[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phosphatase of regenerating liver (PRL) belongs to a class of the protein tyrosine phosphatase family, which is known so far to consist of 3 members, PRL-1, PRL-2, and PRL-3. The aim of this study was to uncover the role of PRL genes in development of oral malignancy. We analyzed expression levels of the 3 PRL genes in 50 human oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs), 11 dysplasia and 12 normal mucosa tissues by a real-time RT-PCR method. PRL-3 but not PRL-1 or PRL-2 expressions were significantly higher in OSCC and dysplasia than in normal mucosa tissues. Additionally, PRL-3 expressions were significantly higher in OSCC tissues harboring dominant-negative p53 or recessive p53 mutation than in those harboring wild-type p53. These results suggest that PRL-3 plays a role in oral cancer development and can be useful as a marker of pre-malignant and malignant lesion of oral mucosa.
Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP 01/2011; 12(4):947-51. · 1.50 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with an oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) often develop multiple malignant lesions. This report examined whether individual tumours developed in a patient show the same genetic alteration, such as p53 mutations. This case study describes three SCCs and three leukoplakias which developed simultaneously in a single 67-year-old Japanese man. A p53 mutation was detected in two of the three SCCs and one of the three leukoplakias. One SCC had a missense mutation at codon 285 (GAG>AAG, Glu>Lys) and the other a nonsense mutation at codon 336, and the leukoplakia had a missense mutation at codon 273 (CGT>CAT, Arg>His). This case showed that individual oral tumours may have different genetic changes even when they develop in a single patient. Therefore, this report provided strong evidence that in cases of multiple tumours it is necessary to design tailor-made therapies for each individual tumour rather than a single standardised therapy for all multiple tumours.
Anticancer research 11/2010; 30(11):4773-8. · 1.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is a significant mediator in the proliferation of cancer-associated stromal fibroblasts (CAFs). The inhibition of CAF proliferation by blocking PDGF signaling could lead to a development of novel cancer therapy. We analyzed whether inhibiting proliferation of lung CAFs by imatinib mesylate, which has inhibitory activity on PDGF-receptor tyrosine kinase, could suppress the proliferative activity of lung cancer cells which coexisted in the tumor tissue. First, we established primary cultured fibroblasts from human lung cancer tissues. RT-PCR analysis showed that PDGF-receptors (PDGFRalpha and beta) were more highly expressed in the fibroblasts, whereas PDGFs (PDGF-A, and -B) were more in lung cancer cell lines. Western blotting showed that imatinib treatment inhibited phosphorylation of PDGFRbeta, Akt, and Erk1/2 in the fibroblasts. The treatment also significantly inhibited the proliferative activity of the fibroblasts. The inhibitory effects were exerted more definitely in co-administering imatinib and PDGF-BB, a dimer of the polypeptide chains of B, than in administering imatinib alone. The conditioned media of the fibroblasts significantly increased the proliferative activity of human lung cancer cell line A549 compared to control culture medium. The proliferation-stimulating effect on A549 cells decreased significantly in the conditioned media of the primary cultured fibroblasts that had been treated with imatinib. Our results suggest that imatinib has antitumor activity which is exerted by reducing the proliferation-stimulating effect of CAFs on lung cancer cells, as well as inhibiting the proliferation of CAFs, by way of blocking PDGF signaling.
