children is rarely reported. The authors report a toddler with acute onset of apnea, cyanosis, somnolence, hypotonia, tachycardia, and miosis who required hospitalization. Health care providers suspected pesticide poisoning, but were unable to determine the causal agent. Investigation by a public health program documented four pesticide exposures that occurred within one-half hour of acute illness. This case illustrates the importance of a thorough environmental/occupational exposure history and obtaining biological samples. It also documents the need to strengthen the Worker Protection Standard for agricultural workers and the importance of reporting and investigating pesticide-related illness.
    Journal of Agromedicine 12/2013; 18(4):285-292. · 0.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: By pooling data from six studies that participated in the Upper-Extremity Musculoskeletal Disorder Consortium (UEMSD), Dale et al's recent publication "Prevalence and incidence of carpal tunnel syndrome in US working populations: pooled analysis of six prospective studies" (1) provides an important contribution to the literature on carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) among US workers. Although the main purpose of the UEMSD was not to estimate the national prevalence of CTS but rather to evaluate the relationship between workplace factors and upper-extremity health outcomes, Dale et al's reported baseline prevalence rate of CTS (7.8%) might be considered one of the best estimates of the true prevalence of CTS among US workers performing hand-intensive activities. Another recently published estimate of the prevalence of CTS among US workers is based on data collected through an Occupational Health Supplement (OHS) to the 2010 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) (2). The 2010 NHIS-OHS asked participants if a clinician had ever diagnosed them as having CTS, and, if so, whether they had CTS in the past 12 months. According to the 2010 NHIS-OHS, the 12-month prevalence of self-reported clinician-diagnosed CTS among current/recent workers is 3.1%, or 4.8 million workers. Clinicians attributed almost two thirds of these cases to work (2). There are several reasons why the 12-month prevalence estimate based on the 2010 NHIS-OHS is substantially lower than the baseline prevalence of CTS in the UEMSD study. Dale et al mention two of the main reasons: "While CTS rates depend on the physical exposures and other characteristics of the population under study, they are also affected by the study design and CTS case definitions used to define the disease." The UEMSD study population was not designed to be representative of the US population but instead had a high proportion of participants employed in manufacturing and other hand-intensive jobs. However, the UEMSD study assessed all participating workers and used a rigorous case definition of CTS that was based on symptoms and electrodiagnostic studies. In contrast, the NHIS-OHS sample was designed to be representative of the US adult population. For this reason, the prevalence estimate based on the NHIS-OHS would be expected to be a more accurate national estimate. However, since the 2010 NHIS-OHS estimate is based on self-reported clinician diagnoses of CTS, it has several limitations including: (i) it did not capture workers with CTS who did not seek healthcare or were misdiagnosed; (ii) no information was available on how the clinician made the CTS diagnosis; and (ii) there was total reliance on the worker's memory to accurately recall the CTS diagnosis. This comparison highlights the need to employ multiple methods to understand the true burden of common work-related disorders in the general population. The 2010 NHIS-OHS and UEMSD estimates probably bookend the true national prevalence of CTS among workers, as it likely lies somewhere between the 3.1% and 7.8% estimates from the 2010 NHIS-OHS and the UEMSD study, respectively.
    Scandinavian journal of work, environment & health 10/2013; · 3.78 Impact Factor
  • Sara E Luckhaupt, Martha A Cohen, Geoffrey M Calvert
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    ABSTRACT: To determine whether current job is a reasonable surrogate for usual job. Data from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey were utilized to determine concordance between current and usual jobs for workers employed within the past year. Concordance was quantitated by kappa values for both simple and detailed industry and occupational groups. Good agreement is considered to be present when kappa values exceed 60. Overall kappa values ± standard errors were 74.5 ± 0.5 for simple industry, 72.4 ± 0.5 for detailed industry, 76.3 ± 0.4 for simple occupation, 73.7 ± 0.5 for detailed occupation, and 80.4 ± 0.6 for very broad occupational class. Sixty-five of 73 detailed industry groups and 78 of 81 detailed occupation groups evaluated had good agreement between current and usual jobs. Current job can often serve as a reliable surrogate for usual job in epidemiologic studies.
