Joseph K. Kearney

University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, United States

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Publications (58)35.33 Total impact

  • Jodie M. Plumert, Joseph K. Kearney
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    ABSTRACT: Successfully perceiving and acting on dynamic affordances is critical for children and adults to function. In our work, we look at how children cross roads as a model for understanding how they learn to perceive and act on dynamic affordances. Ten- to 14-year-old children and adults ride an interactive bicycling simulator through an immersive virtual environment where they cross intersections with continuous cross traffic. We consistently find developmental and individual differences in children's ability to tightly time their entry into the roadway relative to the lead car in the gap. Given that children do not adjust their gap choices to match their less precise timing abilities, children take more risks when crossing roads than adults. We conclude by discussing possible reasons for these developmental differences in movement timing.
    Child Development Perspectives 10/2014; · 1.56 Impact Factor
  • Timofey Y Grechkin, Jodie M Plumert, Joseph K Kearney
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated how the properties of interactive virtual reality systems affect user behavior in full-body embodied interactions. Our experiment compared four interactive virtual reality systems using different display types (CAVE vs. HMD) and modes of locomotion (walking vs. joystick). Participants performed a perceptual-motor coordination task, in which they had to choose among a series of opportunities to pass through a gate that cycled open and closed and then board a moving train. Mode of locomotion, but not type of display, affected how participants chose opportunities for action. Both mode of locomotion and display affected performance when participants acted on their choices. We conclude that technological properties of virtual reality system (both display and mode of locomotion) significantly affected opportunities for action available in the environment (affordances) and discuss implications for design and practical applications of immersive interactive systems.
    IEEE transactions on visualization and computer graphics. 04/2014; 20(4):596-605.
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    ABSTRACT: We used an immersive virtual environment to examine how children and adults learn to intercept moving gaps and whether children and adults benefit from variability of practice. Children (10- and 12-year-olds) and adults attempted to bicycle between two moving vehicle-size blocks without stopping. In Experiment 1, block motions were timed such that if participants maintained a constant speed, they would intercept the gap between the blocks. By the last set of intersections, adults learned to maintain a constant speed throughout the approach to the intersection, 12-year-olds exhibited less variability in time-to-spare when they intercepted the blocks, and 10-year-olds exhibited no significant change across intersection sets. In Experiment 2, block motions during the first eight intersections were timed such that participants needed to either speed up or slow down on all intersections or needed to speed up on half and slow down on half of the intersections. On the last four intersections, all age groups encountered a novel block timing in which no adjustment in speed was necessary to intercept the blocks. The adults performed well regardless of whether they experienced consistent or variable block timings. The 10-year-olds in the variable condition performed better on slow-down trials than their peers in the slow-down condition but performed worse on speed-up trials than their peers in the speed-up condition. Discussion focuses on possible developmental changes in reliance on perceptually available and remembered information in complex perception–action tasks.
    Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 01/2014; 122:134–152. · 3.12 Impact Factor
  • Jodie M Plumert, Joseph K Kearney
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    ABSTRACT: Unlike affordances involving stationary objects, affordances involving moving objects change over time. This means that actions must be tightly linked to decisions, making perceiving and acting on affordances involving moving objects challenging for children and adults alike. Here, we overview our program of research on how children and adults perceive and act on moving objects in the context of bicycling across roads in an immersive virtual environment. This work shows that although children attempt to adjust their actions to fit their risky decisions, they do not fully adjust their decisions to fit their action capabilities. This mismatch between child cyclists' decisions and actions may be a risk factor for car-bicycle collisions in late childhood and early adolescence.
    Ecological psychology : a publication of the International Society for Ecological Psychology. 01/2014; 26(1-2):125-133.