International Journal of Oncology 10/2010; 37(4):869-77. · 2.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: HOX genes are known as master regulator genes which give cells positional information in embryogenesis. In this study, we compared the expression patterns of 39 HOX genes among human colorectal carcinomas from the right large intestine (cecum, ascending and transverse colon), those from the left large intestine (discending and sigmoid colon, and rectum) and hepatocellular carcinoma. The expression levels of each HOX gene were quantified by analysis based on the real-time RT-PCR. The expression patterns of HOX genes in colorectal and hepatocellular carcinoma tissues differed from those in their normal or non-cancerous tissues. Between the tumor tissues in the right-side large intestine and those in the left-side, different HOX genes were expressed in association with cancer. Further, the expression levels of HOXD8 in liver-metastatic tissues of colorectal carcinomas were as low as in non-cancerous liver tissues, and were significantly lower than those in the primary tissues. These results suggest that dysregulated expressions of HOX genes play an important role in carcinogenesis and malignant progression of colorectal and hepatocellular carcinomas.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: More than half of all human cancers are associated with mutations of the TP53 gene. In regard to the functional interaction with the remaining wild-type (WT) p53 allele, p53 mutations are classified into two types, recessive and dominant-negative (DN) mutations. The latter mutant protein has a DN activity over the remaining WT allele. We previously showed that the DN p53 mutant was useful as a predictor of poor outcome or a risk factor for metastatic recurrence in patients with some types of cancers, regardless of the presence or absence of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of WT p53, suggesting that the DN p53 had 'gain-of-function (GOF)' activity besides the transdominance function. In this study, we investigated GOF activity of two DN p53 mutants which had a point mutation at codon 248 (R248Q and R248W), one of the hot spots, by transfecting them respectively into H1299 cells which originally expressed no p53 protein. Growth activity of the transfectants with the two mutants was not different from that of parent or Mock transfectants. Meanwhile, in vitro invasions of Matrigel and type I collagen gel by R248Q-transfectants were significantly higher than those by R248W-transfectants or the control cells. However, there were no differences in cell motile activities, expressions of extracellular matrix-degradative enzymes such as matrix metalloproteinases, urokinase-type plasminogen activator and heparanase, and their inhibitors, between R248Q- and R248W-transfectants. These findings indicate that the p53 mutants have a different quality in GOF activities even if the mutations occurred at the same codon. And detailed information of the status of p53, including transdominancy and GOF activity, is expected to be useful for diagnosis and therapeutic strategy fitting the individual patients.
Biomedical Research 01/2010; 31(6):401-11. · 1.15 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Melanoma has a high tendency to metastasize to lymph nodes, which is one of the clinicopathological factors to indicate poor prognosis. Recent investigations have shown the importance of lymphangiogenesis in lymph node metastasis in a variety of human tumors including melanoma. However, molecular mechanism of lymphatic metastasis is still poorly defined. We examined influence of interactions between normal lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) and melanoma cells on cell migration. Medium conditioned with LEC (LEC-CM) contained chemotactic and chemokinetic activities for human melanoma cell lines. The chemotactic activity was fractionated in more than 100 kDa, and inactivated by heat-treatment. The chemotactic activity of LEC-CM was abolished by immunodepletion with anti-laminin-1 antibody. And immunoprecipitation and Western blot analyses revealed that LEC-CM contained laminin-421. When melanoma C8161 cells were treated with function-blocking antibodies to integrin alpha3 or alpha6, their chemotactic responses to LEC-CM were markedly reduced. Furthermore, the knock-down of tetraspanin CD151 weakened the chemotactic responses of C8161 and MeWo cells to LEC-CM. These data suggest that laminin-421 secreted by LEC possibly facilitates lymphatic metastasis through the induction of chemotaxis of melanoma cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We hypothesize that dysregulated expression levels of the developmental regulatory genes in the adult body result in tumor development and malignant progression. PAX genes discovered as human orthologous genes of Drosophila 'paired' encode transcription factors, which control the expression of target genes to go on along the program of development. In this study, we first quantified expression of 9 PAX genes in human nevus pigmentosus tissues, melanoma tissues and melanoma cell lines by the real-time reverse transcription-PCR method. As a result, we found that the expression levels of PAX4 and PAX9 were extremely low in melanoma tissues and cell lines compared to nevus pigmentosus tissues. We then established melanoma cells overexpressing PAX4 and examined roles of PAX4 in cell growth. PAX4-overexpression reduced in vitro cell growth of human melanoma C8161 and MeWo cells. BrdU-uptake assay and cell cycle analysis by flow cytometry indicated that the retardation of cell proliferation by PAX4-overexpression was due to decreased DNA synthesis and cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase. Furthermore, treatment of C8161 and MeWo cells with 5-azacytidine, a DNA demethylating agent, induced the expression of PAX4, suggesting that DNA methylation repressed the PAX4 gene expression in human melanoma. These results suggest that PAX4 functions as a potent tumor suppressor.
