N D Sonawane

University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States

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Publications (21)122.91 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Previous observations demonstrate that Cftr-null cells and tissues exhibit alterations in cholesterol processing including perinuclear cholesterol accumulation, increased de novo synthesis, and an increase in plasma membrane cholesterol accessibility compared to wild type controls. The hypothesis of this study is that membrane cholesterol accessibility correlates with CFTR genotype and is in part influenced by de novo cholesterol synthesis. Electrochemical detection of cholesterol at the plasma membrane is achieved with capillary microelectrodes with a modified platinum coil that accepts covalent attachment of cholesterol oxidase. Modified electrodes absent cholesterol oxidase serves as a baseline control. Cholesterol synthesis is determined by deuterium incorporation into lipids over time. Incorporation into cholesterol specifically is determined by mass spectrometry analysis. All mice used in the study are on a C57Bl/6 background and are between 6 and 8 weeks of age. Membrane cholesterol measurements are elevated in both R117H and DeltaF508 mouse nasal epithelium compared to age-matched sibling wt controls demonstrating a genotype correlation to membrane cholesterol detection. Expression of wt CFTR in CF epithelial cells reverts membrane cholesterol to WT levels further demonstrating the impact of CFTR on these processes. In wt epithelial cell, the addition of the CFTR inhibitors, Gly H101 or CFTRinh-172, for 24 h surprisingly results in an initial drop in membrane cholesterol measurement followed by a rebound at 72 h suggesting a feedback mechanism may be driving the increase in membrane cholesterol. De novo cholesterol synthesis contributes to membrane cholesterol accessibility. The data in this study suggest that CFTR influences cholesterol trafficking to the plasma membrane, which when depleted, leads to an increase in de novo cholesterol synthesis to restore membrane content.
    Respiratory research 01/2010; 11:61. · 3.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Inhibitors of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel are predicted to slow cyst enlargement in polycystic kidney disease and reduce intestinal fluid loss in secretory diarrheas. Screening of approximately 110000 small synthetic and natural compounds for inhibition of halide influx in CFTR-expressing epithelial cells yielded a new class of pyrimido-pyrrolo-quinoxalinedione (PPQ) CFTR inhibitors. Testing of 347 analogues established structure-activity relationships. The most potent compound, 7,9-dimethyl-11-phenyl-6-(5-methylfuran-2-yl)-5,6-dihydro-pyrimido[4',5'-3,4]pyrrolo[1,2-a]quinoxaline-8,10-(7H,9H)-dione, PPQ-102, completely inhibited CFTR chloride current with IC(50) approximately 90 nM. The PPQs, unlike prior CFTR inhibitors, are uncharged at physiological pH, and therefore not subject to membrane potential-dependent cellular partitioning or block efficiency. Patch-clamp analysis confirmed voltage-independent CFTR inhibition by PPQ-102 and showed stabilization of the channel closed state. PPQ-102 prevented cyst expansion and reduced the size of preformed cysts in a neonatal kidney organ culture model of polycystic kidney disease. PPQ-102 is the most potent CFTR inhibitor identified to date.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 09/2009; 52(20):6447-55. · 5.61 Impact Factor
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    N D Sonawane, A S Verkman
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    ABSTRACT: The thiazolidinone 3-[(3-trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-5-[(4-carboxyphenyl)methylene]-2-thioxo-4-thiazolidinone (CFTR(inh)-172) inhibits cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel conductance with submicromolar affinity and blocks cholera toxin-induced intestinal fluid secretion. Fifty-eight CFTR(inh)-172 analogs were synthesized to identify CFTR inhibitors with improved water solubility, exploring modifications in its two phenyl rings, thiazolidinone core, and core-phenyl connectors. Greatest CFTR inhibition potency was found for 3-CF(3) and polar group-substituted-phenyl rings, and a thiazolidinone core. Two compounds with approximately 1muM CFTR inhibition potency and solubility >180 microM (>10-fold more than CFTR(inh)-172) were identified: Tetrazolo-172, containing 4-tetrazolophenyl in place of 4-carboxyphenyl, and Oxo-172, containing thiazolidinedione in place of the thiazolidinone core. These water soluble thiazolidinone analogs had low cellular toxicity. The improved water solubility of Tetrazolo- and Oxo-172 make them potential lead candidates for therapy of secretory diarrheas and polycystic kidney disease.
    Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry 09/2008; 16(17):8187-95. · 2.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) is an epithelial Cl- channel inhibited with high affinity and selectivity by the thiazolidinone compound CFTR(inh)-172. In the present study, we provide evidence that CFTR(inh)-172 acts directly on the CFTR. We introduced mutations in amino acid residues of the sixth transmembrane helix of the CFTR protein, a domain that has an important role in the formation of the channel pore. Basic and hydrophilic amino acids at positions 334-352 were replaced with alanine residues and the sensitivity to CFTR(inh)-172 was assessed using functional assays. We found that an arginine-to-alanine change at position 347 reduced the inhibitory potency of CFTR(inh)-172 by 20-30-fold. Mutagenesis of Arg347 to other amino acids also decreased the inhibitory potency, with aspartate producing near total loss of CFTR(inh)-172 activity. The results of the present study provide evidence that CFTR(inh)-172 interacts directly with CFTR, and that Arg347 is important for the interaction.
    Biochemical Journal 08/2008; 413(1):135-42. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cyst expansion in polycystic kidney disease (PKD) involves progressive fluid accumulation, which is believed to require chloride transport by the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein. Herein is reported that small-molecule CFTR inhibitors of the thiazolidinone and glycine hydrazide classes slow cyst expansion in in vitro and in vivo models of PKD. More than 30 CFTR inhibitor analogs were screened in an MDCK cell model, and near-complete suppression of cyst growth was found by tetrazolo-CFTR(inh)-172, a tetrazolo-derived thiazolidinone, and Ph-GlyH-101, a phenyl-derived glycine hydrazide, without an effect on cell proliferation. These compounds also inhibited cyst number and growth by >80% in an embryonic kidney cyst model involving 4-d organ culture of embryonic day 13.5 mouse kidneys in 8-Br-cAMP-containing medium. Subcutaneous delivery of tetrazolo-CFTR(inh)-172 and Ph-GlyH-101 to neonatal, kidney-specific PKD1 knockout mice produced stable, therapeutic inhibitor concentrations of >3 microM in urine and kidney tissue. Treatment of mice for up to 7 d remarkably slowed kidney enlargement and cyst expansion and preserved renal function. These results implicate CFTR in renal cyst growth and suggest that CFTR inhibitors may hold therapeutic potential to reduce cyst growth in PKD.
    Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 08/2008; 19(7):1300-10. · 8.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Inhibitors of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel have potential application as antisecretory therapy in cholera. We synthesized mono- and divalent CFTR inhibitors consisting of a malonic acid hydrazide (MalH) coupled via a disulfonic stilbene linker to polyethylene glycols (PEGs; 0.2-100 kDa). IC50 values for CFTR inhibition were 10-15 microM for the monovalent MalH-PEGs, but substantially lower for divalent MalH-PEG-MalH compounds, decreasing from 1.5 to 0.3 microM with increasing PEG size and showing positive cooperativity. Whole-cell patch-clamp showed voltage-dependent CFTR block with inward rectification. Outside-out patch-clamp showed shortened single-channel openings, indicating CFTR pore block from the extracellular side. Luminally added MalH-PEG-MalH blocked by >90% cholera toxin-induced fluid secretion in mouse intestinal loops (IC50 approximately 10 pmol/loop), and greatly reduced mortality in a suckling mouse cholera model. These conjugates may provide safe, inexpensive antisecretory therapy.
