Michael A. Weiss

Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, United States

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Publications (172)892.64 Total impact

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    Michael A. Weiss · Shu Jin Chan
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    ABSTRACT: Pioneering endocrinologist and molecular biologist Donald Frederick Steiner, A. N. Pritzker Distinguished Service Professor of Medicine and Biochemistry & Molecular Biology at the University of Chicago (Fig. 1), died on November 11, 2014 at the age of 84. “Very few scientists,” observed Nobel Laureate Joseph L Goldstein, M.D., Chairman of the Department of Molecular Genetics at the University of Texas (UT) Southwestern Medical Center, “can lay claim to original research that has stood the test of time in both the biological and clinical arenas.” Steiner’s contributions meet this dual standard. Dr. Steiner was also renowned for his mentorship of successive generations of leaders in biochemistry and academic medicine.
    Frontiers in Endocrinology 04/2015; 6. DOI:10.3389/fendo.2015.00057
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    ABSTRACT: Crystallographic studies of insulin bound to fragments of the insulin receptor have recently defined the topography of the primary hormone-receptor interface. Here, we have investigated the role of PheB24, an invariant aromatic anchor at this interface and site of a human mutation causing diabetes mellitus. An extensive set of B24 substitutions has been constructed and tested for effects on receptor binding. Although aromaticity has long been considered a key requirement at this position, MetB24 was found to confer essentially native affinity and bioactivity. Molecular modeling suggests that this linear side chain can serve as an alternative hydrophobic anchor at the hormone-receptor interface. These findings motivated further substitution of PheB24 by cyclohexanylalanine (Cha), which contains a nonplanar aliphatic ring. Contrary to expectations, [ChaB24]insulin likewise exhibited high activity. Furthermore, its resistance to fibrillation and the rapid rate of hexamer disassembly, properties of potential therapeutic advantage, were enhanced. The crystal structure of the ChaB24 analog, determined as an R6 zinc-stabilized hexamer at a resolution of 1.5 Å, closely resembles that of wild-type insulin. The nonplanar aliphatic ring exhibits two chair conformations with partial occupancies, each recapitulating the role of PheB24 at the dimer interface. Together, these studies have defined structural requirements of an anchor residue within the B24-binding pocket of the insulin receptor; similar molecular principles are likely to pertain to insulin-related growth factors. Our results highlight in particular the utility of nonaromatic side chains as probes of the B24 pocket and suggest that the nonstandard Cha side chain may have therapeutic utility.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/2014; 289(50). DOI:10.1074/jbc.M114.608562 · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human testis determination is initiated by SRY, a Y-encoded architectural transcription factor. Mutations in SRY cause 46, XY gonadal dysgenesis with female somatic phenotype (Swyer's syndrome) and confer high risk of malignancy (gonadoblastoma). Such mutations cluster in the SRY high-mobility-group (HMG) box, a conserved motif of specific DNA binding and bending. To explore structure-function relationships, we constructed all possible substitutions at a site of clinical mutation (W70L). Our studies thus focused on a core aromatic residue (position 15 of the consensus HMG box) that is invariant among SRY-related HMG-box transcription factors (the SOX family) and conserved as aromatic (Phe or Tyr) among other sequence-specific boxes. In a yeast-1-hybrid system sensitive to specific SRY-DNA binding, the variant domains exhibited reduced (Phe and Tyr) or absent activity (the remaining 17 substitutions). Representative nonpolar variants with partial or absent activity (Tyr, Phe, Leu, and Ala in order of decreasing side-chain volume) were chosen for study in vitro and in mammalian cell culture. The clinical mutation (Leu) was found to markedly impair multiple biochemical and cellular activities as respectively probed through (i) in vitro assays of specific DNA binding, and protein stability; and (ii) cell-culture-based assays of proteosomal degradation, nuclear import, enhancer DNA occupancy, and SRY-dependent transcriptional activation. Surprisingly, however, DNA bending is robust to this or the related Ala substitution that profoundly impairs box stability. Together, our findings demonstrate that the folding, trafficking, and gene-regulatory function of SRY requires an invariant aromatic ″buttress″ beneath its specific DNA-bending surface.