[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The gene SNRNP200 is composed of 45 exons and encodes a protein essential for pre-mRNA splicing, the 200 kDa helicase hBrr2. Two mutations in SNRNP200 have recently been associated with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP), a retinal degenerative disease, in two families from China. In this work we analyzed the entire 35-Kb SNRNP200 genomic region in a cohort of 96 unrelated North American patients with adRP. To complete this large-scale sequencing project, we performed ultra high-throughput sequencing of pooled, untagged PCR products. We then validated the detected DNA changes by Sanger sequencing of individual samples from this cohort and from an additional one of 95 patients. One of the two previously known mutations (p.S1087L) was identified in 3 patients, while 4 new missense changes (p.R681C, p.R681H, p.V683L, p.Y689C) affecting highly conserved codons were identified in 6 unrelated individuals, indicating that the prevalence of SNRNP200-associated adRP is relatively high. We also took advantage of this research to evaluate the pool-and-sequence method, especially with respect to the generation of false positive and negative results. We conclude that, although this strategy can be adopted for rapid discovery of new disease-associated variants, it still requires extensive validation to be used in routine DNA screenings.
Human Mutation 06/2011; 32(6):E2246-58. DOI:10.1002/humu.21485 · 5.05 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Usher syndrome type II (USH2) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterised by retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss. Mutations in the USH2A gene are the most common cause of USH2 and are also a cause of some forms of RP without hearing loss (ie, non-syndromic RP). The USH2A gene was initially identified as a transcript comprised of 21 exons but subsequently a longer isoform containing 72 exons was identified.
The 51 exons unique to the long isoform of USH2A were screened for mutations among a core set of 108 patients diagnosed with USH2 and 80 patients with non-syndromic RP who were all included in a previously reported screen of the short isoform of USH2A. For several exons, additional patients were screened.
In total, 35 deleterious mutations were identified including 17 nonsense mutations, 9 frameshift mutations, 5 splice-site mutations, and 4 small in-frame deletions or insertions. Twenty-seven mutations were novel. In addition, 65 rare missense changes were identified. A method of classifying the deleterious effect of the missense changes was developed using the summed results of four different mutation assessment algorithms, SIFT, pMUT, PolyPhen, and AGVGD. This system classified 8 of the 65 changes as 'likely deleterious' and 9 as 'possibly deleterious'.
At least one mutation was identified in 57-63% of USH2 cases and 19-23% of cases of non-syndromic recessive RP (calculated without and including probable/possible deleterious changes) thus supporting that USH2A is the most common known cause of RP in the USA.
Journal of Medical Genetics 07/2010; 47(7):499-506. DOI:10.1136/jmg.2009.075143 · 5.64 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report the study of a large American family displaying autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa with reduced penetrance, a form of hereditary retinal degeneration. Although the inheritance pattern and previous linkage mapping pointed to the involvement of the PRPF31 gene, extensive screening of all its exons and their boundaries failed in the past to reveal any mutation. In this work, we sequenced the entire PRPF31 genomic region by both the classical Sanger method and ultrahigh throughput (UHT) sequencing. Among the many variants identified, a single-base substitution (c.1374+654C>G) located deep within intron 13 and inside a repetitive DNA element was common to all patients and obligate asymptomatic carriers. This change created a new splice donor site leading to the synthesis of two mutant PRPF31 isoforms, degraded by nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. As a consequence, amounts of PRPF31 mRNA derived from the mutant allele were very reduced, with no evidence of mutant proteins being synthesized. Our results indicate that c.1374+654C>G causes retinitis pigmentosa via haploinsufficiency, similar to the vast majority of PRPF31 mutations described so far. We discuss the potential of UHT sequencing technologies in mutation screening and the continued identification of pathogenic splicing mutations buried deep within intronic regions.
Human Mutation 09/2009; 30(9):1340-7. DOI:10.1002/humu.21071 · 5.05 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP) has been considered essential for normal rod and cone function, as it mediates the transport of retinoids between the photoreceptors and the retinal pigment epithelium. This study was performed to determine whether mutations in the IRBP gene (RBP3) are associated with photoreceptor degeneration.