    Chemistry & Biology 07/2008; 15(7):718-28. · 6.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Inhibitors of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel have potential applications in the therapy of secretory diarrheas and polycystic kidney disease. In a recent study, several highly polar alpha-aminoazaheterocyclic-methylglyoxal adducts were reported to reversibly inhibit CFTR chloride channel activity with IC50 values in the low picomolar range (J Pharmacol Exp Ther 322:1023-1035, 2007), more than 10,000-fold better than that of thiazolidinone and glycine hydrazide CFTR inhibitors previously identified by high-throughput screening. In this study, we resynthesized and evaluated the alpha-aminoazaheterocyclic-methylglyoxal adducts reported to have high CFTR inhibition potency (compounds 5, 7, and 8). We verified that the reported synthesis procedures produced the target compounds in high yield. However, we found that these compounds did not inhibit CFTR chloride channel function in multiple cell lines at up to 100 microM concentration, using three independent assays of CFTR function including short-circuit current analysis, whole-cell patch-clamp experiments, and yellow fluorescence protein-fluorescence quenching. As positive controls, approximately 100% of CFTR inhibition was found by thiazolidinone and glycine hydrazide CFTR inhibitors. Our data provide direct evidence against CFTR inhibition by alpha-aminoazaheterocyclic-methylglyoxal adducts.
    Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 06/2008; 325(2):529-35. · 3.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Expression of urea transporter UT-B confers high urea permeability to mammalian erythrocytes. Erythrocyte membranes also permeate various urea analogues, suggesting common transport pathways for urea and structurally similar solutes. In this study, we examined UT-B-facilitated passage of urea analogues and other neutral small solutes by comparing transport properties of wildtype to UT-B-deficient mouse erythrocytes. Stopped-flow light-scattering measurements indicated high UT-B permeability to urea and chemical analogues formamide, acetamide, methylurea, methylformamide, ammonium carbamate, and acrylamide, each with P(s)>5.0 x 10(-6) cm/s at 10 degrees C. UT-B genetic knockout and phloretin treatment of wildtype erythrocytes similarly reduced urea analogue permeabilities. Strong temperature dependencies of formamide, acetamide, acrylamide and butyramide transport across UT-B-null membranes (E(a)>10 kcal/mol) suggested efficient diffusion of these amides across lipid bilayers. Urea analogues dimethylurea, acryalmide, methylurea, thiourea and methylformamide inhibited UT-B-mediated urea transport by >60% in the absence of transmembrane analogue gradients, supporting a pore-blocking mechanism of UT-B inhibition. Differential transport efficiencies of urea and its analogues through UT-B provide insight into chemical interactions between neutral solutes and the UT-B pore.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 07/2007; 1768(7):1815-21. · 4.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Inhibitors of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel are predicted to prevent intestinal fluid secretion in cholera. We previously discovered low- affinity glycine hydrazide (GlyH) CFTR inhibitors that block CFTR at its external pore. The goal of this study was to develop potent CFTR inhibitors that are minimally absorbed and washed out of the intestinal lumen for application as antisecretory agents in cholera. GlyH analogs (malonic hydrazides, MalH) were chemically conjugated to various lectins ("MalH-lectin") and purified. CFTR inhibition potency was measured by short-circuit current analysis, mechanism of action by patch-clamp, and antidiarrheal efficacy in closed-loop and suckling mouse models. By lectin conjugation, we improved CFTR inhibitory potency by approximately 100-fold (to 50 nmol/L) and retarded washout. High-affinity CFTR inhibition was abolished by MalH-lectin heat denaturation, protease digestion, or competition by mannose or unconjugated lectin. Patch-clamp analysis indicated CFTR inhibition by an external pore occlusion mechanism. Fluorescently labeled MalH-lectin remained membrane bound for >6 hours after washout, whereas washout occurred in a few minutes without the lectin. MalH-ConA and MalH-wheat (IC50 50-100 pmol) blocked cholera toxin-induced intestinal fluid secretion in closed intestinal loops in mice and greatly reduced mortality in a suckling mouse model of cholera. The high potency of MalH-lectin conjugates results from "anchoring" the CFTR-blocking MalH to cell surface carbohydrates by the lectin. The high-affinity, slow washout, and external site of action of the MalH-lectin conjugates support their further development as antisecretory drugs for enterotoxin-mediated secretory diarrheas.
