Geoffrey M Calvert

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Атланта, Michigan, United States

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Publications (105)397.89 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to estimate the incidence and prevalence of hearing loss for noise-exposed U.S. workers by industry sector and 5-year time period, covering 30 years. Audiograms for 1.8 million workers from 1981-2010 were examined. Incidence and prevalence were estimated by industry sector and time period. The adjusted risk of incident hearing loss within each time period and industry sector as compared with a reference time period was also estimated. The adjusted risk for incident hearing loss decreased over time when all industry sectors were combined. However, the risk remained high for workers in Healthcare and Social Assistance, and the prevalence was consistently high for Mining and Construction workers. While progress has been made in reducing the risk of incident hearing loss within most industry sectors, additional efforts are needed within Mining, Construction and Healthcare and Social Assistance. Am. J. Ind. Med. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    American Journal of Industrial Medicine 02/2015; 58(4). DOI:10.1002/ajim.22429
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    ABSTRACT: Background Cancer and chronic disease are leading causes of death in the US with an estimated cost of $46 billion.Methods We analyzed 11 million cause-specific deaths of US workers age 18–64 years in 30 states during 1985–1999, 2003–2004, and 2007 by occupation, industry, race, gender, and Hispanic origin.ResultsThe highest significantly elevated proportionate leukemia mortality was observed in engineers, protective service, and advertising sales manager occupations and in banks/savings &loans/credit agencies, public safety, and public administration industries. The highest significantly elevated smoking-adjusted acute myocardial infarction mortality was noted in industrial and refractory machinery mechanics, farmers, mining machine operators, and agricultural worker occupations; and wholesale farm supplies, agricultural chemical, synthetic rubber, and agricultural crop industries.Conclusions Significantly elevated risks for acute myocardial infarction and leukemia were observed across several occupations and industries that confirm existing reports and add new information. Interested investigators can access the NOMS website at Am. J. Ind. Med. 58:123–137, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    American Journal of Industrial Medicine 02/2015; 58(2). DOI:10.1002/ajim.22408
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Twenty-two million workers are exposed to hazardous noise in the United States. The purpose of this study is to estimate the prevalence of hearing loss among U.S. industries. METHODS: We examined 2000-2008 audiograms for male and female workers ages 18-65, who had higher occupational noise exposures than the general population. Prevalence and adjusted prevalence ratios (PRs) for hearing loss were estimated and compared across industries. RESULTS: In our sample, 18% of workers had hearing loss. When compared with the Couriers and Messengers industry sub-sector, workers employed in Mining (PR = 1.65, CI = 1.57-1.73), Wood Product Manufacturing (PR = 1.65, CL = 1.61-1.70), Construction of Buildings (PR = 1.52, CI = 1.45-1.59), and Real Estate and Rental and Leasing (PR = 1.59, CL = 1.51-1.68) had higher risks for hearing loss. CONCLUSIONS: Workers in the Mining, Manufacturing, and Construction industries need better engineering controls for noise and stronger hearing conservation strategies. More hearing loss research is also needed within traditional "low-risk" industries like Real Estate. Am. J. Ind. Med. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    American Journal of Industrial Medicine 10/2014; 57(10). DOI:10.1002/ajim.22082
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To explore associations between self-reported hypertension and workplace psychosocial factors that are common among U.S. workers and to identify industries and occupations (I&Os) that are associated with a high prevalence of hypertension, even after adjustment for common known risk factors.Methods Data from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey were used to examine relationships between the prevalence of self-reported hypertension and job insecurity, hostile work environment, work- family imbalance, work hours and I&O.ResultsJob insecurity (adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR): 1.11; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04–1.19)) and hostile work environment (aPR: 1.15; 95% CI: 1.03–1.29) were significantly associated with hypertension. Hypertension prevalence was significantly elevated among those employed in Healthcare Support occupations and Public Administration industries.Conclusion Addressing hostile work environments and the stress associated with job insecurity may improve workers' health. Other occupational factors that contribute to the variation in prevalence of hypertension by I&O should be sought. Am. J. Ind. Med. 57:1011–1021, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    American Journal of Industrial Medicine 09/2014; 57(9). DOI:10.1002/ajim.22345
  • Sara E Luckhaupt, Geoffrey M Calvert
