[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Studying autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease (ADAD), caused by gene mutations yielding nearly complete penetrance and a distinct age of symptom onset, allows investigation of presymptomatic pathological processes that can identify a therapeutic window for disease-modifying therapies. Astrocyte activation may occur in presymptomatic Alzheimer's disease (AD) because reactive astrocytes surround beta-amyloid (Abeta) plaques in autopsy brain tissue. Positron emission tomography was performed to investigate fibrillar Abeta, astrocytosis and cerebral glucose metabolism with the radiotracers (11)C-Pittsburgh compound-B (PIB), (11)C-deuterium-L-deprenyl (DED) and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) respectively in presymptomatic and symptomatic ADAD participants (n = 21), patients with mild cognitive impairment (n = 11) and sporadic AD (n = 7). Multivariate analysis using the combined data from all radiotracers clearly separated the different groups along the first and second principal components according to increased PIB retention/decreased FDG uptake (component 1) and increased DED binding (component 2). Presymptomatic ADAD mutation carriers showed significantly higher PIB retention than non-carriers in all brain regions except the hippocampus. DED binding was highest in presymptomatic ADAD mutation carriers. This suggests that non-fibrillar Abeta or early stage plaque depostion might interact with inflammatory responses indicating astrocytosis as an early contributory driving force in AD pathology. The novelty of this finding will be investigated in longitudinal follow-up studies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: New therapeutic strategies in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are focused on targeting amyloid-β (Aβ) to modify the underlying cause of the disease rather than just the symptoms. The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term effects of treatment with the anti-Aβ compound phenserine on (i) cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers for Aβ and tau pathology and (ii) brain metabolism as assessed by the regional cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (rCMRglc), using positron emission tomography. Twenty patients with mild AD were included in the study and after 12 months treatment with phenserine, CSF Aβ 40 and α- and β-secretase-cleaved soluble amyloid-β protein precursor (sAβPP) levels had significantly increased and rCMRglc had stabilized. Levels of CSF Aβ 40 and sAβPP correlated positively with rCMRglc and cognition while CSF Aβ 42 levels, the Aβ 42/40 ratio, P-tau, and T-tau correlated negatively with rCMRglc and cognition. In summary, long-term phenserine treatment resulted in increased levels of CSF Aβ 40, sAβPPα, and sAβPPβ, which positively correlated with improvements in rCMRglc and cognition. The study illustrates the value of using biomarkers in the CSF and brain for evaluation of drug effects.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology can be quantified in vivo using cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of amyloid-β1-42 (Aβ1-42), total-tau (t-tau), and phosphorylated tau (p-tau181p), as well as with positron emission tomography (PET) using [11C]Pittsburgh compound-B ([11C]PIB). Studies assessing concordance between these measures, however, have provided conflicting results. Moreover, it has been proposed that [11C]PIB PET may be of great clinical utility in terms of identifying patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) who will progress to the dementia phase of AD. Objective: To determine concordance and classification accuracy of CSF biomarkers and [11C]PIB PET in a cohort of patients with MCI and AD. Methods: 68 patients (MCI, n = 33; AD, n = 35) underwent [11C]PIB PET and CSF sampling. Cutoffs of >1.41 ([11C]PIB), <450 pg/mL-and a more lenient cutoff of 550 pg/mL-(Aβ1-42), <6.5 (Aβ1-42/p-tau181p), and 1.14 (Aβ1-42/t-tau), were used to determine concordance. Logistic regression was used to determine classification accuracy with respect to stable MCI (sMCI) versus MCI who progressed to AD (pMCI). Results: Concordance between [11C]PIB and Aβ1-42 was highest for sMCI (67%), followed by AD (60%) and pMCI (33%). Agreement was increased across groups using Aβ1-42 <550 pg/mL, or Aβ1-42 to tau ratios. Logistic regression showed that classification accuracy of [11C]PIB, between sMCI and pMCI, was superior to Aβ1-42 (73% versus 58%), Aβ1-42/t-tau (63%), and Aβ1-42/p-tau181p (65%). Conclusion: In the present study, [11C]PIB proved a better predictor of progression to AD in patients with MCI, relative to CSF measures of Aβ1-42 or Aβ1-42/tau. Discordance between PET and CSF markers for Aβ1-42 suggests they cannot be used interchangeably, as is currently the case.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Proposed diagnostic criteria (international working group and National Institute on Aging and Alzheimer's Association) for Alzheimer's disease (AD) include markers of amyloidosis (abnormal cerebrospinal fluid [CSF] amyloid beta [Aβ]42) and neurodegeneration (hippocampal atrophy, temporo-parietal hypometabolism on [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), and abnormal CSF tau). We aim to compare the accuracy of these biomarkers, individually and in combination, in predicting AD among mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients.