    Gastroenterology 04/2007; 132(4):1234-44. · 12.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: New antimicrobials are needed because of the emergence of organisms that are resistant to available antimicrobials. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a high-throughput screening approach to identify antibacterials against two common disease-causing bacteria, and to determine the frequency, novelty, and potency of compounds with antibacterial activity. A high-throughput, turbidometric assay of bacterial growth in a 96-well plate format was used to screen a diverse collection of 150,000 small molecules for antibacterial activity against E. coli and P. aeruginosa. The statistical Z'-factor for the assay was > or = 0.7. Screening for inhibition of E. coli growth gave a 'hit' rate (> 60% inhibition at 12.5 microM) of 0.025%, which was more than 5-fold reduced for P. aeruginosa. The most potent antibacterials (EC50 < 0.5 microM) were of the nitrofuran class followed by naphthalimide, salicylanilide, bipyridinium and quinoazolinediamine chemical classes. Screening of > 250 analogs of the most potent antibacterial classes established structure-activity data sets. Our results validate and demonstrate the utility of a growth-based phenotype screen for rapid identification of small-molecule antibacterials. The favourable efficacy and structure-activity data for several of the antibacterial classes suggests their potential development for clinical use.
    British Journal of Pharmacology 12/2006; 149(5):551-9. · 5.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Enterotoxin-mediated secretory diarrheas such as cholera involve chloride secretion by enterocytes into the intestinal lumen by the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel. We previously identified glycine hydrazide CFTR blockers that by electrophysiological studies appeared to block the CFTR anion pore at its lumen-facing surface. Here, we synthesize highly water-soluble, nonabsorbable malondihydrazides by coupling 2,4-disulfobenzaldehyde, 4-sulfophenylisothiocyante, and polyethylene glycol (PEG) moieties to 2-naphthalenylamino-[(3,5-dibromo-2,4-dihydroxyphenyl) methylene] propanedioic acid dihydrazide, and aminoacethydrazides by coupling PEG to [(N-2-naphthalenyl)-2-(2-hydroxyethyl)]-glycine-2-[(3,5-dibromo-2,4-dihydroxyphenyl) methylene] hydrazide. Compounds rapidly, fully and reversibly blocked CFTR-mediated chloride current with Ki of 2-8 microM when added to the apical surface of epithelial cell monolayers. Compounds did not pass across Caco-2 monolayers, and were absorbed by <2%/hr in mouse intestine. Luminally added compounds blocked by >90% cholera toxin-induced fluid secretion in mouse intestinal loops, without inhibiting intestinal fluid absorption. These orally administered, nonabsorbable, nontoxic CFTR inhibitors may reduce intestinal fluid losses in cholera.
