[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The function of the gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABA(A)R) is maintained by endogenous phosphorylation. We have shown that the corresponding kinase is the glycolytic enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), using the locally produced glycolytic ATP. In addition, using cerebral tissue obtained during curative surgery for epilepsy, we showed that both the endogenous phosphorylation and the GABA(A)R function are significantly reduced in the "epileptogenic" cerebral cortex when compared to "control" tissue. This dysfunction likely contributes to seizure generation and/or transition from the interictal to the ictal state. Glucose utilization is decreased in the epileptogenic cortex of patients with partial epilepsy in the interictal state, but the relationship to the disorder remains unclear. We propose that this hypometabolism is related to the deficiency in the endogenous phosphorylation of GABA(A)R and the resulting greater lability of GABAergic inhibition. Several lines of evidences indeed suggest that GABAergic inhibition is costly in terms of metabolic consumption. The deficiency of this glycolysis-dependent mechanism may thus link epileptogenicity to glucose hypometabolism. The antiepileptic effect of ketogenic diets may be mediated by the subsequent rise in the NADH/NAD(+) index, which favors GABA(A)R endogenous phosphorylation and should contribute to restoration of GABAergic inhibition in the epileptogenic zone.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Frontal lobe epilepsy surgery is the second most common surgery performed for drug-resistant partial epilepsy. We investigated the longitudinal outcome in a cohort of patients investigated since 1990 with SEEG and modern diagnostic techniques. We reviewed 105 patients who underwent surgery between 1990 and 2005 (mean follow-up, six years; range: one to 17 years) and analyzed the year-per-year follow-up according to Engel's classification. Favorable outcome (Class I) was observed for 70% and this result was stable at least five years after surgery. More than 90% of patients with lesion-related epilepsies (focal cortical dysplasia and dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors) became seizure-free. Less than 50% of patients classified as having cryptogenic epilepsy (defined as normal imaging and neuropathology on surgical specimen) had a favorable outcome. Permanent neurological sequelae were subtle and rare, especially after surgery for dysplasia in eloquent cortex (primary motor cortex). Our data indicate that frontal surgery is a successful treatment in patients when electrophysiological and morphological investigations demonstrate a well-defined epileptogenic zone or lesion to be surgically resected. Progress in electrophysiological and brain-imaging techniques will further improve the selection of frontal lobe epilepsy surgery candidates.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Animal models have provided very valuable data to specify the physiopathological mechanisms of the various forms of epilepsy. However, the question arises of knowing which of these experimental results are relevant to the human epileptic brain. The development of epileptic surgery makes it possible to directly study the functional properties of human brain tissue in vitro and to analyze the mechanisms underlying seizures and epileptogenesis. We review some of the results obtained over the last few years in our laboratory based on electrophysiological, immunocytochemical and molecular experiments conducted on human brain tissue.
This review covers a number of the mechanisms of neuronal synchronizations generating epileptiform discharges, including the role of electrical synapses connecting the inhibitory interneurons, particularly in Taylor-type focal cortical dysplasia and the functional lability of GABAergic inhibition in epileptogenic human cortical tissue, which may sustain triggering and propagation of seizures. Some of these mechanisms have not been described in animal models.