A consanguineous family was ascertained in which four children had autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Homozygosity mapping performed with SNP microarrays revealed only one homozygous region shared by all four affected siblings. Sequencing of RBP3, contained in this region, was performed in this family and others with recessive RP. Screening was also performed on patients with various other forms of retinal degeneration or malfunction.
Sequence analysis of RBP3 revealed a homozygous missense mutation (p.Asp1080Asn) in the four affected siblings. The mutation affects a residue that is completely conserved in all four homologous modules of the IRBP protein of vertebrate species and in C-terminal-processing proteases, photosynthesis enzymes found in bacteria, algae, and plants. Based on the previously reported crystal structure of Xenopus IRBP, the authors predict that the Asp1080-mediated conserved salt bridge that appears to participate in scaffolding of the retinol-binding domain is abolished by the mutation. No RBP3 mutations were detected in 395 unrelated patients with recessive or isolate RP or in 680 patients with other forms of hereditary retinal degeneration.
Mutations in RBP3 are an infrequent cause of autosomal recessive RP. The mutation Asp1080Asn may alter the conformation of the IRBP protein by disrupting a conserved salt bridge.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Great variation exists in the age of onset of symptoms and the severity of disease at a given age in patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP). The final pathway for this disease may involve apoptotic photoreceptor cell death. Telomere length is associated with biologic aging, senescence, and apoptosis. We evaluated whether the length of telomeres in leukocytes correlated with the severity of RP in patients with the Pro23His rhodopsin mutation who have shown marked heterogeneity in disease severity.
We evaluated 122 patients with the Pro23His rhodopsin mutation. The patients' retinal function was stratified according to their 30-Hz cone electroretinogram (ERG). The length of telomeres in leukocytes was measured by the quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) method in the 15 patients with the highest age-adjusted 30-Hz ERG amplitudes and in the 15 patients with the lowest amplitudes.
Mean leukocyte telomere length was similar in the 15 patients with the highest cone ERG amplitudes (median: 0.40 units; interquartile range 0.36-0.56) and the 15 patients with the lowest cone amplitudes (median: 0.41 units; inter quartile range 0.34 -0.64; p=0.95).
We found no evidence for an association between telomere length and the severity of RP as monitored by the cone ERG in patients with the Pro23His rhodopsin mutation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To estimate the mean rates of ocular function loss in patients with autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa due to USH2A mutations.
In 125 patients with USH2A mutations, longitudinal regression was used to estimate mean rates of change in Snellen visual acuity, Goldmann visual field area (V4e white test light), and 30-Hz (cone) full-field electroretinogram amplitude. These rates were compared with those of previously studied cohorts with dominant retinitis pigmentosa due to RHO mutations and with X-linked retinitis pigmentosa due to RPGR mutations. Rates of change in patients with the Cys759Phe mutation, the USH2A mutation associated with nonsyndromic disease, were compared with rates of change in patients with the Glu767fs mutation, the most common USH2A mutation associated with Usher syndrome type II (i.e., retinitis pigmentosa and hearing loss).
Mean annual exponential rates of decline for the USH2A patients were 2.6% for visual acuity, 7.0% for visual field area, and 13.2% for electroretinogram amplitude. The rate of acuity loss fell between the corresponding rates for the RHO and RPGR patients, whereas the rates for field and ERG amplitude loss were faster than those for the RHO and RPGR patients. No significant differences were found for patients with the Cys759Phe mutation versus patients with the Glu767fs mutation.