International Journal of Oncology 12/2008; 33(5):1065-71. · 2.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this research was to identify biomarkers for predicting cervical lymph node metastasis in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). We surveyed the expressions of 1289 cancer-related genes in 41 cases of OSCC by cDNA array analysis. We extracted genes upregulated or downregulated in their expression in association with lymph node metastasis. Of 1289 cancer-related genes, we identified 39 genes differentially expressed in OSCC with or without lymph node metastasis. Expression levels of 9 genes were lower, and those of 30 genes were higher, in node-positive cases. The genes expressed at higher levels in node-positive cases included angiogenesis-related molecules, cell adhesion molecules, and proteolytic enzymes. We suggest that these characteristic genes could provide, if verifiable, useful information for predicting the risk of lymph node metastasis in OSCC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genetic alteration of p53 is a significant determining factor in the carcinogenesis. The loss of function, mutant p53 can possess a dominant negative effect on wild-type p53 and may also exert gain-of-function activity. It is, however, not clear how p53 functional status due to various types of mutation results in outcome of patients with oral cancer. A total of 60 oral SCC samples were subjected to yeast functional assay that screens human p53 function in yeast, and sequencing for determination of p53 mutations. The detected mutants were further investigated for their dominant negative activity using a yeast-based transdominance assay that tests dominant negative activity of a mutant p53 over wild-type p53 by coexpressing the mutant and wild-type p53 in a yeast transcriptional reporter system. p53 mutation was found in 42 out of 60 of which 10 (24%) exhibited dominant negative activity and 32 (76%) without dominant activity (recessive mutation). The remaining 18 (30%) were considered to have wild-type p53. The patients with dominant negative mutation had significantly shorter disease-free survival than patients with no mutation (log-rank test, p<0.001) and those with a recessive mutation (p<0.016). There were slight significant differences in disease-free survival were found between the patients with tumours harbouring a recessive p53 mutation and those with tumours harbouring a wild-type p53 (p<0.038). The presence and absence of a dominant negative p53 mutation may thus provide a predictor of early recurrence in oral SCC patients.
Cancer letters 06/2008; 270(1):108-19. · 5.02 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been implicated in the genesis of a variety of human cancers. We aimed to confirm the presence and define the role of EBV in bladder cancer.
A total of 39 bladder cancer specimens were analyzed. Ten urinary bladder tissues obtained at autopsy were used as a normal control. EBV-encoded RNA (EBER) was evaluated by in situ hybridization (ISH). Frozen material available from 18 EBER-positive cases was analyzed by using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for BZLF1, an early lytic gene product. The expression of CD20, CD3, ZEBRA (BZLF1 product) and transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFbeta-1) was assessed using an immunohistochemical technique.
Infiltration of EBER-expressing lymphocytes was detected in 26 of 39 bladder cancer cases (66.7%). A small fraction of the tumor cells as well as the infiltrating lymphocytes were positive in two cases. All normal urinary bladder specimens showed negative results. The incidence of EBV-positive lymphocyte infiltration was significantly higher for advanced stage cancers than those in earlier stages (Ta-152% vs T2-4 93%, P = 0.013). The presence of BZLF1 mRNA was demonstrated in seven out of the 18 EBER-positive cases.
Infiltration of EBV-harboring lymphocytes occurs in a large subset of bladder cancers cases. It is more frequently associated with advanced stages. EBV infection in tumor cells is very limited. Our findings suggest that EBV-positive lymphocytes might play a role in bladder cancer progression.
International Journal of Urology 06/2008; 15(5):429-34. · 1.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We examined expression patterns of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP), and reversion-inducing cysteine-rich protein with Kazal motifs (RECK) in colorectal cancer tissues to assess their prognostic significance.
mRNA expressions of 17 MMPs, 4 TIMPs, and RECK were measured in 112 colorectal cancerous tissues, 20 normal mucosa tissues, and 11 metastatic liver lesions by real-time reverse-transcriptional-polymerase chain reaction. The protein level expressions were confirmed with immunohistochemistry.