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 09/2014; 289(47). DOI:10.1074/jbc.M114.597526 · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Insulin provides a classical model of a globular protein, yet how the hormone changes conformation to engage its receptor has long been enigmatic. Interest has focused on the C-terminal B-chain segment, critical for protective self-assembly in β cells and receptor binding at target tissues. Insight may be obtained from truncated "microreceptors" that reconstitute the primary hormone-binding site (α-subunit domains L1 and αCT). We demonstrate that, on microreceptor binding, this segment undergoes concerted hinge-like rotation at its B20-B23 β-turn, coupling reorientation of Phe(B24) to a 60° rotation of the B25-B28 β-strand away from the hormone core to lie antiparallel to the receptor's L1-β2 sheet. Opening of this hinge enables conserved nonpolar side chains (Ile(A2), Val(A3), Val(B12), Phe(B24), and Phe(B25)) to engage the receptor. Restraining the hinge by nonstandard mutagenesis preserves native folding but blocks receptor binding, whereas its engineered opening maintains activity at the price of protein instability and nonnative aggregation. Our findings rationalize properties of clinical mutations in the insulin family and provide a previously unidentified foundation for designing therapeutic analogs. We envisage that a switch between free and receptor-bound conformations of insulin evolved as a solution to conflicting structural determinants of biosynthesis and function.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 08/2014; 111(33). DOI:10.1073/pnas.1412897111 · 9.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Misfolding of proinsulin variants in the pancreatic β-cell, a monogenic cause of permanent neonatal-onset diabetes mellitus, provides a model for a disease of protein toxicity. A hot spot for such clinical mutations is found at position B8, conserved as glycine within the vertebrate insulin superfamily. We set out to investigate the molecular basis of the aberrant properties of a proinsulin clinical mutant in which residue GlyB8 is replaced by SerB8. Modular total chemical synthesis was used to prepare the wild-type [GlyB8]proinsulin molecule and three analogs: [d-AlaB8]proinsulin, [l-AlaB8]proinsulin, and the clinical mutant [l-SerB8]proinsulin. The protein diastereomer [d-AlaB8]proinsulin produced higher folding yields at all pH values compared with the wild-type proinsulin and the other two analogs, but showed only very weak binding to the insulin receptor. The clinical mutant [l-SerB8]proinsulin impaired folding at pH 7.5 even in the presence of protein-disulfide isomerase. Surprisingly, although [l-SerB8]proinsulin did not fold well under the physiological conditions investigated, once folded the [l-SerB8]proinsulin protein molecule bound to the insulin receptor more effectively than wild-type proinsulin. Such paradoxical gain of function (not pertinent in vivo due to impaired secretion of the mutant insulin) presumably reflects induced fit in the native mechanism of hormone-receptor engagement. This work provides insight into the molecular mechanism of a clinical mutation in the insulin gene associated with diabetes mellitus. These results dramatically illustrate the power of total protein synthesis, as enabled by modern chemical ligation methods, for the investigation of protein folding and misfolding.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 07/2014; 289(34). DOI:10.1074/jbc.M114.572040 · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Insulin provides a model for the therapeutic application of protein engineering. A paradigm in molecular pharmacology was defined by design of rapid-acting insulin analogs for the prandial control of glycemia. Such analogs, a cornerstone of current diabetes regimens, exhibit accelerated subcutaneous absorption due to more rapid disassembly of oligomeric species relative to wild-type insulin. This strategy is limited by a molecular trade-off between accelerated disassembly and enhanced susceptibility to degradation. Here, we demonstrate that this trade-off may be circumvented by nonstandard mutagenesis. Our studies employed LysB28, ProB29-insulin (“lispro”) as a model prandial analog that is less thermodynamically stable and more susceptible to fibrillation than is wild-type insulin. We have discovered that substitution of an invariant tyrosine adjoining the engineered sites in lispro (TyrB26) by 3-iodo-Tyr (i) augments its thermodynamic stability (ΔΔGu 0.5 ±0.2 kcal/mol), (ii) delays onset of fibrillation (lag time on gentle agitation at 37 °C was prolonged by 4-fold), (iii) enhances affinity for the insulin receptor (1.5 ± 0.1-fold), and (iv) preserves biological activity in a rat model of diabetes mellitus. 