Studies on human tissue, when carefully designed, are necessary to validate the data collected on animal models and will continue to provide us with new and important information on the cerebral changes related to epilepsy. Moreover, these studies allow development of a class of antiepileptic drugs that have a completely new mechanism of action, which could be effective in the treatment of drug-resistant epilepsies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Frontal lobe epilepsy surgery is the second most common surgery performed for drug-resistant partial epilepsy. We investigated the longitudinal outcome in a cohort of patients investigated since 1990 with SEEG and modern diagnostic techniques. We reviewed 105 patients who underwent surgery between 1990 and 2005 (mean follow-up, six years; range: one to17 years) and analyzed the year-per-year follow-up according to Engel's classification. Favorable outcome (Class I) was observed for 70% and this result was stable at least five years after surgery. More than 90% of patients with lesion-related epilepsies (focal cortical dysplasia and dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors) became seizure-free. Less than 50% of patients classified as having cryptogenic epilepsy (defined as normal imaging and neuropathology on surgical specimen) had a favorable outcome.Permanent neurological sequelae were subtle and rare, especially after surgery for dysplasia in eloquent cortex (primary motor cortex).Our data indicate that frontal surgery is a successful treatment in patients when electrophysiological and morphological investigations demonstrate a well-defined epileptogenic zone or lesion to be surgically resected. Progress in electrophysiological and brain-imaging techniques will further improve the selection of frontal lobe epilepsy surgery candidates.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study analysed the effects of betahistine and thioperamide, two histamine H(3) receptor antagonists, on the recovery process after unilateral vestibular neurectomy (UVN) in the cat. In UVN animals untreated or treated with betahistine or thioperamide, recovery was evaluated by recording the horizontal spontaneous nystagmus and the postural and locomotor performances. The neurochemical effects of these drugs were determined by examining their impact on the histaminergic system. We quantified the mRNA coding for histidine decarboxylase (enzyme synthesizing histamine) by in situ hybridisation in the tuberomammillary nuclei, while binding density to histamine H(3) receptors was assessed using a histamine H(3) receptor agonist ([(3)H]N-alpha-methylhistamine) and autoradiography methods in the tuberomammillary and the vestibular nuclei. Relative to the UVN-untreated group, cats treated with betahistine or thioperamide showed strongly accelerated behavioural recovery. UVN-induced 1) an up-regulation of histidine decarboxylase mRNA in the tuberomammillary nuclei, strongly accentuated under betahistine and thioperamide, 2) a reduction of the binding to histamine H(3) receptors in the vestibular and tuberomammillary nuclei, also strongly enhanced in both groups of treated cats. This study demonstrates that betahistine and thioperamide strongly improve the recovery of vestibular functions in UVN cats by interacting with the histaminergic system.
European Journal of Pharmacology 08/2007; 568(1-3):149-63. · 2.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A reduction in GABAergic neurotransmission has been put forward as a pathophysiological mechanism for human epilepsy. However, in slices of human epileptogenic neocortex, GABAergic inhibition can be clearly demonstrated. In this article we present data showing an increase in the functional lability of GABAergic inhibition in epileptogenic tissue compared with nonepileptogenic human tissue. We have previously shown that the glycolytic enzyme GAPDH is the kinase involved in the glycolysis-dependent endogenous phosphorylation of the alpha1-subunit of GABA(A) receptor, a mechanism necessary for maintaining GABA(A) function. In human epileptogenic cortex obtained during curative surgery of patients with partial seizures, we demonstrate an intrinsic deficiency of GABA(A) receptor endogenous phosphorylation resulting in an increased lability of GABAergic currents in neurons isolated from this tissue when compared with neurons from nonepileptogenic human tissue. This feature was not related to a reduction in the number of GABA(A) receptor alpha1-subunits in the epileptogenic tissue as measured by [(3)H]flunitrazepam photoaffinity labeling. Maintaining the receptor in a phosphorylated state either by favoring the endogenous phosphorylation or by inhibiting a membrane-associated phosphatase is needed to sustain GABA(A) receptor responses in epileptogenic cortex. The increased functional lability induced by the deficiency in phosphorylation can account for transient GABAergic disinhibition favoring seizure initiation and propagation. These findings imply new therapeutic approaches and suggest a functional link to the regional cerebral glucose hypometabolism observed in patients with partial epilepsy, because the dysfunctional GABAergic mechanism depends on the locally produced glycolytic ATP.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 03/2007; 104(9):3472-7. · 9.