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular disease accounts for one in three deaths in the United States each year, and coronary heart disease and stroke account for most of those deaths. To try to prevent 1 million heart attacks and strokes by 2017, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services launched the Million Hearts initiative, promoting proven and effective interventions in communities and clinical settings. In workplace settings, cardiovascular disease can be addressed through a Total Worker Health program, which integrates occupational safety and health protection with health promotion. To identify workers likely to benefit from such a program, CDC analyzed data from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) for the period 2008-2012 to estimate the prevalence of a history of coronary heart disease or stroke (CHD/stroke) among adults aged <55 years by selected characteristics, employment status, occupation category, and industry of employment. The results of that analysis showed that 1.9% of employed adults aged <55 years reported a history of CHD/stroke, compared with 2.5% of unemployed adults looking for work, and 6.3% of adults not in the labor force (e.g., unemployed adults who stopped looking for work, homemakers, students, retired persons, and disabled persons). Workers employed in service and blue collar occupations were more likely than those in white collar occupations to report a history of CHD/stroke. Two industry groups also had significantly higher adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs) for CHD/stroke: Administrative and Support and Waste Management and Remediation Services* and Accommodation and Food Service.† Workers in these occupation and industry groups might especially benefit from a Total Worker Health approach to reducing the risk for CHD/stroke.
  • Gamola Z Fortenberry, Geoffrey Calvert
    2014 Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists Annual Conference; 06/2014
  • Geoffrey Calvert
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Since 1987, acute occupational pesticide-related illness and injury has been one of the conditions under surveillance by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). NIOSH supports these surveillance activities by providing cooperative agreement funding and technical support to state health departments. The program conducting these activities is the Sentinel Event Notification System for Occupational Risks (SENSOR)-Pesticides Program. SENSOR-Pesticides is also partially funded by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). METHODS: Cases of acute pesticide-related illness and injury are identified and investigated by agencies in 12 states that participate in the SENSOR-Pesticides program. Data are submitted annually by each state agency to NIOSH, and NIOSH aggregates the data to produce a national database. The SENSOR-Pesticides program also provides timely identification of emerging pesticide problems. RESULTS: An update on recent findings and impacts from the SENSOR-Pesticides program will be provided. Among other things, the program highlights the risks faced by agricultural workers. Agricultural workers have a 10-fold higher risk of acute pesticide poisoning compared to workers in other industries. EPA is currently working on regulations to enhance farmworker protections, and these regulatory updates are, in part, being guided by SENSOR-Pesticides findings and recommendations. In 2013, findings from the SENSOR-Pesticides program were published in MMWR and peer-reviewed journals. These included an MMWR article on a case of acute acrolein poisoning. The peer-reviewed journal articles included one on the characteristics and magnitude of acute pesticide-related illnesses associated with pyrethrins and pyrethroids, and another describing a child of farmworker parents with high severity acute pesticide-related illness. CONCLUSIONS: The SENSOR-Pesticides program is considered the principal source of pesticide-related surveillance data in the US, and perhaps the world. It is a vital source of data for EPA to use when assessing whether pesticides are producing any unreasonable harm to human health.
    2014 Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists Annual Conference; 06/2014
  • Soo-Jeong Lee, Sangwoo Tak, Toni Alterman, Geoffrey M Calvert
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Ergonomic risks from agricultural tasks can compromise musculoskeletal health of workers. This study estimated prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms in a sample representing almost 2 million US agricultural industry workers. This study used National Health Interview Survey data from 2004 to 2008. Weighted prevalence was calculated by demographic and employment factors. Prevalence ratios were calculated using generalized linear models with the Poisson distribution assumption. Prevalence rates of low back and neck pain in the previous 3 months were 24.3% and 10.5%, respectively, among agricultural workers. Monthly prevalence of joint pain was 17.0% for hips/knees, 9.8% for shoulders, 9.5% for wrists/hands, 5.4% for elbows, and 4.7% for ankles/toes. Agricultural workers had a significantly higher prevalence of shoulder pain than all other industry workers (prevalence ratios [PR] = 1.28, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02-1.61). This study provides detailed national estimates of musculoskeletal symptom prevalence to understand the burden and the need for intervention among agricultural workers.