In 73 MCI patients, followed to ascertain AD progression, markers were measured. Sensitivity and specificity, positive (LR+) and negative (LR-) likelihood ratios, and crude and adjusted hazard ratios were computed.
Twenty-nine MCI patients progressed and 44 remained stable. Positivity to any marker achieved the lowest LR- (0.0), whereas the combination Aβ42 plus FDG-PET achieved the highest LR+ (6.45). In a survival analysis, positivity to any marker was associated with 100% conversion rate, whereas negativity to all markers was associated with 100% stability.
The best criteria combined amyloidosis and neurodegeneration biomarkers, whereas the individual biomarker with the best performance was FDG-PET.
Alzheimer's and Dementia 01/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jalz.2014.12.001 · 12.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Extensive loss of central cholinergic functions in AD brain is linked to impaired nerve growth factor (NGF) signaling. The cardinal cholinergic biomarker is the acetylcholine synthesizing enzyme, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), which has recently been found in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).Method: Encapsulated cell implants releasing NGF (EC-NGF) were surgically implanted bilaterally in the basal forebrain of six AD patients for 12 months and cholinergic markers in CSF were analyzed. Hypothesis: EC-NGF therapy will alter CSF levels of cholinergic biomarkers, ChAT and acetylcholinesteraseResult: Activities of both enzymes were altered after 12 months. In particular, activity of soluble ChAT showed high correlation with cognition, CSF tau and amyloid-β, in vivo cerebral glucose utilization and nicotinic binding sites, as well as morphometric and volumetric MRI measures.Conclusion: A clear pattern of associations is demonstrated showing a proof-of-principle effect on CSF cholinergic markers, suggestive of a beneficial EC-NGF implant therapy
Alzheimer's and Dementia 11/2014; In-press. DOI:10.1016/j.jalz.2014.11.008 · 12.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Nerve growth factor (NGF) is linked to survival and function of the forebrain cholinergic neurons and an abnormal NGF signaling may be one of the reasons for degeneration of cholinergic neurons in the brain of patients with Alzheimer´s disease (AD).
Introduction: In our previous pilot study we reported the effect of NGF treatment on the cholinergic biomarkers in CSF from six AD patients who received implants with encapsulated NGF (EC-NGF) releasing cells. The results showed a positive effect of NGF on the cholinergic biomarkers, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and in vivo imaging markers and cognition.
Aim To investigate the effect of NGF treatment on AChE and ChAT activity in additional AD patients receiving EC-NGF implants, releasing higher levels of mature NGF then the previous study.
Material and Methods: Four AD patients have successfully received implants with EC-NGF releasing cells (10 times higher NGF) into the basal forebrain using stereotactic neurosurgery. In addition to regular examination, CSF and plasma were collected at baseline, 3 and at 6 months, when the implants were removed. The cholinergic biomarkers were analyzed, and the findings evaluated in relation to cognitive performance and in vivo nicotine binding sites assessed by PET.
Results: Changes in CSF AChE activity correlated strongly with changes in MMSE (r=0.994, p< 0.0040) and the changes in the number of nicotinic binding sites in the overall brain regions (r=0.999, p< 0.0001). Interestingly the changes in the overall brain regions’ nicotinic binding sites correlated significantly with changes in MMSE (r= 0.995, p<0.0025). The changes in CSF ChAT activity showed positive trends with changes in MMSE and the changes in the overall brain regions’ nicotinic binding sites.
Conclusion: The findings were in close agreement with the pattern of observations in our first pilot study. Accordingly, NGF-implant treated AD patients who showed increases in CSF ChAT and AChE activity exhibited less cognitive decline and increased nicotinic binding sites assessed by PET.