On average, USH2A patients lose visual acuity faster than RHO patients and slower than RPGR patients. USH2A patients lose visual field and cone electroretinogram amplitude faster than patients with RHO or RPGR mutations. Patients with a nonsyndromic USH2A mutation have the same retinal disease course as patients with syndromic USH2A disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Here we describe two families with retinitis pigmentosa, a hereditary neurodegeneration of rod and cone photoreceptors in the retina. Affected family members were homozygous for loss-of-function mutations in IDH3B, encoding the beta-subunit of NAD-specific isocitrate dehydrogenase (NAD-IDH, or IDH3), which is believed to catalyze the oxidation of isocitrate to alpha-ketoglutarate in the citric acid cycle. Cells from affected individuals had a substantial reduction of NAD-IDH activity, with about a 300-fold increase in the K(m) for NAD. NADP-specific isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP-IDH, or IDH2), an enzyme that catalyzes the same reaction, was normal in affected individuals, and they had no health problems associated with the enzyme deficiency except for retinitis pigmentosa. These findings support the hypothesis that mitochondrial NADP-IDH, rather than NAD-IDH, serves as the main catalyst for this reaction in the citric acid cycle outside the retina, and that the retina has a particular requirement for NAD-IDH.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To identify mutations in KCNV2 in patients with a form of cone dystrophy characterized by a supernormal rod electroretinogram (ERG).
The 2 exons and flanking intron DNA of KCNV2 from 8 unrelated patients were PCR amplified and sequenced.
We found 1 frameshift, 2 nonsense, 1 non-stop, and 6 missense mutations. Every patient had one or two mutations identified. Of the missense mutations, 4 affected residues were in the amino terminal region of the protein, and two in the pore region.
KCNV2 mutations account for most if not all cases of cone dystrophy with a supernormal rod ERG.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the the prevalence of pathogenic mutations in the gene encoding lecithin retinol acyltransferase (LRAT) in patients from North America with either Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) or autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (ARRP).
Exon 1, exon 2, and the coding region of exon 3 of LRAT were PCR-amplified and directly sequenced from the leukocyte DNA of 82 unrelated patients with LCA and 190 unrelated patients with ARRP.
One isocoding change was found in this screen of LRAT (Glu114 GAG>GAA; c.342), and 5 other sequence changes were found in intronic or untranslated regions of the gene. None of these changes were predicted to affect the encoded protein and were therefore deemed non-pathogenic.
LRAT mutations are likely a rare cause of LCA among patients from North America.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dominant mutations in the mRNA splicing factor gene PRPF31 (RP11) cause retinitis pigmentosa with reduced penetrance. We studied the expression of RP11 in lymphoblast cell lines from 10 patients, including three who were clinically asymptomatic, with six distinct RP11 mutations. Five of the six mutations were characterized and all five created premature nonsense codons or eliminated the normal initiation codon. Semiquantitative RT-PCR indicated that an average of only 17% of the RP11 mRNA was derived from the mutant allele, likely because the mutant mRNA transcripts were degraded by nonsense-mediated decay. Gene expression levels were measured by Affymetrix and CodeLink microarrays and, for RP11 transcripts, also by real-time PCR. Combined wild-type-plus-mutant RP11 mRNA expression from symptomatic patients was 52 to 77% of that in controls (p < or = 0.0005). Clinically asymptomatic carriers had levels of RP11 mRNA similar to controls and 29-42% higher than in clinically affected patients (0.0001<p<0.05, varying according to measurement technique). Expression levels of seven housekeeping genes (4-15 exons each) and 11 single-exon histone genes showed no substantial differences between affected patients with RP11 mutations and controls. Our results indicate that penetrance of dominant RP11 mutations correlates with the expression level of the remaining wild-type RP11 allele. Because RP11 mutations are apparently null alleles and because nonpenetrance correlates with high wild-type allele expression, the phenotypic effect of RP11 mutations is likely due to haploinsufficiency. The similar mRNA expression levels from genes with and without introns suggest that there is no generalized RNA splicing abnormality in RP11 patients.
Human Mutation 07/2006; 27(7):644-53. DOI:10.1002/humu.20325 · 5.05 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To search for mutations in the GNB1 gene (coding for the transducin beta1-subunit protein) in patients with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa.
We screened 185 unrelated patients with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (ADRP) using direct genomic sequencing of the three non-coding exons and 9 coding exons, along with immediately flanking intron DNA.
We found 2 polymorphisms, one in intron 1 with a minor allele frequency of 24%, and one in intron 6 with a minor allele frequency of 12% among the 185 patients. Two rare variants (minor allele frequency <1%) were found in the 3' untranslated region of exon 12. No changes were found in the open reading frame (exons 3-11) or in the noncoding exons 1 and 2.