    Journal of Agromedicine 06/2014; 19(3):268-80. DOI:10.1080/1059924X.2014.916642
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    ABSTRACT: During an influenza pandemic, information about the industry and occupation (I&O) of persons likely to be infected with influenza virus is important to guide key policy decisions regarding vaccine prioritization and exposure-control measures. Health-care personnel (HCP) might have increased opportunity for exposure to influenza infection, and they have been prioritized for influenza vaccination because of their own risk and the risk that infected HCP pose to patients. To identify other groups of workers that might be at increased risk for pandemic influenza infection, influenza-like illness (ILI) and vaccination coverage data from the 2009 National H1N1 Flu Survey (NHFS), which was conducted during October 2009 through June 2010, were analyzed. In a representative sample of 28,710 employed adults, 5.5% reported ILI symptoms in the month before the interview, and 23.7% received the 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) influenza vaccine. Among employed adults, the highest prevalence of ILI was reported by those employed in the industry groups "Real estate and rental and leasing" (10.5%) and "Accommodation and food services" (10.2%), and in the occupation groups "Food preparation and serving related" (11.0%) and "Community and social services" (8.3%). Both seasonal influenza and pH1N1 vaccination coverage were relatively low in all of these groups of workers. Adults not in the labor force (i.e., homemakers, students, retired persons, and persons unable to work) had ILI prevalence and pH1N1 vaccination coverage similar to those found in all employed adults combined; in contrast, ILI prevalence was higher and pH1N1 vaccination coverage was lower among unemployed adults (i.e., those looking for work). These results suggest that adults employed in certain industries and occupations might have increased risk for influenza infection, and that the majority of these workers did not receive seasonal or pH1N1 influenza vaccine. Unemployed adults might also be considered a high risk group for influenza.
    MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report 03/2014; 63(10):217-21.
  • Sara E Luckhaupt, Martha A Cohen, Jia Li, Geoffrey M Calvert
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    ABSTRACT: Along with public health and clinical professionals, employers are taking note of rising obesity rates among their employees, as obesity is strongly related to chronic health problems and concomitant increased healthcare costs. Contributors to the obesity epidemic are complex and numerous, and may include several work characteristics. To explore associations between occupational factors and obesity among U.S. workers. Data from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey were utilized to calculate weighted prevalence rates and prevalence ratios (PRs) for obesity in relation to workweek length, work schedule, work arrangement, hostile work environment, job insecurity, work-family imbalance, and industry and occupation of employment. Data were collected in 2010 and analyzed in 2012-2013. Overall, 27.7% of U.S. workers met the BMI criterion for obesity. Among all workers, employment for more than 40 hours per week and exposure to a hostile work environment were significantly associated with an increased prevalence of obesity, although the differences were modest. Employment in health care and social assistance and public administration industries, as well as architecture and engineering, community and social service, protective service, and office and administrative support occupations was also associated with increased obesity prevalence. Work-related factors may contribute to the high prevalence of obesity in the U.S. working population. Public health professionals and employers should consider workplace interventions that target organization-level factors, such as scheduling and prevention of workplace hostility, along with individual-level factors such as diet and exercise.