Cancers and normal mucosa displayed highly significant differences (P < 0.01) in expression of nine genes (MMP-1, -3, -7, -9, -10, -11, -12, -14, and RECK). Primary cancers and metastatic lesions showed highly significant differences (P < 0.01) in MMP-1, -10, -11, and TIMP-1. MMP-12 expression was higher in the primary tumors that were associated without hepatic metastasis than those with metastasis (P < 0.01). High expression of MMP-15 was related to longer disease-free survival (generalized Wilcoxon test, P < 0.0062; Cox hazard model, P < 0.028, hazard ratio, 0.099).
MMP, TIMP, RECK expression patterns may provide an insight into extracellular matrix degrading (which is characteristic of colorectal cancers) and its role in metastasis.
Journal of Surgical Research 06/2008; 146(1):32-42. · 2.02 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP-1) degrades extracellular matrix and thereby promotes tumor invasion and progression. In this study we examined the prognostic significance of tissue expression levels of MMP-1 mRNA in patients with invasive breast carcinoma.
We assessed the prognostic value of MMP-1 mRNA expression in tumor tissue specimens from 85 breast carcinoma patients with a median follow-up time of 38 months (range, 2-48 months). MMP-1 mRNA levels were measured by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (real time RT-PCR). The results were correlated with various clinicopathological parameters and clinical outcomes.
mRNA expression levels of MMP-1 were higher in tumor tissue specimens than in adjacent normal breast tissue specimens from 15 patients (P < 0.023). MMP-1 mRNA levels showed no significant relationship with either tumor size or axillary node status but correlated inversely with estrogen receptor levels (P < 0.0043). High MMP-1 mRNA expression as determined by real-time RT-PCR correlated significantly with a high frequency of recurrence and fatal outcome (P < 0.025 and P < 0.020). Multivariate analysis using the Cox regression model indicated that high MMP-1 mRNA expression was an independent unfavorable prognostic factor (risk ratio, 6.37; P < 0.019).
We have demonstrated for the first time the high mRNA expression of MMP-1 in patients whose carcinomas lack estrogen receptor expression. Our results suggest that MMP-1 is an important gene implicated in the progression of human breast cancer.
Journal of Surgical Research 05/2008; 146(1):104-9. · 2.02 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has been reported that an endogenous matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor, reversion-inducing cysteine-rich protein with Kazal motifs (RECK), is able to inhibit tumour angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis through inhibition of MMP-2, MMP-9, and membrane type-1 (MT1)-MMP (MMP-14) secretion and activity. In this study, using quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), we have analysed RECK expression levels in resected non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tissue and compared these data with the clinicopathological features of these patients to investigate the role of RECK in NSCLC. We have also analysed the expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, and MMP-14 and compared the data with those for RECK expression. Tissue samples of primary lung cancers were obtained from a total of 83 patients [46 with adenocarcinomas (ADC) and 37 with squamous cell carcinomas (SCC)] who underwent curative resection. The samples were taken from 83 tumours and 20 matched normal lung tissue samples as controls. Expressions of RECK in ADC and SCC were significantly lower than in the control. In ADC tissue, the expression of RECK was higher in stage IA than in stage IB-IIIA. There was no such a correlation in SCC. In ADC, univariate analysis for relapse-free survival using Cox regression analysis identified low RECK expression (p=0.036), low MMP-14 expression (p=0.038), and tumour T2 (p=0.034) as significant negative prognostic predictors. However, in SCC, none of the clinicopathological factors assessed, including RECK expression, had prognostic value. In conclusion, our study suggests that suppression of RECK expression is involved in the progression of ADC of the lung and that RECK expression in resected ADC of the lung is a favorable predictor of patients' prognosis.
Lung Cancer 01/2008; 58(3):376-83. · 3.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cancers escape immune surveillance through the manipulation of the host's immune system. Sequestration of dendritic cells (DCs) within tumor tissues and the subsequent inhibition of their migration is one of the several mechanisms by which tumors induce immunosuppression. In view of recent findings depicting the improvement of tumor immune responses in cancer patients following all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) treatment, we sought to identify the effects of ATRA on DC mobility in the context of tumor immunotherapy. Our results demonstrate that ATRA, added to differentiating murine bone marrow progenitor cells, enhances the invasive capacity of the resulting DCs. Immature DCs injected intratumorally in mice show increased accumulation in draining lymph nodes, but not in nondraining lymph nodes and spleens, when differentiated in the presence of ATRA. The in vitro migration of mature DCs through the basement membrane matrix toward the lymphoid chemokines CCL19 and CCL21 is enhanced in these cells, albeit not in the presence of a matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor. An increase in MMP production with a simultaneous decrease in the production of their inhibitors (tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinase or TIMPs) is provoked by ATRA. This affects the MMP/TIMP balance in DCs, in particular that of MMP-9 and TIMP-1, favoring protease activity and thus allowing for enhanced DC mobilization. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that ATRA is capable of improving DC trafficking in a tumor milieu and, in view of the encouraging results obtained in the clinic, further supports the notion that ATRA might be a valuable chemical adjuvant to current immunotherapeutic strategies for cancer.