Alzheimer's Association International Conference, Copenhagen, Denmark.; 07/2014
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Unlabelled:
Phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) plays a key role in the regulation of brain striatal signaling, and several pharmaceutical companies currently investigate PDE10A inhibitors in clinical trials for various central nervous system diseases. A PDE10A PET ligand may provide evidence that a clinical drug candidate reaches and binds to the target. Here we describe the successful discovery and initial validation of the novel radiolabeled PDE10A ligand 5,8-dimethyl-2-[2-((1-(11)C-methyl)-4-phenyl-1H-imidazol-2-yl)-ethyl]-[1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyridine ((11)C-Lu AE92686) and its tritiated analog (3)H-Lu AE92686.
Initial in vitro experiments suggested Lu AE92686 as a promising radioligand, and the corresponding tritiated and (11)C-labeled compounds were synthesized. (3)H-Lu AE92686 was evaluated as a ligand for in vivo occupancy studies in mice and rats, and (11)C-Lu AE92686 was evaluated as a PET tracer candidate in cynomolgus monkeys and in humans.
(11)C-Lu AE92686 displayed high specificity and selectivity for PDE10A-expressing regions in the brain of cynomolgus monkeys and humans. Similar results were found in rodents using (3)H-Lu AE92686. The binding of (11)C-Lu AE92686 and (3)H-Lu AE92686 to striatum was completely and dose-dependently blocked by the structurally different PDE10A inhibitor 2-[4-(1-methyl-4-pyridin-4-yl-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)-phenoxymethyl]-quinoline (MP-10) in rodents and in monkeys. In all species, specific binding of the radioligand was seen in the striatum but not in the cerebellum, supporting the use of the cerebellum as a reference region. The binding potentials (BPND) of (11)C-Lu AE92686 in the striatum of both cynomolgus monkeys and humans were evaluated by the simplified reference tissue model with the cerebellum as the reference tissue, and BPND was found to be high and reproducible-that is, BPNDs were 6.5 ± 0.3 (n = 3) and 7.5 ± 1.0 (n = 12) in monkeys and humans, respectively.
Rodent, monkey, and human tests of labeled Lu AE92686 suggest that (11)C-Lu AE92686 has great potential as a human PET tracer for the PDE10A enzyme.
Journal of Nuclear Medicine 07/2014; 55(9). DOI:10.2967/jnumed.114.140178 · 6.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives:
The current model of Alzheimer disease (AD) stipulates that brain amyloidosis biomarkers turn abnormal earliest, followed by cortical hypometabolism, and finally brain atrophy ones. The aim of this study is to provide clinical evidence of the model in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI).
A total of 73 patients with MCI from 3 European memory clinics were included. Brain amyloidosis was assessed by CSF Aβ42 concentration, cortical metabolism by an index of temporoparietal hypometabolism on FDG-PET, and brain atrophy by automated hippocampal volume. Patients were divided into groups based on biomarker positivity: 1) Aβ42- FDG-PET- Hippo-, 2) Aβ42+ FDG-PET- Hippo-, 3) Aβ42 + FDG-PET + Hippo-, 4) Aβ42 + FDG-PET+ Hippo+, and 5) any other combination not in line with the model. Measures of validity were prevalence of group 5, increasing incidence of progression to dementia with increasing biological severity, and decreasing conversion time.
When patients with MCI underwent clinical follow-up, 29 progressed to dementia, while 44 remained stable. A total of 26% of patients were in group 5. Incident dementia was increasing with greater biological severity in groups 1 to 5 from 4% to 27%, 64%, and 100% (p for trend < 0.0001), and occurred increasingly earlier (p for trend = 0.024).
The core biomarker pattern is in line with the current pathophysiologic model of AD. Fully normal and fully abnormal pattern is associated with exceptional and universal development of dementia. Cases not in line might be due to atypical neurobiology or inaccurate thresholds for biomarker (ab)normality.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is an overlap regarding Pittsburgh compound B (PIB) retention in patients clinically diagnosed as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and non-AD dementia. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether there are any differences between PIB-positive and PIB-negative patients in a mixed cohort of patients with neurodegenerative dementia of mild severity regarding neuropsychological test performance and regional cerebral glucose metabolism measured with [(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET).