    Journal of occupational and environmental medicine / American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 08/2013; · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Excluding disinfectants, pyrethrins and pyrethroids are the pesticides used most commonly in and around homes. Respiratory effects and paresthesia are among the concerns about pyrethrin/pyrethroid exposures. Acute pesticide-related illness/injury cases were identified from the Sentinel Event Notification System for Occupational Risks-Pesticides Program and the California Department of Pesticide Regulation from 2000-2008. Characteristics and incidence rates were determined for acute pyrethrin/pyrethroid-related illness/injury cases. Logistic regression analyses were performed to determine odds of respiratory and dermal symptoms in persons with illness/injury following pyrethrin/pyrethroid exposure compared to persons with illness/injury following exposure to other pesticides. A total of 4,974 cases of acute pyrethrin/pyrethroid-related illness were identified. Incidence rates increased over time, reaching 8 cases/million population in 2008. The majority of cases were low severity (85%) and 34% were work-related. Respiratory effects were the most common symptoms reported (48%). Risk of acute respiratory effects were significantly elevated among persons exposed only to pyrethrins (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.79; 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.49-2.16), only to pyrethroids (aOR 1.99 95% CI: 1.77-2.24), to a mixture of pyrethroids (aOR 2.36; 95% CI: 1.99-2.81) or to a mixture containing both pyrethrins and pyrethroids (aOR 2.99; 95% CI: 2.33-3.84) compared to those with illness arising from exposure to other pesticides. The most common factors contributing to pyrethrin/pyrethroid-related illness included exposure from spills/splashes, improper storage, and failure to evacuate during pesticide application. The magnitude of acute pyrethrin/pyrethroid-related illness/injury is relatively low but is increasing. As such, additional measures to prevent them are needed. Am. J. Ind. Med. 9999:1-16, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    American Journal of Industrial Medicine 06/2013; · 1.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Acute severe pesticide-related illness among farm worker children is rarely reported. The authors report a toddler with acute onset of apnea, cyanosis, somnolence, hypotonia, tachycardia, and miosis who required hospitalization. Health care providers suspected pesticide poisoning, but were unable to determine the causal agent. Investigation by a public health program documented four pesticide exposures that occurred within one-half hour of acute illness. This case illustrates the importance of a thorough environmental/occupational exposure history and obtaining biological samples. It also documents the need to strengthen the Worker Protection Standard for agricultural workers and the importance of reporting and investigating pesticide-related illness.
    Journal of Agromedicine 01/2013; 18(4):285-292. · 0.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: Occupational exposure to chlorinated aliphatic solvents has been associated with an increased cancer risk, including brain cancer. However, many of these solvents remain in active, large-volume use. We evaluated glioma risk from non-farm occupational exposure (ever/never and estimated cumulative exposure) to any of the six chlorinated solvents-carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, methylene chloride, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene or 1,1,1-trichloroethane-among 798 cases and 1175 population-based controls, aged 18-80 years and non-metropolitan residents of Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota and Wisconsin. Methods Solvent use was estimated based on occupation, industry and era, using a bibliographic database of published exposure levels and exposure determinants. Unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate ORs adjusted for frequency matching variables age group and sex, and age and education. Additional analyses were limited to 904 participants who donated blood specimens (excluding controls reporting a previous diagnosis of cancer) genotyped for glutathione-S-transferases GSTP1, GSTM3 and GSTT1. Individuals with functional GST genes might convert chlorinated solvents crossing the blood-brain barrier into cytotoxic metabolites. RESULTS: Both estimated cumulative exposure (ppm-years) and ever exposure to chlorinated solvents were associated with decreased glioma risk and were statistically significant overall and for women. In analyses comparing participants with a high probability of exposure with the unexposed, no associations were statistically significant. Solvent-exposed participants with functional GST genes were not at increased risk of glioma. CONCLUSIONS: We observed no associations of glioma risk and chlorinated solvent exposure. Large pooled studies are needed to explore the interaction of genetic pathways and environmental and occupational exposures in glioma aetiology.
