[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glioblastomas (GBM) are highly radioresistant and lethal brain tumors. Ionizing radiation (IR)-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are a risk factor for the development of GBM. In this study, we systematically examined the contribution of IR-induced DSBs to GBM development using transgenic mouse models harboring brain-targeted deletions of key tumor suppressors frequently lost in GBM, namely Ink4a, Ink4b, Arf and/or PTEN. Using low linear energy transfer (LET) X-rays to generate simple breaks or high LET HZE particles (Fe ions) to generate complex breaks, we found that DSBs induce high-grade gliomas in these mice which, otherwise, do not develop gliomas spontaneously. Loss of Ink4a and Arf was sufficient to trigger IR-induced glioma development but additional loss of Ink4b significantly increased tumor incidence. We analyzed IR-induced tumors for copy number alterations to identify oncogenic changes that were generated and selected for as a consequence of stochastic DSB events. We found Met amplification to be the most significant oncogenic event in these radiation-induced gliomas. Importantly, Met activation resulted in the expression of Sox2, a GBM cancer stem cell marker, and was obligatory for tumor formation. In sum, these results indicate that radiation-induced DSBs cooperate with loss of Ink4 and Arf tumor suppressors to generate high-grade gliomas that are commonly driven by Met amplification and activation.Oncogene advance online publication, 17 March 2014; doi:10.1038/onc.2014.29.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Infiltrating astrocytomas and oligoastrocytomas of low to anaplastic grade (WHO grades II and III), in spite of being associated with a wide range of clinical outcomes, can be difficult to subclassify and grade by the current histopathologic criteria. Unlike oligodendrogliomas and anaplastic oligodendrogliomas that can be identified by the 1p/19q codeletion and the more malignant glioblastomas (WHO grade IV astrocytomas) that can be diagnosed solely based on objective features on routine hematoxylin and eosin sections, no such objective criteria exist for the subclassification of grade II-III astrocytomas and oligoastrocytomas (A+OA II-III). In this study, we evaluated the prognostic and predictive value of the stem cell marker nestin in adult A+OA II-III (n = 50) using immunohistochemistry and computer-assisted analysis on tissue microarrays. In addition, the correlation between nestin mRNA level and total survival was analyzed in the NCI Rembrandt database. The results showed that high nestin expression is a strong adverse prognostic factor for total survival (p = 0.0004). The strength of the correlation was comparable to but independent of the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1/2 (IDH 1/2) mutation status. Histopathological grading and subclassification did not correlate significantly with outcome, although the interpretation of this finding is limited by the fact that grade III tumors were treated more aggressively than grade II tumors. These results suggest that nestin level and IDH 1/2 mutation status are strong prognostic features in A+OA II-III and possibly more helpful for treatment planning than routine histopathological variables such as oligodendroglial component (astrocytoma vs. oligoastrocytoma) and WHO grade (grade II vs. III).
Journal of Neuro-Oncology 02/2014; · 3.12 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Severe neuronal loss in the hippocampus, that is, hippocampal sclerosis (HS), can be seen in 3 main clinical contexts: dementia (particularly frontotemporal lobar degeneration [FTLD]), temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), and hippocampal ischemic injury (H-I). It has been suggested that shared pathogenetic mechanisms may underlie selective vulnerability of the hippocampal subfields such as the CA1 in these conditions. We determined the extent of neuronal loss in cases of HS-FTLD (n = 14), HS-TLE (n = 35), and H-I (n = 20). Immunohistochemistry for zinc transporter 3 was used to help define the CA3/CA2 border in the routinely processed human autopsy tissue samples. The subiculum was involved in 57% of HS-FTLD, 10% of H-I, and 0% of HS-TLE cases (p < 0.0001). The CA regions other than CA1 were involved in 57% of HS-TLE, 30% of H-I, and 0% of HS-FTLD cases (p= 0.0003). The distal third of CA1 was involved in 79% of HS-FTLD, 35% of H-I, and 37% of HS-TLE cases (p = 0.02). The distal third of CA1 was the only area involved in 29% of HS-FTLD, 3% of HS-TLE, and 0% of H-I cases (p = 0.019). The proximal-middle CA1 was the only area affected in 50% of H-I, 29% of HS-TLE, and 0% of HS-FTLD cases (p = 0.004). These findings support heterogeneity in the pathogenesis of HS.