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine how the histaminergic system is implicated in vestibular compensation, we studied the changes in histidine decarboxylase (HDC; the enzyme synthesizing histamine) mRNA regulation in the tuberomammillary (TM) nuclei of cats killed 1 week, 3 weeks and 3 months after unilateral vestibular neurectomy (UVN). We also used one- and two-step bilateral vestibular neurectomized (BVN) cats to determine whether HDC mRNA regulation depended on the asymmetrical vestibular input received by the TM nuclei neurons. In addition, we analysed the HDC mRNA changes in the TM nuclei and the recovery of behavioural functions in UVN cats treated with thioperamide, a pure histaminergic drug. Finally, we quantified binding to histamine H3 receptors (H3Rs) in the medial vestibular nucleus (VN) by means of a histamine H3R agonist ([3H]N-alpha-methylhistamine) in order to further investigate the sites and mechanisms of action of histamine in this structure. This study shows that UVN increases HDC mRNA expression in the ipsilateral TM nucleus at 1 week. This increased expression persisted 3 weeks after UVN, and regained control values at 3 months. HDC mRNA expression was unchanged in the one-step BVN cats but showed mirror asymmetrical increases in the two-step BVN compared to the 1 week UVN cats. Three weeks' thioperamide treatment induced a bilateral HDC mRNA up-regulation in the UVN cats, which was higher than in the untreated UVN group. Binding to histamine H3Rs in the MVN showed a strong bilateral decrease after thioperamide treatment, while it was reduced ipsilaterally in the UVN cats. That such changes of the histaminergic system induced by vestibular lesion and treatment may play a functional role in vestibular compensation is strongly supported by the behavioural data. Indeed, spontaneous nystagmus, posture and locomotor balance were rapidly recovered in the UVN cats treated with thioperamide. These results demonstrate that changes in histamine levels are related to vestibular compensation.
The Journal of Physiology 07/2006; 573(Pt 3):723-39. · 4.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Drugs interacting with the histaminergic system are currently used for vertigo treatment and it was shown in animal models that structural analogues of histamine like betahistine improved the recovery process after vestibular lesion. This study was aimed at determining the possible dose and duration effects of betahistine treatment on histamine turnover in normal adult cats, as judged by the level of messenger RNA for histidine decarboxylase (enzyme synthesizing histamine) in the tuberomammillary nuclei. Experiments were conducted on betahistine-treated cats receiving daily doses of 2, 5, 10, or 50 mg/kg during 1 week, 3 weeks, 2 months, or 3 months. The 1-week, 3-week, and 2- and 3-month treatments correspond to the acute, compensatory, and sustained compensatory stages of vestibular compensation, respectively. The lowest dose (2 mg/kg) given the longest time (3 months) was close to the dosage for vestibular defective patients. Data from the experimental groups were compared to control, untreated cats and to placebo-treated animals. The results clearly show that betahistine dihydrochloride administered orally in the normal cat interferes with histamine turnover by increasing the basal expression level of histidine decarboxylase mRNA of neurons located in the tuberomammillary nuclei of the posterior hypothalamus. The effects were both dose- and time-dependent. In conclusion, compensation of both static and dynamic deficits is subtended by long-term adaptive mechanisms that could be facilitated pharmacologically using betahistine dihydrochloride.
European Journal of Pharmacology 11/2005; 523(1-3):54-63. · 2.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Protein phosphorylation is crucial for regulating synaptic transmission. We describe a novel mechanism for the phosphorylation of the GABA(A) receptor, which mediates fast inhibition in the brain. A protein copurified and coimmunoprecipitated with the phosphorylated receptor alpha1 subunit; this receptor-associated protein was identified by purification and microsequencing as the key glycolytic enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). Molecular constructs demonstrated that GAPDH directly phosphorylates the long intracellular loop of GABA(A) receptor alpha1 subunit at identified serine and threonine residues. GAPDH and the alpha1 subunit were found to be colocalized at the neuronal plasma membrane. In keeping with the GAPDH/GABA(A) receptor molecular association, glycolytic ATP produced locally at plasma membranes was consumed for this alpha1 subunit phosphorylation, possibly within a single macrocomplex. The membrane-attached GAPDH is thus a dual-purpose enzyme, a glycolytic dehydrogenase, and a receptor-associated kinase. In acutely dissociated cortical neurons, the rundown of the GABA(A) responses was essentially attributable to a Mg(2+)-dependent phosphatase activity, which was sensitive to vanadate but insensitive to okadaic acid or fluoride. Rundown was significantly reduced by the addition of GAPDH or its reduced cofactor NADH and nearly abolished by the addition of its substrate glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P). The prevention of rundown by G3P was abolished by iodoacetamide, an inhibitor of the dehydrogenase activity of GAPDH, indicating that the GABA(A) responses are maintained by a glycolysis-dependent phosphorylation. Our results provide a molecular mechanism for the direct involvement of glycolysis in neurotransmission.