    The FASEB Journal 01/2006; 20(1):130-2. · 5.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel cause cystic fibrosis. The delta F508 mutation produces defects in channel gating and cellular processing, whereas the G551D mutation produces primarily a gating defect. To identify correctors of gating, 50,000 diverse small molecules were screened at 2.5 microM (with forskolin, 20 microM) by an iodide uptake assay in epithelial cells coexpressing delta F508-CFTR and a fluorescent halide indicator (yellow fluorescent protein-H148Q/I152L) after delta F508-CFTR rescue by 24-h culture at 27 degrees C. Secondary analysis and testing of >1000 structural analogs yielded two novel classes of correctors of defective delta F508-CFTR gating ("potentiators") with nanomolar potency that were active in human delta F508 and G551D cells. The most potent compound of the phenylglycine class, 2-[(2-1H-indol-3-yl-acetyl)-methylamino]-N-(4-isopropylphenyl)-2-phenylacetamide, reversibly activated delta F508-CFTR in the presence of forskolin with K(a) approximately 70 nM and also activated the CFTR gating mutants G551D and G1349D with K(a) values of approximately 1100 and 40 nM, respectively. The most potent sulfonamide, 6-(ethylphenylsulfamoyl)-4-oxo-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxylic acid cycloheptylamide, had K(a) approximately 20 nM for activation of delta F508-CFTR. In cell-attached patch-clamp experiments, phenylglycine-01 (PG-01) and sulfonamide-01 (SF-01) increased channel open probability >5-fold by the reduction of interburst closed time. An interesting property of these compounds was their ability to act in synergy with cAMP agonists. Microsome metabolism studies and rat pharmacokinetic analysis suggested significantly more rapid metabolism of PG-01 than SF-03. Phenylglycine and sulfonamide compounds may be useful for monotherapy of cystic fibrosis caused by gating mutants and possibly for a subset of delta F508 subjects with significant delta F508-CFTR plasma-membrane expression.
    Molecular Pharmacology 05/2005; 67(5):1797-807. · 4.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the involvement of ClC-3 chloride channels in endosomal acidification by measurement of endosomal pH and chloride concentration [Cl-] in control versus ClC-3-deficient hepatocytes and in control versus ClC-3-transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells. Endosomes were labeled with pH or [Cl-]-sensing fluorescent transferrin (Tf), which targets to early/recycling endosomes, or alpha2-macroglobulin (alpha2M), which targets to late endosomes. In pulse label-chase experiments, [Cl-] was 19 mM just after internalization in alpha2M-labeled endosomes in primary cultures of hepatocytes from wild-type mice, increasing to 58 mM over 45 min, whereas pH decreased from 7.1 to 5.4. Endosomal acidification and [Cl-] accumulation were significantly impaired in hepatocytes from ClC-3 knock-out mice, with [Cl-] increasing from 16 to 43 mM and pH decreasing from 7.1 to 6.0. Acidification and Cl- accumulation were blocked by bafilomycin. In Tf-labeled endosomes, [Cl-] was 46 mM in wild-type versus 35 mM in ClC-3-deficient hepatocytes at 15 min after internalization, with corresponding pH of 6.1 versus 6.5. Approximately 4-fold increased Cl- conductance was found in alpha2M-labeled endosomes isolated from hepatocytes of wild-type versus ClC-3 null mice. In contrast, Golgi acidification was not impaired in ClC-3-deficient hepatocytes. In transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing ClC-3A, endosomal acidification and [Cl-] accumulation were enhanced. [Cl-] in alpha2M-labeled endosomes was 42 mM (control) versus 53 mM (ClC-3A) at 45 min, with corresponding pH 5.8 versus 5.2; [Cl-] in Tf-labeled endosomes at 15 min was 37 mM (control) versus 49 mM (ClC-3A) with pH 6.3 versus 5.9. Our results provide direct evidence for involvement of ClC-3 in endosomal acidification by Cl- shunting of the interior-positive membrane potential created by the vacuolar H+ pump.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 02/2005; 280(2):1241-7. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A small-molecule inhibitor of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), 3-[(3-trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-5-[(4-carboxyphenyl)methylene]-2-thioxo-4-thiazolidinone (CFTR(inh)-172), reduces enterotoxin-induced intestinal fluid secretion in rodents. Here, we study CFTR(inh)-172 pharmacology and antidiarrheal efficacy in rodents using (14)C-labeled CFTR(inh)-172, liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, and a closed intestinal loop model of fluid secretion. CFTR(inh)-172 was cleared primarily by renal glomerular filtration without chemical modification. CFTR(inh)-172 accumulated in liver within 5 min after intravenous infusion in mice, and was concentrated fivefold in bile over blood. At 30-240 min, CFTR(inh)-172 was found mainly in liver, intestine, and kidney, with little detectable in the brain, heart, skeletal muscle, or lung. Pharmacokinetic analysis in rats following intravenous bolus infusion showed a distribution volume of 770 mL with redistribution and elimination half-times of 0.14 h and 10.3 h, respectively. CFTR(inh)-172 was stable in hepatic microsomes. Closed-loop studies in mice indicated that a single intraperitoneal injection of 20 microg CFTR(inh)-172 inhibited fluid accumulation at 6 h after cholera toxin by >90% in duodenum and jejunum, approximately 60% in ileum and <10% in colon. No toxicity was seen after high-dose CFTR(inh)-172 administration (3 mg/kg/day in two daily doses) in mice over the first 6 weeks of life. The metabolic stability, enterohepatic recirculation, slow renal elimination, and intestinal accumulation of CFTR(inh)-172 account for its efficacy as an antidiarrheal.
    Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 01/2005; 94(1):134-43. · 3.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Curcumin, the yellow colored component of the spice turmeric, has been reported to rescue defective DeltaF508-cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) cellular processing in homozygous mutant mice, restoring nasal potential differences and improving survival (Egan, M. E., Pearson, M., Weiner, S. A., Rajendran, V., Rubin, D., Glockner-Pagel, J., Canny, S., Du, K., Lukacs, G. L., and Caplan, M. J. (2004) Science 304, 600-602). Because of the implied potential use of curcumin or similar compounds in the therapy of cystic fibrosis caused by the DeltaF508 mutation, we tried to reproduce and extend the pre-clinical data of Egan et al. Fluorometric measurements of iodide influx in Fischer rat thyroid cells expressing DeltaF508-CFTR showed no effect of curcumin (1-40 microm) when added for up to 24 h prior to assay in cells grown at 37 degrees C. Controls, including 27 degrees C rescue and 4 mm phenylbutyrate at 37 degrees C, were strongly positive. Also, curcumin did not increase short circuit current in primary cultures of a human airway epithelium homozygous for DeltaF508-CFTR with a 27 degrees C rescue-positive control. Nasal potential differences in mice were measured in response to topical perfusion with serial solutions containing amiloride, low Cl-, and forskolin. Robust low Cl- and forskolin-induced hyperpolarization of 22 +/- 3 mV was found in wild type mice, with 2.1 +/- 0.4 mV hyperpolarization in DeltaF508 homozygous mutant mice. No significant increase in Cl-/forskolin hyperpolarization was seen in any of the 22 DeltaF508 mice studied using different curcumin preparations and administration regimens, including that used by Egan et al. Assay of serum curcumin by ethyl acetate extraction followed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry indicated a maximum serum concentration of 60 nm, well below that of 5-15 microm, where cellular effects by sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium pump inhibition are proposed to occur. Our results do not support further evaluation of curcumin for cystic fibrosis therapy.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/2004; 279(39):40629-33. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein is a cAMP-regulated epithelial Cl- channel that, when defective, causes cystic fibrosis. Screening of a collection of 100,000 diverse small molecules revealed four novel chemical classes of CFTR inhibitors with Ki < 10 microM, one of which (glycine hydrazides) had many active structural analogues. Analysis of a series of synthesized glycine hydrazide analogues revealed maximal inhibitory potency for N-(2-naphthalenyl) and 3,5-dibromo-2,4-dihydroxyphenyl substituents. The compound N-(2-naphthalenyl)-[(3,5-dibromo-2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)methylene]glycine hydrazide (GlyH-101) reversibly inhibited CFTR Cl- conductance in <1 min. Whole-cell current measurements revealed voltage-dependent CFTR block by GlyH-101 with strong inward rectification, producing an increase in apparent inhibitory constant Ki from 1.4 microM at +60 mV to 5.6 microM at -60 mV. Apparent potency was reduced by lowering extracellular Cl- concentration. Patch-clamp experiments indicated fast channel closures within bursts of channel openings, reducing mean channel open time from 264 to 13 ms (-60 mV holding potential, 5 microM GlyH-101). GlyH-101 inhibitory potency was independent of pH from 6.5-8.0, where it exists predominantly as a monovalent anion with solubility approximately 1 mM in water. Topical GlyH-101 (10 microM) in mice rapidly and reversibly inhibited forskolin-induced hyperpolarization in nasal potential differences. In a closed-loop model of cholera, intraluminal GlyH-101 (2.5 microg) reduced by approximately 80% cholera toxin-induced intestinal fluid secretion. Compared with the thiazolidinone CFTR inhibitor CFTR(inh)-172, GlyH-101 has substantially greater water solubility and rapidity of action, and a novel inhibition mechanism involving occlusion near the external pore entrance. Glycine hydrazides may be useful as probes of CFTR pore structure, in creating animal models of CF, and as antidiarrheals in enterotoxic-mediated secretory diarrheas.