1H NMR studies suggest that the bulky iodo-substituent packs within a nonpolar interchain crevice. Remarkably, the 3-iodo-TyrB26 modification stabilizes an oligomeric form of insulin pertinent to pharmaceutical formulation (the R6 zinc hexamer) but preserves rapid disassembly of the oligomeric form pertinent to subcutaneous absorption (T6 hexamer). By exploiting this allosteric switch, 3-iodo-TyrB26-lispro thus illustrates how a nonstandard amino acid substitution can mitigate the unfavorable biophysical properties of an engineered protein while retaining its advantages.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 07/2014; 289(34). DOI:10.1074/jbc.M114.588277 · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Upon chronic upregulation of proinsulin synthesis, misfolded proinsulin can accumulate in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of pancreatic β cells, promoting ER stress and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In Mutant Ins gene induced Diabetes of Youth (MIDY), misfolded mutant proinsulin impairs ER exit of co-expressed wildtype proinsulin, limiting insulin production and leading to eventual β cell death. In this study, we have investigated the hypothesis that increased expression of ER oxidoreductin 1 alpha (Ero1α), despite its established role in the generation of H2O2, might nevertheless be beneficial in limiting proinsulin misfolding and its adverse downstream consequences. Increased Ero1α expression is effective in promoting wildtype proinsulin export from cells co-expressing misfolded mutant proinsulin. In addition, we find that upon increased Ero1α expression, some of the MIDY mutants themselves are directly rescued from ER retention. Secretory rescue of proinsulin-G(B23)V is correlated with improved oxidative folding of mutant proinsulin. Indeed, using three different variants of Ero1α, we find that expression of either wildtype or an Ero1α variant lacking regulatory disulfides can rescue mutant proinsulin-G(B23)V, in parallel with its ability to provide an oxidizing environment in the ER lumen, whereas beneficial effects were less apparent for a redox inactive form of Ero1. Increased expression of protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) antagonizes the rescue provided by oxidatively active Ero1. Importantly, ER stress induced by misfolded proinsulin was limited by increased expression of Ero1α, suggesting that enhancing the oxidative folding of proinsulin may be a viable therapeutic strategy in the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 09/2013; 288(43). DOI:10.1074/jbc.M113.510065 · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human testis determination is initiated by SRY (sex determining region on Y chromosome). Mutations in SRY cause gonadal dysgenesis with female somatic phenotype. Two subtle variants (V60L and I90M in the high-mobility group box) define inherited alleles shared by an XY sterile daughter and fertile father. Whereas specific DNA binding and bending are unaffected in a rat embryonic pre-Sertoli cell line, the variants exhibited selective defects in nucleocytoplasmic shuttling due to impaired nuclear import (V60L; mediated by Exportin-4) or export (I90M; mediated by chromosome region maintenance 1). Decreased shuttling limits nuclear accumulation of phosphorylated (activated) SRY, in turn reducing occupancy of DNA sites regulating Sertoli-cell differentiation [the testis-specific SRY-box 9 (Sox9) enhancer]. Despite distinct patterns of biochemical and cell-biological perturbations, V60L and I90M each attenuated Sox9 expression in transient transfection assays by twofold. Such attenuation was also observed in studies of V60A, a clinical variant associated with ovotestes and hence ambiguity between divergent cell fates. This shared twofold threshold is reminiscent of autosomal syndromes of transcription-factor haploinsufficiency, including XY sex reversal associated with mutations in SOX9. Our results demonstrate that nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of SRY is necessary for robust initiation of testicular development. Although also characteristic of ungulate orthologs, such shuttling is not conserved among rodents wherein impaired nuclear export of the high-mobility group box and import-dependent phosphorylation are compensated by a microsatellite-associated transcriptional activation domain. Human sex reversal due to subtle defects in the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of SRY suggests that its transcriptional activity lies near the edge of developmental ambiguity.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 09/2013; 110(38). DOI:10.1073/pnas.1300828110 · 9.