Journal of neuropathology and experimental neurology. 02/2014; 73(2):136-42.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inhibitors of the DNA damage response (DDR) have great potential for radiosensitization of numerous cancers including glioblastomas (GBM), which are extremely radio- and chemo-resistant brain tumors. Currently, there are no DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair inhibitors that have been successful in treating GBM. Our lab has previously demonstrated that the dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor NVP-BEZ235 can potently inhibit the two central DDR kinases, DNA-PKcs and ATM, in vitro. Here, we tested whether NVP-BEZ235 could also inhibit ATM and DNA-PKcs in tumors in vivo and assessed its potential as a radio- and chemo-sensitizer in pre-clinical mouse GBM models. Experimental design: The radiosensitizing effect of NVP-BEZ235 was tested by following tumor growth in subcutaneous and orthotopic GBM models. Tumors were generated using the radioresistant U87-vIII glioma cell line and GBM9 neurospheres in nude mice. These tumors were then treated with ionizing radiation (IR) and/or NVP-BEZ235 and analyzed for DNA-PKcs and ATM activation, DSB repair inhibition, and attenuation of growth.
NVP-BEZ235 potently inhibited both DNA-PKcs and ATM kinases and attenuated the repair of IR-induced DNA damage in tumors. This resulted in striking tumor radiosensitization, which extended the survival of brain tumor-bearing mice. Notably, tumors displayed a higher DSB-load when compared to normal brain tissue. NVP-BEZ235 also sensitized a subset of subcutaneous tumors to temozolomide, a drug routinely used concurrently with IR for the treatment of GBM.
These results demonstrate that it may be possible to significantly improve GBM therapy by combining IR with potent and bioavailable DNA repair inhibitors like NVP-BEZ235.
Clinical Cancer Research 12/2013; · 7.84 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)vIII is the most common EGFR mutant found in glioblastoma (GBM). EGFRvIII does not bind ligand, is highly oncogenic and is usually coexpressed with EGFR wild type (EGFRwt). EGFRvIII activates Met, and Met contributes to EGFRvIII-mediated oncogenicity and resistance to treatment. Here, we report that addition of EGF results in a rapid loss of EGFRvIII-driven Met phosphorylation in glioma cells. Met is associated with EGFRvIII in a physical complex. Addition of EGF results in a dissociation of the EGFRvIII-Met complex with a concomitant loss of Met phosphorylation. Consistent with the abrogation of Met activation, addition of EGF results in the inhibition of EGFRvIII-mediated resistance to chemotherapy. Thus, our study suggests that ligand in the milieu of EGFRvIII-expressing GBM cells is likely to influence the EGFRvIII-Met interaction and resistance to treatment, and highlights a novel antagonistic interaction between EGFRwt and EGFRvIII in glioma cells.Oncogene advance online publication, 23 December 2013; doi:10.1038/onc.2013.534.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: EGFRvIII is a key oncogene in glioblastoma (GBM). EGFRvIII results from an in-frame deletion in the extracellular domain of EGFR, does not bind ligand and is thought to be constitutively active. Although EGFRvIII dimerization is known to activate EGFRvIII, the factors that drive EGFRvIII dimerization and activation are not well understood. Here we present a new model of EGFRvIII activation and propose that oncogenic activation of EGFRvIII in glioma cells is driven by co-expressed activated EGFR wild type (EGFRwt). Increasing EGFRwt leads to a striking increase in EGFRvIII tyrosine phosphorylation and activation while silencing EGFRwt inhibits EGFRvIII activation. Both the dimerization arm and the kinase activity of EGFRwt are required for EGFRvIII activation. EGFRwt activates EGFRvIII by facilitating EGFRvIII dimerization. We have previously identified HB-EGF, a ligand for EGFRwt, as a gene induced specifically by EGFRvIII. In this study, we show that HB-EGF is induced by EGFRvIII only when EGFRwt is present. Remarkably, altering HB-EGF recapitulates the effect of EGFRwt on EGFRvIII activation. Thus, increasing HB-EGF leads to a striking increase in EGFRvIII tyrosine phosphorylation while silencing HB-EGF attenuates EGFRvIII phosphorylation, suggesting that an EGFRvIII-HB-EGF-EGFRwt feed-forward loop regulates EGFRvIII activation. Silencing EGFRwt or HB-EGF leads to a striking inhibition of EGFRvIII-induced tumorigenicity, while increasing EGFRwt or HB-EGF levels resulted in accelerated EGFRvIII-mediated oncogenicity in an orthotopic mouse model. Furthermore, we demonstrate the existence of this loop in human GBM. Thus, our data demonstrate that oncogenic activation of EGFRvIII in GBM is likely maintained by a continuous EGFRwt-EGFRvIII-HB-EGF loop, potentially an attractive target for therapeutic intervention.Oncogene advance online publication, 30 September 2013; doi:10.1038/onc.2013.400.