    The Journal of General Physiology 08/2004; 124(2):125-37. · 4.73 Impact Factor
  • N D Sonawane, Francis C Szoka, A S Verkman
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    ABSTRACT: The "proton sponge hypothesis" postulates enhanced transgene delivery by cationic polymer-DNA complexes (polyplexes) containing H+ buffering polyamines by enhanced endosomal Cl- accumulation and osmotic swelling/lysis. To test this hypothesis, we measured endosomal Cl- concentration, pH, and volume after internalization of polyplexes composed of plasmid DNA and polylysine (POL), a non-buffering polyamine, or the strongly buffering polyamines polyethylenimine (PEI) or polyamidoamine (PAM). [Cl-] and pH were measured by ratio imaging of fluorescently labeled polyplexes containing Cl- or pH indicators. [Cl-] increased from 41 to 80 mM over 60 min in endosomes-contained POL-polyplexes, whereas pH decreased from 6.8 to 5.3. Endosomal Cl- accumulation was enhanced (115 mM at 60 min) and acidification was slowed (pH 5.9 at 60 min) for PEI and PAM-polyplexes. Relative endosome volume increased 20% over 75 min for POL-polyplexes versus 140% for PEI-polyplexes. Endosome lysis was seen at >45 min for PEI but not POL-containing endosomes, and PEI-containing endosomes showed increased osmotic fragility in vitro. The slowed endosomal acidification and enhanced Cl- accumulation and swelling/lysis were accounted for by the greater H+ buffering capacity of endosomes containing PEI or PAM versus POL (>90 mM versus 46 H+/pH unit). Our results provide direct support for the proton sponge hypothesis and thus a rational basis for the design of improved non-viral vectors for gene delivery.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 11/2003; 278(45):44826-31. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    N D Sonawane, A S Verkman
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    ABSTRACT: Chloride concentration ([Cl-]) was measured in defined organellar compartments using fluorescently labeled transferrin, alpha2-macroglobulin, and cholera toxin B-subunit conjugated with Cl--sensitive and -insensitive dyes. In pulse-chase experiments, [Cl-] in Tf-labeled early/recycling endosomes in J774 cells was 20 mM just after internalization, increasing to 41 mM over approximately 10 min in parallel to a drop in pH from 6.91 to 6.05. The low [Cl-] just after internalization (compared with 137 mM solution [Cl-]) was prevented by reducing the interior-negative Donnan potential. [Cl-] in alpha2-macroglobulin-labeled endosomes, which enter a late compartment, increased from 28 to 58 mM at 1-45 min after internalization, whereas pH decreased from 6.85 to 5.20. Cl- accumulation was prevented by bafilomycin but restored by valinomycin. A Cl- channel inhibitor slowed endosomal acidification and Cl- accumulation by approximately 2.5-fold. [Cl-] was 49 mM and pH was 6.42 in cholera toxin B subunit-labeled Golgi complex in Vero cells; Golgi compartment Cl- accumulation and acidification were reversed by bafilomycin. Our experiments provide evidence that Cl- is the principal counter ion accompanying endosomal and Golgi compartment acidification, and that an interior-negative Donnan potential is responsible for low endosomal [Cl-] early after internalization. We propose that reduced [Cl-] and volume in early endosomes permits endosomal acidification and [Cl-] accumulation without lysis.