No likely pathogenic GNB1 mutations have been found in any of 185 unrelated patients with ADRP. This result would be expected if hemizygosity for GNB1 does not result in ADRP or is a rare cause of ADRP.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations in the inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase 1 gene (IMPDH1) have recently been discovered to cause a form of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP). Such mutations are estimated to account for approximately 2-5% of the adRP cases among Americans of European origin and Europeans. Aiming towards an understanding of the molecular background of retinitis pigmentosa, this paper describes the phenotype of a Swedish family with a mutation in IMPDH1.
Venous blood samples were obtained from 12 family members and screened for mutations in IMPDH1. Six individuals with the mutation were examined clinically and with full-field electroretinography (ERG), dark adaptometry, multifocal electroretinography (mfERG), and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Also reviewed were the clinical findings and ERGs obtained 14 years earlier.
The proband and eight other relatives from three generations were found to harbor the Asp226Asn mutation in IMPDH1. These individuals, from three generations, showed clinical and electrophysiological signs of retinitis pigmentosa. The cone responses to the full-field, 30-Hz flicker ERG demonstrated an unusual pattern, with implicit times within normal limits or only slightly prolonged. Rod ERG responses, however, were undetectable. OCT showed intraretinal fluid and swelling, changes that were more pronounced in younger individuals. mfERG showed residual preserved central function. The older the individual, the smaller the area of preserved central function.
In this family with a mutation in IMPDH1, we found a specific phenotype with rod function affected more than cone function, foveal edema, and central retinal function preserved for a long period of time. Foveal edema could be a pathogenic feature in this form of retinal degeneration.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the frequency of mutations in IMPDH1 among patients with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (RP), to characterize the clinical features of patients with the Asp226Asn mutation in this gene, and to compare these features with those found among patients with selected dominant mutations in other RP genes.
The coding sequence and the adjacent flanking intron sequences of all 14 coding exons were sequenced in 183 unrelated patients with dominant RP. The clinical findings evaluated included visual acuity, refractive error, visual field area measured with the Goldmann perimeter, final dark-adaptation threshold, full-field electroretinogram (ERG) amplitudes, cataract, and funduscopic bone spicule pigmentation.
The mutation Asp226Asn was identified in 6 of the 183 unrelated patients with RP. One patient carried the novel, possibly pathogenic, change Lys238Glu. There was approximately a 100-fold variation in ERG amplitudes among patients of similar age with the Asp226Asn mutation. Patients had similar reductions of rod-plus-cone 0.5-Hz ERG amplitude and cone 30-Hz ERG amplitude. For a given amount of remaining visual field, there was a larger ERG amplitude in IMPDH1-carrying patients (average 0.5-Hz ERG/visual field ratio = 9.5 nV/deg(2)) compared with groups of patients with the RP1 mutation Arg677End (2.8 nV/deg(2)), the rhodopsin (RHO) mutation Pro23His (5.1 nV/deg(2)), or the RHO mutation Pro347Leu (1.7 nV/deg(2)).
IMPDH1 mutations account for approximately 2% of cases of dominant RP in North America. The most frequent mutation, Asp226Asn, appears to cause at least as much loss of rod function as cone function. Patients with this form of RP retain, on average, two to five times more ERG amplitude per unit of remaining visual area than patients with three other forms of dominant RP.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report three unrelated patients with mutations in the GRM6 gene that normally encodes the glutamate receptor mGluR6. This neurotransmitter receptor has been shown previously to be present only in the synapses of the ON bipolar cell dendrites, and it mediates synaptic transmission from rod and cone photoreceptors to this type of second-order neuron. Despite the synaptic defect, best visual acuities were normal or only moderately reduced (20/15 to 20/40). The patients were night blind from an early age, and when maximally dark-adapted, they could perceive lights only with an intensity equal to or slightly dimmer than that normally detected by the cone system (i.e., 2-3 log units above normal). Electroretinograms (ERGs) in response to single brief flashes of light had clearly detectable a-waves, which are derived from photoreceptors, and greatly reduced b-waves, which are derived from the second-order inner retinal neurons. ERGs in response to sawtooth flickering light indicated a markedly reduced ON response and a nearly normal OFF response. There was no subjective delay in the perception of suddenly appearing white vs. black objects on a gray background. These patients exemplify a previously unrecognized, autosomal recessive form of congenital night blindness associated with a negative ERG waveform.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 04/2005; 102(13):4884-9. DOI:10.1073/pnas.0501233102 · 9.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study the possible involvement of the rod (SLC24A1) and cone (SLC24A2) Na-Ca+K exchanger (NCKX) genes in retinal diseases.