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: RIP1 is a central mediator of cell death in response to cell stress but can also mediate cell survival by activating NF-κB. Here, we show that RIP1 acts as a switch in EGFR signaling. EGFRvIII is an oncogenic mutant that does not bind ligand and is coexpressed with EGFRWT in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). EGFRvIII recruits ubiquitin ligases to RIP1, resulting in K63-linked ubiquitination of RIP1. RIP1 binds to TAK1 and NEMO, forming an EGFRvIII-RIP1 signalosome that activates NF-κB. RIP1 is essential for EGFRvIII-mediated oncogenicity and correlates with NF-κB activation in GBM. Surprisingly, activation of EGFRWT with EGF results in a negative regulation of EGFRvIII, with dissociation of the EGFRvIII-RIP1 signalosome, loss of RIP1 ubiquitination and NF-κB activation, and association of RIP1 with FADD and caspase-8. If EGFRWT is overexpressed with EGFRvIII, the addition of EGF leads to a RIP1 kinase-dependent cell death. The EGFRWT-EGFRvIII-RIP1 interplay may regulate oncogenicity and vulnerability to targeted treatment in GBM.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1)-associated death domain protein (TRADD) is an important adaptor in TNFR1 signaling and has an essential role in nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) activation and survival signaling. Increased expression of TRADD is sufficient to activate NF-κB. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of NF-κB activation as a key pathogenic mechanism in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most common primary malignant brain tumor in adults.We examined the expression of TRADD by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and find that TRADD is commonly expressed at high levels in GBM and is detected in both cytoplasmic and nuclear distribution. Cytoplasmic IHC TRADD scoring is significantly associated with worse progression-free survival (PFS) both in univariate and multivariate analysis but is not associated with overall survival (n = 43 GBMs). PFS is a marker for responsiveness to treatment. We propose that TRADD-mediated NF-κB activation confers chemoresistance and thus a worse PFS in GBM. Consistent with the effect on PFS, silencing TRADD in glioma cells results in decreased NF-κB activity, decreased proliferation of cells, and increased sensitivity to temozolomide. TRADD expression is common in glioma-initiating cells. Importantly, silencing TRADD in GBM-initiating stem cell cultures results in decreased viability of stem cells, suggesting that TRADD may be required for maintenance of GBM stem cell populations. Thus, our study suggests that increased expression of cytoplasmic TRADD is both an important biomarker and a key driver of NF-κB activation in GBM and supports an oncogenic role for TRADD in GBM.
Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.) 08/2013; 15(8):888-97. · 5.48 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to develop an aggressive locally advanced orthotopic prostate cancer model for assessing high-dose image-guided radiation therapy combined with biological agents. For this study, we used a modified human prostate cancer (PCa) cell line, PC3, in which we knocked down a tumor suppressor protein, DAB2IP (PC3‑KD). These prostate cancer cells were implanted into the prostate of nude or Copenhagen rats using either open surgical implantation or a minimally invasive procedure under ultrasound guidance. We report that: i) these DAB2IP-deficient PCa cells form a single focus of locally advanced aggressive tumors in both nude and Copenhagen rats; ii) the resulting tumors are highly aggressive and are poorly controlled after treatment with radiation alone; iii) ultrasound-guided tumor cell implantation can be used successfully for tumor development in the rat prostate; iv) precise measurement of the tumor volume and the treatment planning for radiation therapy can be obtained from ultrasound and MRI, respectively; and v) the use of a fiducial marker for enhanced radiotherapy localization in the rat orthotopic tumor. This model recapitulates radiation-resistant prostate cancers which can be used to demonstrate and quantify therapeutic response to combined modality treatments.