    Occupational and environmental medicine 10/2012; · 3.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Little nationally representative information on job insecurity, work-family imbalance, and hostile work environments experienced by workers in the US is available. METHODS: Prevalence rates from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were calculated for three workplace psychosocial factors (job insecurity, work-family imbalance, bullying/harassment) using SUDAAN to account for the complex NHIS sample design. RESULTS: Data were available for 17,524 adults who worked in the 12 months that preceded the interview. Overall prevalence rates were 31.7% for job insecurity, 16.3% for work-family imbalance, and 7.8% for hostile work environment (being bullied or harassed). The highest prevalence rate of job insecurity was found for construction and extraction occupations. Workers in legal occupations had the highest prevalence rate of work-family imbalance. Workers in protective service occupations had the highest prevalence rate of hostile work environment. CONCLUSIONS: We identified demographic characteristics along with industries and occupations with the highest prevalence rates for three adverse workplace psychosocial factors. These data can be used for benchmarking and identification of targets for investigation and intervention activities. Am. J. Ind. Med. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    American Journal of Industrial Medicine 09/2012; · 1.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Surveillance is needed to capture work organization characteristics and to identify their trends. METHODS: Data from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were used to calculate prevalence rates for four work organization characteristics (long work hours, non-standard work arrangements, temporary positions, and alternative shifts) overall, and by demographic characteristics, and industry and occupation of current/recent employment. RESULTS: Data were available for 27,157 adults, of which 65% were current/recent workers. Among adults who worked in the past 12 months, 18.7% worked 48 hr or more per week, 7.2% worked 60 hr or more per week, 18.7% had non-standard work arrangements, 7.2% were in temporary positions, and 28.7% worked an alternative shift. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence rates of work organization characteristics are provided. These national estimates can be used to help occupational health professionals and employers to identify emerging occupational safety and health risks, allow researchers to examine associations with health, and use the data for benchmarking. Am. J. Ind. Med. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    American Journal of Industrial Medicine 08/2012; · 1.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Assess the national prevalence of current workplace exposure to potential skin hazards, secondhand smoke (SHS), and outdoor work among various industry and occupation groups. Also, assess the national prevalence of chronic workplace exposure to vapors, gas, dust, and fumes (VGDF) among these groups. METHODS: Data were obtained from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). NHIS is a multistage probability sample survey of the civilian non-institutionalized population of the US. Prevalence rates and their variances were calculated using SUDAAN to account for the complex NHIS sample design. RESULTS: The data for 2010 were available for 17,524 adults who worked in the 12 months that preceded interview. The highest prevalence rates of hazardous workplace exposures were typically in agriculture, mining, and construction. The prevalence rate of frequent handling of or skin contact with chemicals, and of non-smokers frequently exposed to SHS at work was highest in mining and construction. Outdoor work was most common in agriculture (85%), construction (73%), and mining (65%). Finally, frequent occupational exposure to VGDF was most common among mining (67%), agriculture (53%), and construction workers (51%). CONCLUSION: We identified industries and occupations with the highest prevalence of potentially hazardous workplace exposures, and provided targets for investigation and intervention activities. Am. J. Ind. Med. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    American Journal of Industrial Medicine 07/2012; · 1.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Twenty-two million workers are exposed to hazardous noise in the United States. The purpose of this study is to estimate the prevalence of hearing loss among U.S. industries. METHODS: We examined 2000-2008 audiograms for male and female workers ages 18-65, who had higher occupational noise exposures than the general population. Prevalence and adjusted prevalence ratios (PRs) for hearing loss were estimated and compared across industries. RESULTS: In our sample, 18% of workers had hearing loss. When compared with the Couriers and Messengers industry sub-sector, workers employed in Mining (PR = 1.65, CI = 1.57-1.73), Wood Product Manufacturing (PR = 1.65, CL = 1.61-1.70), Construction of Buildings (PR = 1.52, CI = 1.45-1.59), and Real Estate and Rental and Leasing (PR = 1.59, CL = 1.51-1.68) had higher risks for hearing loss. CONCLUSIONS: Workers in the Mining, Manufacturing, and Construction industries need better engineering controls for noise and stronger hearing conservation strategies. More hearing loss research is also needed within traditional "low-risk" industries like Real Estate. Am. J. Ind. Med. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    American Journal of Industrial Medicine 07/2012; · 1.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: With the exception of agriculture, all other Republic of Korea industrial sectors have comprehensive systems in place for workplace surveillance (i.e., disease, injury, and exposure), research, and targeted interventions. However, because few statistics are available on the occupational health and safety conditions in the Republic of Korea agricultural sector, there is little information to guide interventions to prevent hazardous agricultural exposures. The scant information that is currently available suggests that agriculture ranks among the most hazardous industries in the Republic of Korea. Building on information obtained at the International Symposium on Development of Prevention Strategies for Agricultural Health and Safety held in Suwon, Republic of Korea, in 2005, and embellished with examples of surveillance, research, and intervention activities conducted in the United States and elsewhere, this article provides guidance to promote and protect the health of Korean agricultural workers. This information can also guide other countries to reduce agricultural hazards.
    Journal of Agromedicine 07/2012; 17(3):326-37. · 0.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Understanding glioma etiology requires determining which environmental factors are associated with glioma. Upper Midwest Health Study case-control participant work histories collected 1995-1998 were evaluated for occupational associations with glioma. "Exposures of interest" from our study protocol comprise our a priori hypotheses. Year-long or longer jobs for 1,973 participants were assigned Standard Occupational Classifications (SOC) and Standard Industrial Classifications (SIC). The analysis file includes 8,078 SIC- and SOC-coded jobs. For each individual, SAS 9.2 programs collated employment with identical SIC-SOC coding. Distributions of longest "total employment duration" (total years worked in jobs with identical industry and occupation codes, including multiple jobs, and non-consecutive jobs) were compared between cases and controls, using an industrial hygiene algorithm to group occupations. Longest employment duration was calculated for 780 cases and 1,156 controls. More case than control longest total employment duration was in the "engineer, architect" occupational group [16 cases, 10 controls, odds ratio (OR) 2.50, adjusted for age group, sex, age and education, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.12-5.60]. Employment as a food processing worker [mostly butchers and meat cutters] was of borderline significance (27 cases, 21 controls, adjusted OR: 1.78, CI: 0.99-3.18). Among our exposures of interest work as engineers or as butchers and meat cutters was associated with increased glioma risk. Significant associations could be due to chance, because of multiple comparisons, but similar findings have been reported for other glioma studies. Our results suggest some possible associations but by themselves could not provide conclusive evidence.