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    ABSTRACT: We conducted six experiments to examine how manipulating perception versus action affects perception-action recalibration in real and imagined blindfolded walking tasks. Participants first performed a distance estimation task (pretest) and then walked through an immersive virtual environment on a treadmill for 10 min. Participants then repeated the distance estimation task (posttest), the results of which were compared with their pretest performance. In Experiments 1a, 2a, and 3a, participants walked at a normal speed during recalibration, but the rate of visual motion was either twice as fast or half as fast as the participants' walking speed. In Experiments 1b, 2b, and 3b, the rate of visual motion was kept constant, but participants walked at either a faster or a slower speed. During pre- and posttest, we used either a blindfolded walking distance estimation task or an imagined walking distance estimation task. Additionally, participants performed the pretest and posttest distance estimation tasks in either the real environment or the virtual environment. With blindfolded walking as the distance estimation task for pre- and posttest, we found a recalibration effect when either the rate of visual motion or the walking speed was manipulated during the recalibration phase. With imagined walking as the distance estimation task, we found a recalibration effect when the rate of visual motion was manipulated, but not when the walking speed was manipulated in both the real environment and the virtual environment. Discussion focuses on how spatial-updating processes operate on perception and action and on representation and action.
    Attention Perception & Psychophysics 05/2013; · 1.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: This investigation used a bicycling simulator to examine how preadolescent temperament is related to risky behavior. METHODS: Children aged 10 and 12 years (N = 109) rode a bicycle through a virtual environment where they crossed intersections with continuous cross traffic. Mothers filled out the Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire-Revised. RESULTS: Older children and male participants timed their entry into the intersection more precisely than did younger children and female participants, as did 10-year-old children higher in inhibitory control and 10-year-old boys higher in aggression. However, only 10-year-old children higher in inhibitory control had more time to spare when they cleared the intersection. For 10-year-old boys higher in aggression, cutting in more closely behind the lead vehicle was accompanied by less stopping at intersections, less waiting before crossing, and choosing smaller gaps to cross. CONCLUSIONS: The Discussion section focuses on inhibitory control as a protective factor and aggression as a risk factor for car-bicycle collisions.
    Journal of Pediatric Psychology 04/2013; 38(3):285-295. · 2.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This investigation examined how children and adults negotiate a challenging perceptual-motor problem with significant real-world implications-bicycling across two lanes of opposing traffic. Twelve- and 14-year-olds and adults rode a bicycling simulator through an immersive virtual environment. Participants crossed intersections with continuous cross traffic coming from opposing directions. Opportunities for crossing were divided into aligned (far gap opens with or before near gap) and rolling (far gap opens after near gap) gap pairs. Children and adults preferred rolling to aligned gap pairs, though this preference was stronger for adults than for children. Crossing aligned versus rolling gap pairs produced substantial differences in direction of travel, speed of crossing, and timing of entry into the near and far lanes. For both aligned and rolling gap pairs, children demonstrated less skill than adults in coordinating self and object movement. These findings have implications for understanding perception-action-cognition links and for understanding risk factors underlying car-bicycle collisions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
    Journal of Experimental Psychology Human Perception & Performance 08/2012; · 3.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This investigation examined short-term changes in child and adult cyclists' gap decisions and movement timing in response to general and specific road-crossing experiences. Children (10- and 12-year-olds) and adults rode a bicycle through a virtual environment with 12 intersections. Participants faced continuous cross traffic and waited for gaps they judged were adequate for crossing. In the control condition, participants encountered randomly ordered gaps ranging from 1.5 to 5.0s at all intersections. In the high-density condition, participants encountered high-density intersections sandwiched between sets of control intersections. These high-density intersections were designed to push participants toward taking tighter gaps. Participants in both conditions were more likely to accept 3.5-, 4.0-, 4.5-, and 5.0-s gaps at the last set of intersections than at the first set of intersections, whereas participants in the high-density condition were also more likely to accept very tight 3.0-s gaps at the last intersections than at the first intersections. Moreover, individuals in the high-density condition who waited less and took shorter gaps at the middle intersections were also more likely to take very tight 3.0-s gaps at the last intersections. The 10-year-olds in both conditions had more time to spare when they cleared the path of the oncoming car at the last intersections, whereas the 12-year-olds and adults showed no change in time to spare across intersections. The discussion focuses on linking short-term change in perceptual-motor functioning to longer term perceptual-motor development.
    Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 02/2011; 108(2):322-37. · 3.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The goal of our work is to develop a programmatically controlled peer to bicycle with a human subject for the purpose of studying how social interactions influence road-crossing behavior. The peer is controlled through a combination of reactive controllers that determine the gross motion of the virtual bicycle, action-based controllers that animate the virtual bicyclist and generate verbal behaviors, and a keyboard interface that allows an experimenter to initiate the virtual bicyclist's actions during the course of an experiment. The virtual bicyclist's repertoire of behaviors includes road following, riding alongside the human rider, stopping at intersections, and crossing intersections through specified gaps in traffic. The virtual cyclist engages the human subject through gaze, gesture, and verbal interactions. We describe the structure of the behavior code and report the results of a study examining how 10- and 12-year-old children interact with a peer cyclist that makes either risky or safe choices in selecting gaps in traffic. Results of our study revealed that children who rode with a risky peer were more likely to cross intermediate-sized gaps than children who rode with a safe peer. In addition, children were significantly less likely to stop at the last six intersections after the experience of riding with the risky than the safe peer during the first six intersections. The results of the study and children's reactions to the virtual peer indicate that our virtual peer framework is a promising platform for future behavioral studies of peer influences on children's bicycle riding behavior.
    IEEE transactions on visualization and computer graphics. 01/2011; 17(1):14-25.
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    ABSTRACT: Whenever we move, we gain experience with how changes in visual flow are related to movement through the environment. One way that researchers have studied these perception-action linkages is through perturbing the normal relationship between perception and action [Kunz et al. 2009; Rieser et al. 1995]. In these studies, people experience an optic flow rate that is manipulated to be significantly faster or slower than their walking rate. Comparison of distance estimates from before and after this recalibration experience typically shows that people who experience faster optic flow undershoot targets at posttest and people who experience slower optic flow overshoot targets at posttest. Here, we examined how experience with mismatched perception and action (i.e., faster or slower optic flow) in a virtual environment affects subsequent distance estimation in the same virtual environment and in a similar real environment. Of particular interest was whether perception-action coupling is more malleable in the virtual environment than in the real environment.
    Proceedings of the 8th Symposium on Applied Perception in Graphics and Visualization, APGV 2011, Toulouse, France, August 27-28, 2011; 01/2011
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    ABSTRACT: We conducted an experiment to examine the effects of scene density and richness on people's estimates of traveled distance. Participants wearing HMDs first experienced vision-only simulated self-motion over the distance of 65 meters in either a feature-dense scene (condition 1) or a sparse scene (condition 2), and then attempted to reproduce the same distance by physically walking with vision in a neutral virtual scene. We found that participants' estimates in the first condition were significantly shorter than those in the second condition. Furthermore, condition 1 estimates were significantly below the actual 65m travel distance, while condition 2 estimates did not differ significantly from 65m. The results suggest that scene feature density and richness affect traveled distance estimation.
    Proceedings of the 8th Symposium on Applied Perception in Graphics and Visualization, APGV 2011, Toulouse, France, August 27-28, 2011; 01/2011
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    ABSTRACT: We conducted a series of experiments to investigate effects of scale changes on distance perception in virtual environments. All experiments were carried out in an HMD. Participants first made distance estimates with feedback in a virtual tunnel (adaptation) and then made distance estimates without feedback in a differently-scaled virtual environment (test). We examined several types of scale changes, including changing the size of (1) the tunnel, (2) the targets, and (3) the separation of the two targets. Changes in target size always affected distance estimates at test. When the targets became smaller, participants overshot distance and when the targets became larger, participants undershot distance. Changes in the size of the tunnel or the separation between the targets (without a change in the size of the targets) had a minimal effect on distance estimates. These results indicate that distance estimates at test were strongly influenced by familiar size cues for distance. The discussion focuses on the stability of calibration processes and mechanisms for cue integration for perceiving distance in virtual environments.
    TAP. 01/2011; 8:26.