Eighteen patients clinically diagnosed as probable AD or frontotemporal dementia were examined with PIB PET, FDG PET and neuropsychological tests and followed for 5-9 years in a clinical setting.
The PIB-positive patients (7 out of 18) had slower psychomotor speed and more impaired visual episodic memory than the PIB-negative patients; otherwise performance did not differ between the groups. The initial clinical diagnoses were changed in one third of the patients (6 out of 18) during follow-up.
The subtle differences in neuropsychological performance, the overlap of hypometabolic patterns and clinical features between AD and non-AD dementia highlight the need for amyloid biomarkers and a readiness to re-evaluate the initial diagnosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The biomarker-based new diagnostic criteria have been proposed for Alzheimer's disease (AD) spectrum. However, any biomarker alone has not been known to have satisfactory AD predictability. We explored the best combination model with baseline demography, neuropsychology, 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers, and apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype evaluation to predict progression to AD in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients. A longitudinal clinical follow-up (mean, 44 months; range, 1.6-161.7 months) of MCI patients was done. Among 83 MCI patients, 26 progressed to AD (MCI-AD) and 51 did not deteriorate (MCI-Stable). We applied that univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses, and multistep model selection for AD predictors including biomarkers. In univariate logistic analysis, we selected age, Rey Auditory Verbal Retention Test, parietal glucose metabolic rate, CSF total tau, and presence or not of at least one APOE ε4 allele as predictors. Through multivariate stepwise logistic analysis and model selection, we found the combination of parietal glucose metabolic rate and total tau representing the best model for AD prediction. In conclusion, our findings highlight that the combination of regional glucose metabolic assessment by PET and CSF biomarkers evaluation can significantly improve AD predictive diagnostic accuracy of each respective method.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the particular pathology of the Arctic APP (APParc) early-onset familial Alzheimer disease (eoFAD) mutation for the first time in vivo with PET in comparison with other eoFAD mutations and sporadic Alzheimer disease (sAD).
We examined 2 APParc mutation carriers together with 5 noncarrier siblings cross-sectionally with (11)C-labeled Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET, as well as MRI, CSF biomarkers, and neuropsychological tests. Likewise, we examined 7 patients with sAD, 1 carrier of a presenilin 1 (PSEN1) mutation, 1 carrier of the Swedish APP (APPswe) mutation, and 7 healthy controls (HCs).
Cortical PiB retention was very low in the APParc mutation carriers while cerebral glucose metabolism and CSF levels of Aβ(1-42), total and phosphorylated tau were clearly pathologic. This was in contrast to the PSEN1 and APPswe mutation carriers revealing high PiB retention in the cortex and the striatum in combination with abnormal glucose metabolism and CSF biomarkers, and the patients with sAD who showed typically high cortical PiB retention and pathologic CSF levels as well as decreased glucose metabolism when compared with HCs.
The lack of fibrillar β-amyloid (Aβ) as visualized by PiB PET in APParc mutation carriers suggests, given the reduced glucose metabolism and levels of Aβ(1-42) in CSF, that other forms of Aβ such as oligomers and protofibrils are important for the pathologic processes leading to clinical Alzheimer disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Degeneration of cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain correlates with cognitive decline in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Targeted delivery of exogenous nerve growth factor (NGF) has emerged as a potential AD therapy due to its regenerative effects on the basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in AD animal models. Here we report the results of a first-in-man study of encapsulated cell (EC) biodelivery of NGF to the basal forebrain of AD patients with the primary objective to explore safety and tolerability.
This was an open-label, 12-month study in 6 AD patients. Patients were implanted stereotactically with EC-NGF biodelivery devices targeting the basal forebrain. Patients were monitored with respect to safety, tolerability, disease progression and implant functionality.
All patients were implanted successfully with bilateral single or double implants without complications or signs of toxicity. No adverse events were related to NGF or the device. All patients completed the study, including removal of implants at 12 months. Positive findings in cognition, EEG and nicotinic receptor binding in 2 of 6 patients were detected.
This study demonstrates that surgical implantation and removal of EC-NGF biodelivery to the basal forebrain in AD patients is safe, well tolerated and feasible.