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The male program of therian mammals is determined by Sry, a transcription factor encoded by the Y chromosome. Specific DNA binding is mediated by a high mobility group (HMG) box. Expression of Sry in the gonadal ridge activates a Sox9-dependent gene regulatory network leading to testis formation. A subset of Sry alleles in superfamily Muroidea (order Rodentia) is remarkable for insertion of an unstable DNA microsatellite, most commonly encoding (as in mice) a CAG repeat-associated glutamine-rich domain. We provide evidence, based on an embryonic pre-Sertoli cell line, that this domain functions at a threshold length as a genetic capacitor to facilitate accumulation of variation elsewhere in the protein, including the HMG box. The glutamine-rich domain compensates for otherwise deleterious substitutions in the box and absence of nonbox phosphorylation sites to ensure occupancy of DNA target sites. Such compensation enables activation of a male transcriptional program despite perturbations to the box. Whereas human SRY requires nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and coupled phosphorylation, mouse Sry contains a defective nuclear export signal analogous to a variant human SRY associated with inherited sex reversal. We propose that the rodent glutamine-rich domain has (i) fostered accumulation of cryptic intragenic variation and (ii) enabled unmasking of such variation due to DNA replicative slippage. This model highlights genomic contingency as a source of protein novelty at the edge of developmental ambiguity and may underlie emergence of non-Sry-dependent sex determination in the radiation of Muroidea.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 07/2013; 110(33). DOI:10.1073/pnas.1300860110 · 9.67 Impact Factor
  • Michael A Weiss
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    ABSTRACT: Dominant mutations in the human insulin gene can lead to pancreatic β-cell dysfunction and diabetes mellitus due to toxic folding of a mutant proinsulin. Analogous to a classical mouse model (the Akita mouse), this monogenic syndrome highlights the susceptibility of human β-cells to endoreticular stress due to protein misfolding and aberrant aggregation. The clinical mutations directly or indirectly perturb native disulfide pairing. Whereas the majority of mutations introduce or remove a cysteine (leading in either case to an unpaired residue), non-cysteine-related mutations identify key determinants of folding efficiency. Studies of such mutations suggest that the evolution of insulin has been constrained not only by its structure and function, but also by the susceptibility of its single-chain precursor to impaired foldability.
    FEBS letters 05/2013; 587(13). DOI:10.1016/j.febslet.2013.04.044 · 3.17 Impact Factor
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    Michael A. Weiss · Jonathan Whittaker
    Biophysical Journal 01/2013; 104(2):63a. DOI:10.1016/j.bpj.2012.11.384 · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    Michael A. Weiss · Yen-Shan Chen
    Biophysical Journal 01/2013; 104(2):329-. DOI:10.1016/j.bpj.2012.11.1824 · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Efficient total synthesis of insulin is important to enable the application of medicinal chemistry to the optimization of the properties of this important protein molecule. Recently we described 'ester insulin' - a novel form of insulin in which the function of the 35 residue C-peptide of proinsulin is replaced by a single covalent bond - as a key intermediate for the efficient total synthesis of insulin. Here we describe a fully convergent synthetic route to the ester insulin molecule from three unprotected peptide segments of approximately equal size. The synthetic ester insulin polypeptide chain folded much more rapidly than proinsulin, and at physiological pH. Both the D-protein and L-protein enantiomers of monomeric DKP ester insulin (i.e. [AspB10, LysB28, ProB29]ester insulin) were prepared by total chemical synthesis. The atomic structure of the synthetic ester insulin molecule was determined by racemic protein X-ray crystallography to a resolution of 1.6 Å. Diffraction quality crystals were readily obtained from the racemic mixture of {D-DKP ester insulin + L-DKP ester insulin}, whereas crystals were not obtained from the L-ester insulin alone even after extensive trials. Both the D-protein and L-protein enantiomers of monomeric DKP ester insulin were assayed for receptor binding and in diabetic rats, before and after conversion by saponification to the corresponding DKP insulin enantiomers. L-DKP ester insulin bound weakly to the insulin receptor, while synthetic L-DKP insulin derived from the L-DKP ester insulin intermediate was fully active in binding to the insulin receptor. The D- and L-DKP ester insulins and D-DKP insulin were inactive in lowering blood glucose in diabetic rats, while synthetic L-DKP insulin was fully active in this biological assay. The structural basis of the lack of biological activity of ester insulin is discussed.