    The Journal of Cell Biology 04/2003; 160(7):1129-38. · 10.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Secretory diarrhea is the leading cause of infant death in developing countries and a major cause of morbidity in adults. The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein is required for fluid secretion in the intestine and airways and, when defective, causes the lethal genetic disease cystic fibrosis. We screened 50,000 chemically diverse compounds for inhibition of cAMP/flavone-stimulated Cl(-) transport in epithelial cells expressing CFTR. Six CFTR inhibitors of the 2-thioxo-4-thiazolidinone chemical class were identified. The most potent compound discovered by screening of structural analogs, CFTR(inh)-172, reversibly inhibited CFTR short-circuit current in less than 2 minutes in a voltage-independent manner with K(I) approximately 300 nM. CFTR(inh)-172 was nontoxic at high concentrations in cell culture and mouse models. At concentrations fully inhibiting CFTR, CFTR(inh)-172 did not prevent elevation of cellular cAMP or inhibit non-CFTR Cl(-) channels, multidrug resistance protein-1 (MDR-1), ATP-sensitive K(+) channels, or a series of other transporters. A single intraperitoneal injection of CFTR(inh)-172 (250 micro g/kg) in mice reduced by more than 90% cholera toxin-induced fluid secretion in the small intestine over 6 hours. Thiazolidinone CFTR inhibitors may be useful in developing large-animal models of cystic fibrosis and in reducing intestinal fluid loss in cholera and other secretory diarrheas.
    Journal of Clinical Investigation 01/2003; 110(11):1651-8. · 12.81 Impact Factor
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    Yuanlin Song, Nitin Sonawane, A S Verkman
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    ABSTRACT: Sweat secretion involves the transport of salt and water into the lumen of the secretory coil of the sweat gland. By analogy to salivary and submucosal glands, where fluid secretion is aquaporin-5 (AQP5) dependent, we postulated that aquaporin water channels might facilitate sweat secretion. Immunolocalization with specific antibodies revealed strong expression of AQP5 at the luminal membrane of secretory epithelial cells in sweat glands in mouse paw skin. Novel quantitative methods were developed to compare sweat secretion in wild-type mice and mice lacking AQP5. Total hindpaw sweat secretion was measured by proton nuclear magnetic resonance of sweat-derived (1)H(2)O in (2)H(2)O solvent, and sweat secretion from individual glands was measured by real-time video imaging of sweat droplet formation under oil. Sweat secretion rates after pilocarpine stimulation did not differ in wild-type mice (0.21 +/- 0.03 nl min(-1) gland(-1)) vs. mice lacking AQP5 (0.19 +/- 0.04 nl min(-1) gland(-1)). The lack of effect of AQP5 on sweat secretion rate was confirmed by microcapillary collections of sweat from defined regions of mouse paws. Also, as by direct counting of droplets, the number of functional sweat glands was not affected by AQP5 deletion. Sweat gland morphology was similar in wild-type and AQP5 null mice. From sweat coil geometry and gland secretion rate, the rate of fluid secretion was estimated to be 130 nl min(-1) cm(-2) of secretory epithelium, substantially lower than that of > 500 nl min(-1) cm(-2) in kidney proximal tubules and salivary glands, where active fluid absorption or secretion is aquaporin dependent. These results indicate the expression of AQP5 in sweat gland secretory epithelium, but provide direct evidence against its physiological involvement in sweat fluid secretion in mice.
    The Journal of Physiology 06/2002; 541(Pt 2):561-8. · 4.38 Impact Factor