The Journal of Immunology 11/2007; 179(7):4616-25. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Homeobox genes function as master regulators in embryonic morphogenesis. We hypothesized that homeobox genes are essential to maintain tissue- or organ-specificity even in adult body and that the dysregulated expression of homeobox genes results in tumor development and progression. To better understand the roles of homeobox genes in development and progression of esophageal cancer, we analyzed the expression patterns of 39 HOX genes and 4 ParaHOX (CDX1, CDX2, CDX4 and PDX1) genes in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and normal esophageal mucosa tissues. A total of 48 primary ESCC tissues and 7 normal esophageal mucosa tissues were resected from patients who underwent radical surgery without any preoperative chemotherapy or radiotherapy. The expression of HOX and ParaHOX genes were analyzed by a quantitative real-time RT-PCR method and immunohistochemistry. The expression levels of 24 HOX genes, CDX1, CDX2 and PDX1 were significantly higher in ESCC compared to normal mucosa (p<0.01, Mann-Whitney U test). The Immunohistochemical study revealed that HOXA5 and D9 proteins were more cytoplasmic in ESCC than normal mucosa cells. Our data indicate that the disordered expression of HOX and ParaHOX genes are involved in the development of ESCC or its malignancy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dominant negative (DN) mutations of tumor suppressor p53 (TP53) are clinically associated with cancer progression and metastasis of endometrial malignancy. To investigate the DN effect on tumor migration and invasion, we generated cells that stably co-expressed wild-type (wt) and R273H DN mutant TP53 (273H cells), and wt and R213Q recessive mutant TP53 (213Q cells), by transfection in endometrial cancer cells HHUA that expressed wt p53. R273H, but not R213Q, repressed wt p53-stimulated transcription of p21, Bax, and MDM2. 273H cells also showed markedly increased in vitro invasion and migration potentials, and displayed reduced Maspin, PAI-1, and KAI1 mRNA expressions as compared with 213Q and wt cells. The induction of wt p53 function by use of Adriamycin resulted in the inhibition of the invasion/migration capacity in association with the up-regulation of p53 target genes to a far greater degree in 213Q and wt cells than in 273H cells. R273H expression in p53-null cancer cell SK-OV-3 and Saos-2 did not significantly affect cell invasion and migration activities. Taken together, these results suggest that transdominance of R273H mutant over wt p53 rather than a gain-of-function promotes tumor metastasis by increasing invasion and migration in HHUA cells.
Clinical and Experimental Metastasis 02/2007; 24(6):471-83. · 3.46 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: HOX genes encode transcription factors that play a key role in morphogenesis and cell differentiation during embryogenesis of animals. Human neuroblastoma cells are known to be chemically induced to differentiate into neuronal or Schwannian cells. In the present study, we investigated the roles of HOX genes in differentiation of GOTO neuroblastoma cells into Schwannian cells. When GOTO cells were grown in the presence of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU), they increased the expressions of two HOX genes (HOXC6 and HOXC11) and marker genes for Schwannian cells (S100beta and myelin basic protein). Forced expression of HOXC11 alone or both HOXC6 isoform 1 and HOXC11 induced the expression of S100beta in GOTO cells. In transient transfection experiments, the overexpression of HOXC6 and HOXC11 transactivated the S100beta promoter-reporter construct. Taken together, our results suggest that HOXC6 and HOXC11 are associated with differentiation of GOTO cells into Schwannian cells through the transcriptional activation of S100beta gene.
Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine 01/2007; 11(2):299-306. · 4.75 Impact Factor