Journal of Neuroscience 10/2004; 24(35):7614-22. · 6.91 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Drugs interfering with the histaminergic system facilitate behavioral recovery after vestibular lesion, likely by increasing histamine turnover and release. The effects of betahistine (structural analogue of histamine) on the histaminergic system were tested by quantifying messenger RNA for histidine decarboxylase (enzyme synthesizing histamine) by in situ hybridization and binding to histamine H(3) receptors (mediating, namely, histamine autoinhibition) using a histamine H(3) receptor agonist ([(3)H]N-alpha-methylhistamine) and radioautography methods. Experiments were done in brain sections of control cats (N=6) and cats treated with betahistine for 1 (N=6) or 3 (N=6) weeks. Betahistine treatment induced symmetrical changes with up-regulation of histidine decarboxylase mRNA in the tuberomammillary nucleus and reduction of [(3)H]N-alpha-methylhistamine labeling in both the tuberomammillary nucleus, the vestibular nuclei complex and nuclei of the inferior olive. These findings suggest that betahistine upregulates histamine turnover and release, very likely by blocking presynaptic histamine H(3) receptors, and induces histamine H(3) receptor downregulation. This action on the histaminergic system could explain the effectiveness of betahistine in the treatment of vertigo and vestibular disease.
European Journal of Pharmacology 07/2002; 446(1-3):63-73. · 2.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The presence of GABA and galanin in histaminergic neurons was previously reported in the rodent brain but whether such co-localizations also occur in the human brain was not known. We used in situ hybridization histochemistry and immunohistochemistry to study the co-localization of histamine with GABA and galanin in neurons of the tuberomamillary nucleus of adult human posterior hypothalamus. On consecutive formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections, co-localization was assessed using the in situ hybridization for L-histidine decarboxylase mRNA and immunocytochemistry for glutamate decarboxylase-67 kDa or galanin in the two profiles of same cell. The pattern of distribution and number of histaminergic neurons identified by in situ hybridization of the synthesizing enzyme gene transcripts were in accordance with data reported for histamine immunoreactivity. The great majority of neurons within the main divisions of the tuberomamillary nucleus containing L-histidine decarboxylase mRNA was also immunoreactive for glutamate decarboxylase-67 kDa. The range of co-localization of the two markers varied from 72% in the lateral part, to 75-87% in the medial part and 83-88% in the ventral part. In contrast, no cell containing L-histidine decarboxylase mRNA was immunoreactive for galanin. We conclude that tuberomamillary neurons in human co-express histamine with GABA but, unlike the neurons in rodents, do not express galanin, indicating that neurotransmitter co-localization patterns differ in the two species.