    American Journal of Industrial Medicine 06/2012; 55(9):747-55. · 1.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An excess incidence of brain cancer in farmers has been noted in several studies. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health developed the Upper Midwest Health Study (UMHS) as a case-control study of intracranial gliomas and pesticide uses among rural residents. Previous studies of UMHS participants, using "ever-never" exposure to farm pesticides and analyzing men and women separately, found no positive association of farm pesticide exposure and glioma risks. The primary objective was to determine if quantitatively estimated exposure of pesticide applicators was associated with an increased risk of glioma in male and female participants. The study included 798 histologically confirmed primary intracranial glioma cases (45 % with proxy respondents) and 1,175 population-based controls, all adult (age 18-80) non-metropolitan residents of Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin. The analyses used quantitatively estimated exposure from questionnaire responses evaluated by an experienced industrial hygienist with 25 years of work on farm pesticide analyses. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) using unconditional logistic regression modeling were calculated adjusting for frequency-matching variables (10-year age group and sex), and for age and education (a surrogate for socioeconomic status). Analyses were separately conducted with or without proxy respondents. No significant positive associations with glioma were observed with cumulative years or estimated lifetime cumulative exposure of farm pesticide use. There was, a significant inverse association for phenoxy pesticide used on the farm (OR 0.96 per 10 g-years of cumulative exposure, CI 0.93-0.99). No significant findings were observed when proxy respondents were excluded. Non-farm occupational applicators of any pesticide had decreased glioma risk: OR 0.72, CI 0.52-0.99. Similarly, house and garden pesticide applicators had a decreased risk of glioma: OR 0.79, CI 0.66-0.93, with statistically significant inverse associations for use of 2,4-D, arsenates, organophosphates, and phenoxys. These results are consistent with our previous findings for UMHS of reported farm pesticide exposure and support a lack of positive association between pesticides and glioma.
    Environmental Health 06/2012; 11:39. · 2.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Prevalence patterns of dermatitis among workers offer clues about risk factors and targets for prevention, but population-based estimates of the burden of dermatitis among US workers are lacking. METHODS: Data from an occupational health supplement to the 2010 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS-OHS) were used to estimate the prevalence of dermatitis overall and by demographic characteristics and industry and occupation (I&O) of current/recent employment. RESULTS: Data were available for 27,157 adults, including 17,524 current/recent workers. The overall prevalence rate of dermatitis among current/recent workers was 9.8% (range among I&O groups: 5.5-15.4%), representing approximately 15.2 million workers with dermatitis. The highest prevalence rates were among I&O groups related to health care. Overall, 5.6% of dermatitis cases among workers (9.2% among healthcare workers) were attributed to work by health professionals. CONCLUSIONS: Dermatitis affected over 15 million US workers in 2010, and its prevalence varied by demographic characteristics and industry and occupation of employment. The prevalence rate of work-related dermatitis based on the NHIS-OHS was approximately 100-fold higher than incidence rates based on the Bureau of Labor Statistics' Survey of Occupational Illness and Injury. Am. J. Ind. Med. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
    American Journal of Industrial Medicine 06/2012; · 1.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract A total of 18 708 male cases of leukemia from the California Cancer Registry, including 1703 cases usually employed in construction, were each matched with up to five controls from the same source who were diagnosed with cancers not thought to be related to exposures common in construction. Compared to other workers, construction workers were found to have a significantly elevated risk for all leukemia combined (morbidity odds ratio [MOR] = 1.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08, 1.20), acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) (MOR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.07, 1.58), acute myeloid leukemia (AML) (MOR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.03, 1.27) and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) (MOR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.09, 1.44). Among the different construction occupations, the highest MOR for all leukemia was among carpet installers (MOR = 1.99, 95% CI = 1.16, 3.44), followed by plumbers (MOR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.03, 1.59) and laborers (MOR = 1.26, 95% CI = 1.12, 1.42). Other associations were limited to specific construction occupations, leukemia subtypes and/or racial/ethnic groups. These associations should be further studied with more in-depth exposure assessment.
    Leukemia & lymphoma 05/2012; 53(11):2228-36. · 2.40 Impact Factor