DNA was collected from unrelated patients with retinal disease, mainly from North America. A human genomic library was screened with the cone NCKX cDNA, and hybridizing clones were sequenced to determine the genomic organization of the SLC24A2 gene. The single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) technique and direct sequencing were used to screen the patients' DNA for mutations in SLC24A1 and SLC24A2. The effect of selected missense changes on protein function was tested by measuring potassium-dependent Na-Ca exchange of the mutant proteins expressed in insect cells.
Twenty-seven novel sequence changes were found in the rod NCKX gene, 21 of which are unlikely to be pathogenic, because they did not cosegregate with the disease or did not affect conserved regions of the protein. Of the remaining six, two were frameshift mutations found in one patient each. If translated, these alleles would encode nonfunctional proteins. Three of the six possibly pathogenic mutations were missense changes located in conserved regions, and their protein functions were assayed. Only one (Ile992Thr) had a significantly low level of exchanger function, but it was found in two unrelated patients who were heterozygotes with different retinal diseases, and this mutation could not be unequivocally associated with either disease. The last of the six changes is likely to create a new splice acceptor site. The genomic organization of the cone NCKX gene was determined, and it contained 11 exons with a few splice variants. Fifteen novel sequence changes were identified in the cone exchanger gene in patients with a cone dysfunction or degeneration. Only three of these sequence changes, all missense changes found in heterozygous patients, were considered possibly pathogenic. Functional analysis showed only a slight reduction in the activity of the corresponding mutant proteins.
Although variant alleles of the rod and cone NCKX genes were found, none could be definitively associated with a specific retinal disease. The human phenotype associated with mutant exchanger alleles remains unknown.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To survey patients with dominant retinitis pigmentosa (RP) for mutations in the RP1 gene to determine the spectrum of dominant mutations in this gene, to estimate the proportion of dominant RP caused by this gene, and to determine whether the clinical features of patients with RP1 mutations differ from features of those with rhodopsin mutations.
A set of 241 patients who did not have mutations in the rhodopsin gene (based on previous work) formed the basis for the study. Of these patients, 117 had also been previously evaluated and were found not to carry mutations in the RDS gene. The single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) method was used to search for sequence variants, which were then directly sequenced. The relatives of selected patients were recruited for segregation analyses. Clinical evaluations of patients included a measurement of Snellen visual acuity, final dark adaptation thresholds, visual fields, and ERGs. Clinical data were compared with those obtained earlier from a study of 128 patients with dominant rhodopsin mutations.
Of the 241 patients, all were screened for the most common RP1 mutation (Arg677Ter), and 10 patients were found to have this mutation. In addition, an evaluation of a subset of 189 patients in whom the entire coding sequence was evaluated revealed the following mutations: Gln679Ter (1 case), Gly723Ter (2 cases), Glu729(1-bp del) (1 case), Leu762(5-bp del) (2 cases), and Asn763(4-bp del) (1 case). All of these mutations cosegregated with RP in the families of the index patients. Nine missense mutations that were each found in six or fewer patients were encountered. The segregation of eight of these was evaluated in the respective patients' families, and only one segregated with dominant RP. This cosegregating missense change was in cis with the nonsense mutation Gln679Ter. Although patients with RP1 mutations had, on average, slightly better visual acuity than patients with rhodopsin mutations, there was no statistically significant difference in final dark-adaptation thresholds, visual field diameters, or cone electroretinogram (ERG) amplitudes. Comparably aged patients with RP1 mutations had visual function that varied by approximately two orders of magnitude, based on visual fields and ERG amplitudes.