International Journal of Oncology 03/2013; · 2.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mechanisms that alter protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A)-dependent lung tumour suppression via the I2PP2A/SET oncoprotein are unknown. We show here that the tumour suppressor ceramide binds I2PP2A/SET selectively in the nucleus and including its K209 and Y122 residues as determined by molecular modelling/simulations and site-directed mutagenesis. Because I2PP2A/SET was found overexpressed, whereas ceramide was downregulated in lung tumours, a sphingolipid analogue drug, FTY720, was identified to mimick ceramide for binding and targeting I2PP2A/SET, leading to PP2A reactivation, lung cancer cell death, and tumour suppression in vivo. Accordingly, while molecular targeting of I2PP2A/SET by stable knockdown prevented further tumour suppression by FTY720, reconstitution of WT-I2PP2A/SET expression restored this process. Mechanistically, targeting I2PP2A/SET by FTY720 mediated PP2A/RIPK1-dependent programmed necrosis (necroptosis), but not by apoptosis. The RIPK1 inhibitor necrostatin and knockdown or genetic loss of RIPK1 prevented growth inhibition by FTY720. Expression of WT- or death-domain-deleted (DDD)-RIPK1, but not the kinase-domain-deleted (KDD)-RIPK1, restored FTY720-mediated necroptosis in RIPK1(-/-) MEFs. Thus, these data suggest that targeting I2PP2A/SET by FTY720 suppresses lung tumour growth, at least in part, via PP2A activation and necroptosis mediated by the kinase domain of RIPK1.
EMBO Molecular Medicine 11/2012; · 7.80 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT: An improved version of quantitative protein array platform utilizing linear Quantum dot signaling for systematically measuring protein levels and phosphorylation states is presented. The signals are amplified linearly by a confocal laser Quantum dot scanner resulting in ~1000-fold more sensitivity than traditional Western blots, but are not linear by the enzyme-based amplification. Software is developed to facilitate the quantitative readouts of signaling network activities. Kinetics of EGFRvIII mutant signaling was analyzed to quantify cross-talks between EGFR and other signaling pathways.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are the most deleterious lesion inflicted by ionizing radiation. Although DSBs are potentially carcinogenic, it is not clear whether complex DSBs that are refractory to repair are more potently tumorigenic compared with simple breaks that can be rapidly repaired, correctly or incorrectly, by mammalian cells. We previously demonstrated that complex DSBs induced by high-linear energy transfer (LET) Fe ions are repaired slowly and incompletely, whereas those induced by low-LET gamma rays are repaired efficiently by mammalian cells. To determine whether Fe-induced DSBs are more potently tumorigenic than gamma ray-induced breaks, we irradiated 'sensitized' murine astrocytes that were deficient in Ink4a and Arf tumor suppressors and injected the surviving cells subcutaneously into nude mice. Using this model system, we find that Fe ions are potently tumorigenic, generating tumors with significantly higher frequency and shorter latency compared with tumors generated by gamma rays. Tumor formation by Fe-irradiated cells is accompanied by rampant genomic instability and multiple genomic changes, the most interesting of which is loss of the p15/Ink4b tumor suppressor due to deletion of a chromosomal region harboring the CDKN2A and CDKN2B loci. The additional loss of p15/Ink4b in tumors derived from cells that are already deficient in p16/Ink4a bolsters the hypothesis that p15 plays an important role in tumor suppression, especially in the absence of p16. Indeed, we find that reexpression of p15 in tumor-derived cells significantly attenuates the tumorigenic potential of these cells, indicating that p15 loss may be a critical event in tumorigenesis triggered by complex DSBs.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aberrant epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling is common in cancer. Increased expression of wild type and mutant EGFR is a widespread feature of diverse types of cancer. EGFR signaling in cancer has been the focus of intense investigation for decades primarily for two reasons. First, aberrant EGFR signaling is likely to play an important role in the pathogenesis of cancer, and therefore, the mechanisms of EGFR-mediated oncogenic signaling are of interest. Second, the EGFR signaling system is an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. EGFR gene amplification and overexpression are a particularly striking feature of glioblastoma (GBM), observed in approximately 40% of tumors. GBM is the most common primary malignant tumor of the central nervous system in adults. In approximately 50% of tumors with EGFR amplification, a specific EGFR mutant (EGFRvIII, also known as EGFR type III, de2-7, Delta EGFR) can be detected. This mutant is highly oncogenic and is generated from a deletion of exons 2 to 7 of the EGFR gene, which results in an in-frame deletion of 267 amino acids from the extracellular domain of the receptor. EGFRvIII is unable to bind ligand, and it signals constitutively. Although EGFRvIII has the same signaling domain as the wild type receptor, it seems to generate a distinct set of downstream signals that may contribute to an increased tumorigenicity. In this review, we discuss recent progress in key aspects of EGFR signaling in GBM, focusing on neuropathology, signal transduction, imaging of the EGFR, and the role of the EGFR in mediating resistance to radiation therapy in GBM.
Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.) 09/2010; 12(9):675-84. · 5.48 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DAB2IP (DOC-2/DAB2 interactive protein) is a member of the RAS-GTPase-activating protein family. It is often downregulated in metastatic prostate cancer and has been reported as a possible prognostic marker to predict the risk of aggressive prostate cancer. In this study, we furnish several lines of evidence indicating that metastatic human prostate cancer PC3 cells deficient in DAB2IP (shDAB2IP) exhibit increased clonogenic survival in response to ionizing radiation (IR) compared with control cells expressing an endogenous level of DAB2IP (shVector). Radioresistance was also observed in normal prostate cells that are deficient in DAB2IP. This enhanced resistance to IR in DAB2IP-deficient prostate cancer cells is primarily due to faster DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair kinetics. More than 90% of DSBs were repaired in shDAB2IP cells by 8 hours after 2 Gy radiation, whereas only 60% of DSB repair were completed in shVector cells at the same time. Second, upon irradiation, DAB2IP-deficient cells enforced a robust G(2)-M cell cycle checkpoint compared with control cells. Finally, shDAB2IP cells showed resistance to IR-induced apoptosis that could result from a striking decrease in the expression levels of proapoptotic proteins caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9, and significantly higher levels of antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and STAT3 than those in shVector cells. In summary, DAB2IP plays a significant role in prostate cell survival following IR exposure due to enhanced DSB repair, robust G(2)-M checkpoint control, and resistance to IR-induced apoptosis. Therefore, it is important to identify patients with dysregulated DAB2IP for (a) assessing prostate cancer risk and (b) alternative treatment regimens.
Cancer Research 03/2010; 70(7):2829-39. · 8.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Therapeutic inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in cancer is complicated by the existence of a negative feedback loop linking mTOR to the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt pathway. Thus, mTOR inhibition by rapamycin or TSC1/2 results in increased PI3K-Akt activation. The death domain kinase receptor interacting protein 1 (RIP1) plays a key role in nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation and also activates the PI3K-Akt pathway through unknown mechanisms. RIP1 has recently been found to be overexpressed in glioblastoma multiforme, the most common adult primary malignant brain tumor, but not in grade II to III glioma. Our data suggest that RIP1 activates PI3K-Akt using dual mechanisms by removing the two major brakes on PI3K-Akt activity. First, increased expression of RIP1 activates PI3K-Akt by interrupting the mTOR negative feedback loop. However, unlike other signals that regulate mTOR activity without affecting its level, RIP1 negatively regulates mTOR transcription via a NF-kappaB-dependent mechanism. The second mechanism used by RIP1 to activate PI3K-Akt is down-regulation of cellular PTEN levels, which appears to be independent of NF-kappaB activation. The clinical relevance of these findings is highlighted by the demonstration that RIP1 levels correlate with activation of Akt in glioblastoma multiforme. Thus, our study shows that RIP1 regulates key components of the PTEN-PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway and elucidates a novel negative regulation of mTOR signaling at the transcriptional level by the NF-kappaB pathway. Our data suggest that the RIP1-NF-kappaB status of tumors may influence response to treatments targeting the PTEN-PI3K-mTOR signaling axis.
Cancer Research 06/2009; 69(10):4107-11. · 8.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation may play an important role in the pathogenesis of cancer and also in resistance to treatment. Inactivation of the p53 tumor suppressor is a key component of the multistep evolution of most cancers. Links between the NF-kappaB and p53 pathways are under intense investigation. In this study, we show that the receptor interacting protein 1 (RIP1), a central component of the NF-kappaB signaling network, negatively regulates p53 tumor suppressor signaling. Loss of RIP1 from cells results in augmented induction of p53 in response to DNA damage, whereas increased RIP1 level leads to a complete shutdown of DNA damage-induced p53 induction by enhancing levels of cellular mdm2. The key signal generated by RIP1 to up-regulate mdm2 and inhibit p53 is activation of NF-kappaB. The clinical implication of this finding is shown in glioblastoma, the most common primary malignant brain tumor in adults. We show that RIP1 is commonly overexpressed in glioblastoma, but not in grades II and III glioma, and increased expression of RIP1 confers a worse prognosis in glioblastoma. Importantly, RIP1 levels correlate strongly with mdm2 levels in glioblastoma. Our results show a key interaction between the NF-kappaB and p53 pathways that may have implications for the targeted treatment of glioblastoma.