    Journal of the American Chemical Society 01/2013; 135(8). DOI:10.1021/ja311408y · 12.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Insulin receptor signalling has a central role in mammalian biology, regulating cellular metabolism, growth, division, differentiation and survival. Insulin resistance contributes to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus and the onset of Alzheimer's disease; aberrant signalling occurs in diverse cancers, exacerbated by cross-talk with the homologous type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF1R). Despite more than three decades of investigation, the three-dimensional structure of the insulin-insulin receptor complex has proved elusive, confounded by the complexity of producing the receptor protein. Here we present the first view, to our knowledge, of the interaction of insulin with its primary binding site on the insulin receptor, on the basis of four crystal structures of insulin bound to truncated insulin receptor constructs. The direct interaction of insulin with the first leucine-rich-repeat domain (L1) of insulin receptor is seen to be sparse, the hormone instead engaging the insulin receptor carboxy-terminal α-chain (αCT) segment, which is itself remodelled on the face of L1 upon insulin binding. Contact between insulin and L1 is restricted to insulin B-chain residues. The αCT segment displaces the B-chain C-terminal β-strand away from the hormone core, revealing the mechanism of a long-proposed conformational switch in insulin upon receptor engagement. This mode of hormone-receptor recognition is novel within the broader family of receptor tyrosine kinases. We support these findings by photo-crosslinking data that place the suggested interactions into the context of the holoreceptor and by isothermal titration calorimetry data that dissect the hormone-insulin receptor interface. Together, our findings provide an explanation for a wealth of biochemical data from the insulin receptor and IGF1R systems relevant to the design of therapeutic insulin analogues.
    Nature 01/2013; 493(7431):241-5. DOI:10.1038/nature11781 · 41.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The primary hormone-binding surface of the insulin receptor spans one face of the N-terminal β-helix of the α-subunit (the L1 domain) and an α-helix in its C-terminal segment (αCT). Crystallographic analysis of the free ectodomain has defined a contiguous dimer-related motif in which the αCT α-helix packs against L1 β-strands 2 and 3. To relate structure to function, we exploited expanded genetic-code technology to insert photo-activatable probes at key sites in L1 and αCT. The pattern of αCT-mediated photo-cross-linking within the free and bound receptor is in accord with the crystal structure and prior mutagenesis. Surprisingly, L1 photo-probes in β-strands 2 and 3, predicted to be shielded by αCT, efficiently cross-link to insulin. Furthermore, anomalous mutations were identified on neighboring surfaces of αCT and insulin that impair hormone-dependent activation of the intracellular receptor tyrosine kinase (contained within the transmembrane β-subunit) disproportionately to their effects on insulin binding. Taken together, these results suggest that αCT, in addition to its hormone-recognition role, provides a signaling element in the mechanism of receptor activation.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 06/2012; 109(28):11166-71. DOI:10.1073/pnas.1205681109 · 9.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Insulin is susceptible to thermal fibrillation, a misfolding process that leads to nonnative cross-β assembly analogous to pathological amyloid deposition. Pharmaceutical formulations are ordinarily protected from such degradation by sequestration of the susceptible monomer within native protein assemblies. With respect to the safety and efficacy of insulin pumps, however, this strategy imposes an intrinsic trade-off between pharmacokinetic goals (rapid absorption and clearance) and the requisite physical properties of a formulation (prolonged shelf life and stability within the reservoir). Available rapid-acting formulations are suboptimal in both respects; susceptibility to fibrillation is exacerbated even as absorption is delayed relative to the ideal specifications of a closed-loop system. To circumvent this molecular trade-off, we exploited structural models of insulin fibrils and amyloidogenic intermediates to define an alternative protective mechanism. Single-chain insulin (SCI) analogs were shown to be refractory to thermal fibrillation with maintenance of biological activity for more than 3 months under conditions that promote the rapid fibrillation and inactivation of insulin. The essential idea exploits an intrinsic incompatibility between SCI topology and the geometry of cross-β assembly. A peptide tether was thus interposed between the A- and B-chains whose length was (a) sufficiently long to provide the "play" needed for induced fit of the hormone on receptor binding and yet (b) sufficiently short to impose a topological barrier to fibrillation. Our findings suggest that ultrastable monomeric SCI analogs may be formulated without protective self-assembly and so permit simultaneous optimization of pharmacokinetics and reservoir life.