Brain Research 07/2002; 939(1-2):52-64. · 2.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: LP(A1) (also termed Edg-2 or VZG-1) is a G-protein-coupled receptor for lysophosphatidic acid and its gene transcripts have been found selectively expressed by mature myelin-producing cells. We have raised in rabbit a polyclonal antibody against a sequence unique to LP(A1) and common to rat, mouse, and human orthologues. In Western blots, LP(A1) immunoreactivity appeared as 44-53 kDa bands in extracts from recombinant RH7777 cells expressing LP(A1), mouse purified oligodendrocytes, or human white matter, but not from wild-type RH7777 cells or purified astrocytes. In glial cultures, LP(A1) immunoreactivity was restricted to oligodendrocytes, appeared at cell membrane and processes, colocalized with myelin basic protein, and appeared before myelin/oligodendrocyte glycoprotein. In slices of rat and human brains, LP(A1) immunoreactivity was found in myelinated tracts, as well as in oligodendrocyte somata and their myelinating fibers. Immunoreactivities of LP(A1) and myelin basic protein colocalized in the brain, but oligodendrocyte soma showed stronger signals for LP(A1) than myelinated fibers, whereas the reverse was true for myelin basic protein. These results strengthen the view that LP(A1) is involved in myelin formation or maintenance.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The histaminergic H3-receptor (H3R) controls histamine synthesis and release in the tuberomamillary nucleus. We evaluated the effects of stimulating or blocking of H(3)R on glutamate-decarboxylase 67 kDa (GAD-67) and galanin mRNA expression, two histamine co-transmitters.After in situ hybridization histochemistry (ISHH), we observed a colocalization of 100% between histidine decarboxylase (HDC) and GAD-67 or H3R and of 80 to 97% with galanin. Adult rats received an H3R agonist ((R)alpha-Methylhistamine) or antagonist (ciproxifan) and were sacrificed 1 or 3 hours later. Treatment effects on HDC, galanin and GAD-67 mRNA were studied by quantitative ISHH on serial sections. Treatment with the H3R agonist known to decrease histamine neuron activity initially reduced HDC and galanin gene expression but an inverse change, presumably reflecting a compensatory mechanism, was observed after 3 h on both markers. In contrast, the H3R antagonist known to activate histamine neurons, had opposite effects on the two markers, suggesting that co-transmitters are submitted to independent control mechanisms. Furthermore, GAD-67 mRNA levels were not significantly modified by these treatments.
Journal of Neural Transmission 04/2002; 109(3):293-306. · 3.05 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polyamine contents were determined in human temporal lobe epilepsy. In the seven patients studied, stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) located the epileptogenic focus in Ammon's horn and neuropathological findings were limited to hippocampal gliosis and sclerosis. Each polyamine exhibited a specific regional distribution. The most important variations were observed for spermidine and spermine while putrescine levels varied less. The regional variation was predominant in middle > posterior > anterior parts of the temporal lobe. Spermine contents and the spermidine/spermine (SPD/SPM) index varied especially in the middle and posterior parts of the hippocampus. Metabolic SPD/SPM index and spermidine levels were found to be drastically increased in almost all limbic parts when compared to neocortical regions. The opposite was observed for spermine. The heterogeneous distribution of polyamines was compared to abnormal electrical activities recorded by SEEG: SPD/SPM index and spermidine levels were sharply increased in seizure onset areas and high levels of spermine were detected in temporal cortex propagation areas. The presently reported heterogeneity of polyamine contents might contribute to modulate differentially the local control of excitability in human temporal epilepsy.
Epilepsy Research 06/1999; 35(2):161-72. · 2.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Edg-2 is an heptahelical receptor whose spatio-temporal distribution during rat brain development is consistent with a role in the control of myelination. We have now identified two splice variants of Edg-2 mRNA in rat brain that encode two receptor isoforms differing by a stretch of 18 amino acids in the NH2-terminal extracellular tail of the receptor. Prenatally (i.e., before oligodendrocyte myelination), the two variants detected by selective in situ hybridization are equally abundant, vary in parallel, and remain restricted to proliferative zones in the brain. Postnatally, the long isoform becomes predominant in myelinating structures, where its abundance increases sharply during the period of myelination. In the adult human brain, only the long variant was detected, while in situ hybridization showed it selectively expressed in the white matter and in clusters of cells showing features of oligodendrocytes of the temporal cerebral cortex. Consequently, the human Edg-2 gene was studied to assess its possible contribution in inherited neuropathies. The coding sequence was found to be contained in three exons and to map to chromosome 9q31.3-32 by using radiation hybrid panel and Yeast-Artificial Chromosomes. Two intragenic bi-allelic polymorphisms and a rare mutation were identified. As a first application to molecular genetic studies, they were used to exclude the Edg-2 gene in six families with phenotype of demyelinating Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease of unknown origin.