Cancer Research 05/2009; 69(7):2809-16. · 8.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypoxia and hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) play a critical role in glioblastoma (GBM) which is characterized by highly aggressive and widespread cell invasion into adjacent normal brain tissue. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the novel aminothiazole com-pound SNS-032 in glioblastoma cell invasion under hypoxic condition. SNS-032 is a potent and selective inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases 2, 7 and 9 and inhibits both cell cycle and transcription. We analyzed the effect of SNS-032 (0.5 microM) on HIF-1alpha expression and its major trans-regulating factors including COX-2, VEGF, MMP-2 and uPAR that are involved in cellular invasion in tumor hypoxia. Our observations demonstrate SNS-032: i) inhibited hypoxia-induced U87MG cell invasion and among all the other inhibitors tested, SNS-032 is the most effective, ii) blocked HIF-1alpha mediated transcription of COX-2, MMP-2, VEGF and uPAR expression in U87MG cells in response to hypoxia, iii) blocked HIF-1alpha expression by a proteasome independent pathway. The effects were similar to those observed with HIF-1alpha siRNA which prevented cellular invasion by blocking HIF-1alpha expression and its downstream effectors. Taken together, our data suggest that SNS-032 prevents hypoxia-mediated U87MG cell invasion by blocking the expression of HIF-1alpha and its trans-regulating factors. Our results present an opportunity in controlling highly invasive tumors such as glioblastoma using this novel class of compounds.
International Journal of Oncology 05/2009; 34(4):1051-60. · 2.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In solid tumors, including non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC) the existence of radioresistant subpopulations, such as quiescent or hypoxic tumor cells, is well established, thus posing a critical therapeutic problem. Although small-molecule inhibitors targeting cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK) were demonstrated to enhance cellular radiosensitivity preferentially in proliferating tumor cells, cell cycle-independent activities of these substances were recently suggested. In this study, the potential of a newer generation small-molecule CDK inhibitor, SNS-032, to sensitize radioresistant tumor cells to ionizing radiation was tested in vitro using two NSCLC cell lines (NCI-H460 and A549). Exposure of quiescent and hypoxic lung tumor cells to SNS-032 at a clinically achievable concentration (500 nM) prior to irradiation resulted in a significant increase in cellular radiosensitivity indicating cell cycle-unrelated mechanisms. The effect of SNS-032 on non-cycling cells was not attributed to an enhanced toxicity of the drug. A SNS-032 mediated delay in the resolution of radiation-induced gammaH2AX foci a surrogate for DNA double-strand breaks was determined in non-cycling cells, suggesting a modulation of DNA double-strand break repair. These results indicate a modulation of DNA double-strand break repair to be partially attributed to the radiosensitization effects of SNS-032 observed in hypoxic and quiescent lung tumor cells. Considering the importance of therapy resistance for the radiocurability of solid tumors, our findings may provide the basis for an improvement of the well-established treatment regimens in clinical oncology.
Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 03/2009; 66(1):37-47. · 3.14 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is recognized that cancer cells exhibit highly elevated glucose metabolism compared to non-tumor cells. We have applied in vivo optical imaging to study dynamic uptake of a near-infrared dye-labeled glucose analogue, 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) by orthotopic glioma in a mouse model.
The orthotopic glioma model was established by surgically implanting U87-luc glioma cells into the right caudal nuclear area of nude mice. Intracranial tumor growth was monitored longitudinally by bioluminescence imaging and MRI. When tumor size reached >4 mm diameter, dynamic fluorescence imaging was performed after an injection of the NIR labeled 2-DG, IRDye800CW 2-DG. Real-time whole body images acquired immediately after i.v. infusion clearly visualized the near-infrared dye circulating into various internal organs sequentially. Dynamic fluorescence imaging revealed significantly higher signal intensity in the tumor side of the brain than the contralateral normal brain 24 h after injection (tumor/normal ratio, TNR = 2.8+/-0.7). Even stronger contrast was achieved by removing the scalp (TNR = 3.7+/-1.1) and skull (TNR = 4.2+/-1.1) of the mice. In contrast, a control dye, IRDye800CW carboxylate, showed little difference (1.1+/-0.2). Ex vivo fluorescence imaging performed on ultrathin cryosections (20 microm) of tumor bearing whole brain revealed distinct tumor margins. Microscopic imaging identified cytoplasmic locations of the 2-DG dye in tumor cells.
Our results suggest that the near-infrared dye labeled 2-DG may serve as a useful fluorescence imaging probe to noninvasively assess intracranial tumor burden in preclinical animal models.
PLoS ONE 01/2009; 4(11):e8051. · 3.73 Impact Factor