Dominant RP1 alleles typically have premature nonsense codons occurring in the last exon of the gene and would be expected to encode mutant proteins that are only approximately one third the size of the wild-type protein, suggesting that a dominant negative effect rather than haploinsufficiency is the mechanism leading to RP caused by RP1 mutations. On average, patients with RP1 mutations have slightly better visual acuity than patients with dominant rhodopsin mutations; otherwise, they have similarly severe disease. The wide range in severity among patients with RP1 mutations indicates that other genetic or environmental factors modulate the effect of the primary mutation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We isolated and characterized the entire coding sequence of a human gene encoding a protein that interacts with RPGR, a protein that is absent or mutant in many cases of X-linked retinitis pigmentosa. The newly identified gene, called "RPGRIP1" for RPGR-interacting protein (MIM 605446), is located within 14q11, and it encodes a protein predicted to contain 1,259 amino acids. Previously published work showed that both proteins, RPGR and RPGRIP1, are present in the ciliary structure that connects the inner and outer segments of rod and cone photoreceptors. We surveyed 57 unrelated patients who had Leber congenital amaurosis for mutations in RPGRIP1 and found recessive mutations involving both RPGRIP1 alleles in 3 (6%) patients. The mutations all create premature termination codons and are likely to be null alleles. Patients with RPGRIP1 mutations have a degeneration of both rod and cone photoreceptors, and, early in life, they experience a severe loss of central acuity, which leads to nystagmus.
The American Journal of Human Genetics 06/2001; 68(5):1295-8. DOI:10.1086/320113 · 10.99 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To search for patients with Usher syndrome type IC among those with Usher syndrome type I who reside in New England.
Genotype analysis of microsatellite markers closely linked to the USH1C locus was done using the polymerase chain reaction. We compared the haplotype of our patients who were homozygous in the USH1C region with the haplotypes found in previously reported USH1C Acadian families who reside in southwestern Louisiana and from a single family residing in Lebanon.
Of 46 unrelated cases of Usher syndrome type I residing in New England, two were homozygous at genetic markers in the USH1C region. Of these, one carried the Acadian USH1C haplotype and had Acadian ancestors (that is, from Nova Scotia) who did not participate in the 1755 migration of Acadians to Louisiana. The second family had a haplotype that proved to be the same as that of a family with USH1C residing in Lebanon. Each of the two families had haplotypes distinct from the other.
This is the first report that some patients residing in New England have Usher syndrome type IC. Patients with Usher syndrome type IC can have the Acadian haplotype or the Lebanese haplotype compatible with the idea that at least two independently arising pathogenic mutations have occurred in the yet-to-be identified USH1C gene.
American Journal of Ophthalmology 04/2001; 131(3):355-8. DOI:10.1016/S0002-9394(00)00807-2 · 4.02 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To identify mutations in the rhodopsin gene in North American patients with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (ADRP) and to measure the proportion of cases with rhodopsin mutations.
Single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis and direct genomic sequencing were used to evaluate the coding region and intron splice sites of the rhodopsin gene for mutations in 91 unrelated patients.
Nineteen patients heterozygously carried a missense change in the rhodopsin gene (six with Pro23His, two with Pro347Leu, and one each with Thr17Met, Phe45Leu, Gly51Arg, Gly89Asp, Gly114Val, Arg135Trp, Pro171Leu, Gln184Pro, Phe220Leu, Ser297Arg, and Pro347Thr). All these missense changes were previously reported as causes for ADRP except for Gly114Val, Gln184Pro, and Phe220Leu, which were evaluated further by examining the relatives of index patients. The Gly114Val and Gln184Pro alleles cosegregated with ADRP as expected if they were pathogenic. Phe220Leu did not, indicating that it is not a cause of ADRP.
Summation of the results of cases in this study with those of 272 unrelated cases of ADRP previously evaluated by our group shows that 90 of 363 (25%) of cases were caused by rhodopsin mutations.