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present the morphology and the laminar distribution of the serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) innervation of the cerebral cortex of patients who underwent cortical resection for partial seizures. The limits of the resections were established by stereoelectroencephalography. The 5-HT innervation was mapped by using an antiserum anti-5-HT. Two patients had cryptogenic epilepsies and two others had seizures related to focal cortical dysplasia. 5-HT immunoreactive axons were morphologically heterogeneous and projected diffusely to the cerebral cortex with regional-specific densities. Two types of terminal axon were demonstrated. Type I had large and spherical (intensely immunoreactive) varicosities and was distributed sparsely with a characteristic predominance in the molecular layer. Type II had fine and pleiomorphic varicosities (granular or fusiform) and was distributed through all cortical layers. The distribution of the 5-HT innervation varied according to the different architectonic areas investigated. The granular cortical areas characterized by a highly developed layer IV (primary somatosensory, primary visual and prefrontal cortices) had the highest density of 5-HT-ir fibers distributed from layer I to layer V. The agranular primary motor cortex had the lowest density with fibers preferentially seen in layers I, IIIa and V-VI. The orbital cortex with a poorly defined layer IV had an intermediate density with a laminar repartition predominant in the supragranular layers. In patients with cryptogenic epilepsies, the brain epileptogenic tissue was histologically normal as well as the serotonergic innervation. In contrast, in patients with focal cortical dysplasia, the dysplastic epileptogenic tissue was characterized by a serotonergic hyperinnervation. In agreement with previous data in primates, we give morphological evidence for two morphologically distinct serotonergic subsystems and for regional specific densities in the human cerebral cortex. Moreover, we previously reported an altered pattern of the catecholaminergic innervation in the same dysplasia areas. All these results provide evidence that this development epileptogenic lesion involves several sets of neurons which may contribute to epileptogenic activity.
Epilepsy Research 11/1996; 25(2):79-106. · 2.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present the histologic study of two patients who underwent cerebral cortex resection for partial seizures linked with cortical dysplasia. The distinction of areas of seizure origin from areas of seizure propagation was made according to stereoelectroencephalographic criteria. Samples of epileptogenic tissue were studied by using cytoarchitectonic and immunohistochemical stainings. We mapped the catecholaminergic afferents by employing antisera directed against tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine-beta-hydroxylase enzymes. The epileptic activity was correlated with the underlying patterns of cytoarchitectonic and immunohistochemical changes. The neuropathological features were focal and consisted of large neurons dispersed through all but the first cortical layer (associated in one case to giant glial cells), of variable disturbance of lamination, of neuronal ectopia in the white matter and of moderate proliferation of small glial cells. Areas of seizure onset coincided with that of dysplastic zones. Both laminar distribution and density of catecholaminergic fibers were altered in the dysplastic cortices (area of seizure onset) and there was an increase in the density of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive fibers in the surrounding areas of seizure propagation. Our results indicate that these developmental epileptogenic lesions were associated with abnormal neuronal circuitry. They provide evidence at the structural level of the increase in tyrosine hydroxylase activity previously reported in spiking areas of human epileptogenic cerebral cortex and they suggest that catecholamines may contribute toward limiting seizure activity propagation.
Epilepsy Research 11/1994; 19(2):161-79. · 2.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polyclonal antiserum to a new voltage-dependent anion channel protein (B-36 VDAC) isolated during the purification of the GABAA receptor from bovine cerebral cortex was used to determine the localization of this protein in immunocytochemical preparations of cerebral cortex, cerebellum and hippocampal formation of rat, cow and human. The labeling was present in the Purkinje cells and some cells of the molecular layer of the rat cerebellum, as well as in pyramidal and non-pyramidal cells of the rat and human cerebral cortex; the labeling outlined the membrane surface. In the rat granule cells of the dentate gyrus and the pyramidal cells, the labelling was observed within the cells. These results indicate that the B-36 VDAC protein is heterogeneously distributed among different cerebral regions in different species and suggest that this protein would be associated with the alpha-1 subunit of the GABAA receptor (benzodiazepine binding sites).
Cellular and molecular biology 06/1994; 40(3):295-300. · 0.81 Impact Factor