    American journal of preventive medicine 03/2014; 46(3):237-48. DOI:10.1016/j.amepre.2013.11.002
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    ABSTRACT: Alternative shift work is classified as a probable human carcinogen. Certain cancer screening tests reduce cancer mortality. The 2010 National Health Interview Survey was used to examine associations between adherence to breast, cervical, and colon cancer screening recommendations and alternative shift work among female workers. Workers on alternative shifts, compared to workers on daytime shifts, were more likely to be non-adherent to screening recommendations for breast (34% vs. 23%) and colorectal (55% vs. 48%) cancer (P < 0.05). Workers on alternative shifts in two industries ("Manufacturing" and "Accommodation/Food Services") and three occupations ("Food Preparation/Serving," "Personal Care Services," and "Production") were more likely to be non-adherent to screening recommendations for at least two cancers (P < 0.05). The Affordable Care Act eliminates out-of-pocket screening expenses for these three cancers. Greater efforts are needed to promote this benefit, particularly among workers with demonstrated non-adherence. Am. J. Ind. Med. 57:265-275, 2014. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
    American Journal of Industrial Medicine 03/2014; 57(3):265-75. DOI:10.1002/ajim.22285
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the most common type of leukemia found in adults. Identifying jobs that pose a risk for AML may be useful for identifying new risk factors. A matched case-control analysis was conducted using California Cancer Registry data from 1988 to 2007. This study included 8,999 AML cases and 24,822 controls. Industries with a statistically significant increased AML risk were construction (matched odds ratio [mOR]=1.13), crop production (mOR=1.41), support activities for agriculture and forestry (mOR = 2.05), and animal slaughtering and processing (mOR = 2.09). Among occupations with a statistically significant increased AML risk were miscellaneous agricultural workers (mOR = 1.76); fishers and related fishing workers (mOR = 2.02); nursing, psychiatric, and home health aides (mOR = 1.65); and janitors and building cleaners (mOR = 1.54). Further investigation is needed to confirm study findings and to identify specific exposures responsible for the increased risks.
    Leukemia & lymphoma 02/2014; DOI:10.3109/10428194.2014.894189
  • Lee C Yong, Sara E Luckhaupt, Jia Li, Geoffrey M Calvert
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the prevalence of cigarette smoking cessation and examine the association between cessation and various factors among workers in a nationally representative sample of US adults. Data were derived from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey. Prevalence rates were calculated for interest in quitting smoking, making an attempt to quit smoking, and successful smoking cessation (defined as smokers who had quit for 6-12 months). Logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with cessation after adjustment for demographic characteristics (age group, race/ethnicity, educational level and marital status). Data were available for 17 524 adults who were employed in the 12 months prior to interview. The prevalence of quit interest, quit attempt and recent cessation was 65.2%, 53.8% and 6.8%, respectively. Quit interest was less likely among workers with long work hours, but more likely among workers with job insecurity, or frequent workplace skin and/or respiratory exposures. Quit attempt was more likely among workers with a hostile work environment but less likely among workers living in a home that permitted smoking or who smoked ≥11 cigarettes/day. Recent smoking cessation was less likely among workers with frequent exposure to others smoking at work or living in a home that permitted smoking, but more likely among workers with health insurance. Factors associated with cessation interest or attempt differed from those associated with successful cessation. Cessation success might be improved by reducing exposure to others smoking at work and home, and by improving access to health insurance.
    Occupational and environmental medicine 02/2014; 71(6). DOI:10.1136/oemed-2013-101852
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    ABSTRACT: Dichlorvos-impregnated resin strips (DDVP pest strips) are among the few organophosphate products still available for indoor residential use. The residential uses for most other organophosphate products, including most DDVP products, were canceled because they posed unreasonable risks to children. DDVP pest strips act by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase activity in the brain and nerves of insect pests and are designed to gradually release DDVP vapor for up to 4 months. Acute illnesses in humans associated with nonlethal acute exposures usually resolve completely, but recovery is not always rapid. To assess the frequency of acute illnesses associated with DDVP pest strips, cases from 2000 through June 2013 were sought from the 12 states that participate in the Sentinel Event Notification System for Occupational Risks (SENSOR)-Pesticides Program, the National Pesticide Information Center (NPIC), and Health Canada.* A total of 31 acute DDVP pest strip-related illness cases were identified in seven U.S. states and Canada. The majority of these illnesses resulted from use of the product in commonly occupied living areas (e.g., kitchens and bedrooms), in violation of label directions. Although 26 of the 31 cases involved mild health effects of short duration, five persons had moderate health effects. Illnesses caused by excess exposure to DDVP pest strips can be reduced by educating the public about the proper usage of DDVP pest strips and with improvements in label directions.
    MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report 01/2014; 63(2):42-3.
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    ABSTRACT: Excluding disinfectants, pyrethrins and pyrethroids are the pesticides used most commonly in and around homes. Respiratory effects and paresthesia are among the concerns about pyrethrin/pyrethroid exposures. Acute pesticide-related illness/injury cases were identified from the Sentinel Event Notification System for Occupational Risks-Pesticides Program and the California Department of Pesticide Regulation from 2000-2008. Characteristics and incidence rates were determined for acute pyrethrin/pyrethroid-related illness/injury cases. Logistic regression analyses were performed to determine odds of respiratory and dermal symptoms in persons with illness/injury following pyrethrin/pyrethroid exposure compared to persons with illness/injury following exposure to other pesticides. A total of 4,974 cases of acute pyrethrin/pyrethroid-related illness were identified. Incidence rates increased over time, reaching 8 cases/million population in 2008. The majority of cases were low severity (85%) and 34% were work-related. Respiratory effects were the most common symptoms reported (48%). Risk of acute respiratory effects were significantly elevated among persons exposed only to pyrethrins (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.79; 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.49-2.16), only to pyrethroids (aOR 1.99 95% CI: 1.77-2.24), to a mixture of pyrethroids (aOR 2.36; 95% CI: 1.99-2.81) or to a mixture containing both pyrethrins and pyrethroids (aOR 2.99; 95% CI: 2.33-3.84) compared to those with illness arising from exposure to other pesticides. The most common factors contributing to pyrethrin/pyrethroid-related illness included exposure from spills/splashes, improper storage, and failure to evacuate during pesticide application. The magnitude of acute pyrethrin/pyrethroid-related illness/injury is relatively low but is increasing. As such, additional measures to prevent them are needed. Am. J. Ind. Med. 9999:1-16, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    American Journal of Industrial Medicine 01/2014; 57(1). DOI:10.1002/ajim.22216
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    American Journal of Industrial Medicine 01/2014; 57(1):127-8. DOI:10.1002/ajim.22276
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    ABSTRACT: Background and Objectives: Several studies have suggested associations between hypertension and certain work organization and psychosocial occupational exposures, but most of these have been small and/or restricted to specific industry or occupational groups. The goal of this study was to explore these associations among a nationally representative sample of US workers. Methods: Data from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey, which included an occupational health supplement, were used to examine relationships between the prevalence of self-reported hypertension and long work hours, job insecurity, hostile work environment, and work- family imbalance. The prevalence of hypertension by occupation and industry of employment was also examined. Multivariate analyses were performed using survey logistic regression models. Results: Data were available for 17,494 adults who worked in past 12 months. Job insecurity (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 1.18; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06-1.31) and hostile work environment (aOR: 1.24; 95% CI: 1.05-1.48) were found to be significantly associated with hypertension. In addition, after controlling for demographic factors, job insecurity, and hostile work environment, employment in the following occupations/industries (O/I) appeared to increase the odds of hypertension compared to employment in all other O/I combined: Healthcare support occupations (aOR: 1.56; 95% CI: 1.16-2.09), Public administration industries (aOR: 1.34; 95%CI: 1.10-1.64), and Healthcare and social assistance industries (aOR: 1.21; 95% CI: 1.04-1.40). Conclusion: We found evidence for associations between job insecurity and hostile work environments and self-reported hypertension. We also found variation in the prevalence of hypertension among workers in different industry and occupation categories.