    Journal of diabetes science and technology 03/2012; 6(2):277-88. DOI:10.1177/193229681200600210
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    Biophysical Journal 01/2012; 102(3):621-. DOI:10.1016/j.bpj.2011.11.3386 · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    Diabetes care 01/2012; 35 Suppl 1(Suppl 1):S101-8. DOI:10.2337/dc12-s101 · 8.42 Impact Factor
  • Janna G Kiselar · Manish Datt · Mark R Chance · Michael A Weiss
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    ABSTRACT: Mutations in the insulin gene can impair proinsulin folding and cause diabetes mellitus. Although crystal structures of insulin dimers and hexamers are well established, proinsulin is refractory to crystallization. Although an NMR structure of an engineered proinsulin monomer has been reported, structures of the wild-type monomer and hexamer remain undetermined. We have utilized hydroxyl radical footprinting and molecular modeling to characterize these structures. Differences between the footprints of insulin and proinsulin, defining a "shadow" of the connecting (C) domain, were employed to refine the model. Our results demonstrate that in its monomeric form, (i) proinsulin contains a native-like insulin moiety and (ii) the C-domain footprint resides within an adjoining segment (residues B23-B29) that is accessible to modification in insulin but not proinsulin. Corresponding oxidation rates were observed within core insulin moieties of insulin and proinsulin hexamers, suggesting that the proinsulin hexamer retains an A/B structure similar to that of insulin. Further similarities in rates of oxidation between the respective C-domains of proinsulin monomers and hexamers suggest that this loop in each case flexibly projects from an outer surface. Although dimerization or hexamer assembly would not be impaired, an ensemble of predicted C-domain positions would block hexamer-hexamer stacking as visualized in classical crystal lattices. We anticipate that protein footprinting in combination with modeling, as illustrated here, will enable comparative studies of diabetes-associated mutant proinsulins and their aberrant modes of aggregation.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 12/2011; 286(51):43710-6. DOI:10.1074/jbc.M111.297853 · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    Daniel F Berenson · Allison R Weiss · Zhu-Li Wan · Michael A Weiss
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    ABSTRACT: The engineering of insulin analogs represents a triumph of structure-based protein design. A framework has been provided by structures of insulin hexamers. Containing a zinc-coordinated trimer of dimers, such structures represent a storage form of the active insulin monomer. Initial studies focused on destabilization of subunit interfaces. Because disassembly facilitates capillary absorption, such targeted destabilization enabled development of rapid-acting insulin analogs. Converse efforts were undertaken to stabilize the insulin hexamer and promote higher-order self-assembly within the subcutaneous depot toward the goal of enhanced basal glycemic control with reduced risk of hypoglycemia. Current products either operate through isoelectric precipitation (insulin glargine, the active component of Lantus(®); Sanofi-Aventis) or employ an albumin-binding acyl tether (insulin detemir, the active component of Levemir(®); Novo-Nordisk). To further improve pharmacokinetic properties, modified approaches are presently under investigation. Novel strategies have recently been proposed based on subcutaneous supramolecular assembly coupled to (a) large-scale allosteric reorganization of the insulin hexamer (the TR transition), (b) pH-dependent binding of zinc ions to engineered His-X(3)-His sites at hexamer surfaces, or (c) the long-range vision of glucose-responsive polymers for regulated hormone release. Such designs share with wild-type insulin and current insulin products a susceptibility to degradation above room temperature, and so their delivery, storage, and use require the infrastructure of an affluent society. Given the global dimensions of the therapeutic supply chain, we envisage that concurrent engineering of ultra-stable protein analog formulations would benefit underprivileged patients in the developing world.
    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 12/2011; 1243(1):E40-E54. DOI:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2012.06468.x · 4.38 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

5k Citations
892.64 Total Impact Points


  • 2000–2014
    • Case Western Reserve University
      • • Department of Biomedical Engineering
      • • Department of Biochemistry
      Cleveland, Ohio, United States
  • 2013
    • The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research
      • Division of Structural Biology
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 2000–2013
    • Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine
      • • Department of Biochemistry
      • • Department of Biomedical Engineering
      Cleveland, Ohio, United States
  • 1996–2011
    • University of Chicago
      • • Department of Chemistry
      • • Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 2009
    • Concordia University–Ann Arbor
      Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States
  • 1983–2001
    • Harvard University
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1990–1995
    • Harvard Medical School
      • • Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology
      • • Department of Medicine
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 1990–1993
    • Massachusetts General Hospital
      • Department of Medicine
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1992
    • Brigham and Women's Hospital
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1991
    • University of Missouri - Kansas City
      • Division of Cell Biology and Biophysics
      Kansas City, Missouri, United States
    • Eli Lilly
      Indianapolis, Indiana, United States
  • 1986
    • Massachusetts Institute of Technology
      • Department of Biology
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States