    141st APHA Annual Meeting and Exposition 2013; 11/2013
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    ABSTRACT: By pooling data from six studies that participated in the Upper-Extremity Musculoskeletal Disorder Consortium (UEMSD), Dale et al's recent publication "Prevalence and incidence of carpal tunnel syndrome in US working populations: pooled analysis of six prospective studies" (1) provides an important contribution to the literature on carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) among US workers. Although the main purpose of the UEMSD was not to estimate the national prevalence of CTS but rather to evaluate the relationship between workplace factors and upper-extremity health outcomes, Dale et al's reported baseline prevalence rate of CTS (7.8%) might be considered one of the best estimates of the true prevalence of CTS among US workers performing hand-intensive activities. Another recently published estimate of the prevalence of CTS among US workers is based on data collected through an Occupational Health Supplement (OHS) to the 2010 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) (2). The 2010 NHIS-OHS asked participants if a clinician had ever diagnosed them as having CTS, and, if so, whether they had CTS in the past 12 months. According to the 2010 NHIS-OHS, the 12-month prevalence of self-reported clinician-diagnosed CTS among current/recent workers is 3.1%, or 4.8 million workers. Clinicians attributed almost two thirds of these cases to work (2). There are several reasons why the 12-month prevalence estimate based on the 2010 NHIS-OHS is substantially lower than the baseline prevalence of CTS in the UEMSD study. Dale et al mention two of the main reasons: "While CTS rates depend on the physical exposures and other characteristics of the population under study, they are also affected by the study design and CTS case definitions used to define the disease." The UEMSD study population was not designed to be representative of the US population but instead had a high proportion of participants employed in manufacturing and other hand-intensive jobs. However, the UEMSD study assessed all participating workers and used a rigorous case definition of CTS that was based on symptoms and electrodiagnostic studies. In contrast, the NHIS-OHS sample was designed to be representative of the US adult population. For this reason, the prevalence estimate based on the NHIS-OHS would be expected to be a more accurate national estimate. However, since the 2010 NHIS-OHS estimate is based on self-reported clinician diagnoses of CTS, it has several limitations including: (i) it did not capture workers with CTS who did not seek healthcare or were misdiagnosed; (ii) no information was available on how the clinician made the CTS diagnosis; and (ii) there was total reliance on the worker's memory to accurately recall the CTS diagnosis. This comparison highlights the need to employ multiple methods to understand the true burden of common work-related disorders in the general population. The 2010 NHIS-OHS and UEMSD estimates probably bookend the true national prevalence of CTS among workers, as it likely lies somewhere between the 3.1% and 7.8% estimates from the 2010 NHIS-OHS and the UEMSD study, respectively.
    Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health 10/2013; 40(1). DOI:10.5271/sjweh.3391
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Acute severe pesticide-related illness among farm worker children is rarely reported. The authors report a toddler with acute onset of apnea, cyanosis, somnolence, hypotonia, tachycardia, and miosis who required hospitalization. Health care providers suspected pesticide poisoning, but were unable to determine the causal agent. Investigation by a public health program documented four pesticide exposures that occurred within one-half hour of acute illness. This case illustrates the importance of a thorough environmental/occupational exposure history and obtaining biological samples. It also documents the need to strengthen the Worker Protection Standard for agricultural workers and the importance of reporting and investigating pesticide-related illness.
    Journal of Agromedicine 10/2013; 18(4):285-292. DOI:10.1080/1059924X.2013.826606
  • Annals of Epidemiology 09/2013; 23(9):596-597. DOI:10.1016/j.annepidem.2013.06.082

Publication Stats

1k Citations
397.89 Total Impact Points


  • 1999–2015
    • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
      • Division of Surveillance, Hazard Evaluations, and Field Studies (DSHEFS)
      Атланта, Michigan, United States
    • University of Utah
      • Rocky Mountain Center for Occupational and Environmental Health
      Salt Lake City, Utah, United States
  • 2012
    • University of California, Irvine
      • Department of Family Medicine
      Irvine, California, United States