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    ABSTRACT: Two experiments examined how 10- and 12-year-old children and adults intercept moving gaps while bicycling in an immersive virtual environment. Participants rode an actual bicycle along a virtual roadway. At 12 test intersections, participants attempted to pass through a gap between 2 moving, car-sized blocks without stopping. The blocks were timed such that it was sometimes necessary for participants to adjust their speed in order to pass through the gap. We manipulated available visual information by presenting the target blocks in isolation in Experiment 1 and in streams of blocks in Experiment 2. In both experiments, adults had more time to spare than did children. Both groups had more time to spare when they were required to slow down than when they were required to speed up. Participants' behavior revealed a multistage interception strategy that cannot be explained by the use of a monotonic control law such as the constant bearing angle strategy. The General Discussion section focuses on possible sources of changes in perception-action coupling over development and on task-specific constraints that could underlie the observed interception strategy.
    Journal of Experimental Psychology Human Perception & Performance 11/2010; 36(6):1535-52. · 3.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There has been a substantial amount of research on two different but related problems: estimating distances of perceived objects ("how far away is that thing?") and estimating traveled distance ("how far did I just walk?"). For instance, Lappe et al [2007] recently examined a "leaky path integration" model to account for travel distance judgments in a virtual environment.
    Proceedings of the 7th Symposium on Applied Perception in Graphics and Visualization, APGV 2010, Los Angeles, California, July 23-24, 2010; 01/2010
  • Journal of Vision - J VISION. 01/2010; 7(9):268-268.
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    ABSTRACT: We conducted two experiments that compared distance perception in real and virtual environments in six visual presentation methods using either timed imagined walking or direct blindfolded walking, while controlling for several other factors that could potentially impact distance perception. Our presentation conditions included unencumbered real world, real world seen through an HMD, virtual world seen through an HMD, augmented reality seen through an HMD, virtual world seen on multiple, large immersive screens, and photo-based presentation of the real world seen on multiple, large immersive screens. We found that there was a similar degree of underestimation of distance in the HMD and large-screen presentations of virtual environments. We also found that while wearing the HMD can cause some degree of distance underestimation, this effect depends on the measurement protocol used. Finally, we found that photo-based presentation did not help to improve distance perception in a large-screen immersive display system. The discussion focuses on points of similarity and difference with previous work on distance estimation in real and virtual environments.
    TAP. 01/2010; 7.
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    ABSTRACT: In this investigation, we examined how the order in which people experience real and virtual environments influences their distance estimates. Participants made two sets of distance estimates in one of the following conditions: (1) real environment first, virtual environment second; (2) virtual environment first, real environment second; (3) real environment first, real environment second; or (4) virtual environment first, virtual environment second. In Experiment 1, the participants imagined how long it would take to walk to targets in real and virtual environments. The participants' first estimates were significantly more accurate in the real than in the virtual environment. When the second environment was the same as the first environment (real-real and virtual-virtual), the participants' second estimates were also more accurate in the real than in the virtual environment. When the second environment differed from the first environment (real-virtual and virtual-real), however, the participants' second estimates did not differ significantly across the two environments. A second experiment, in which the participants walked blindfolded to targets in the real environment and imagined how long it would take to walk to targets in the virtual environment, replicated these results. These subtle yet persistent order effects suggest that memory can play an important role in distance perception.
    Attention Perception & Psychophysics 08/2009; 71(5):1095-106. · 1.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We conducted two experiments to investigate effects of scale changes on distance perception in virtual environments. In both experiments, participants first made distance estimates with feedback in a virtual tunnel (adaptation) and then made distance estimates without feedback in a differently sized environment (test). We examined two types of scale changes. In the "Tunnel Scaled" conditions, only the size of the tunnel changed from adaptation to test. In the "All Scaled" conditions, both the tunnel and target sizes changed from adaptation to test, along with the distance between the targets. Both experiments were carried out in an HMD. In the first experiment, participants made distance estimates by moving to targets via a joystick. In the "All Scaled" condition, participants overshot relative to adaptation when going from a large to a small environment, and they undershot relative to adaptation when going from a small to a large environment. We found almost no effects of scale change in either direction when only the tunnel was scaled at test. Experiment 2 was the same except that subjects made distance estimates via blindfolded walking. The pattern of results was the same, though the size of the overshoot/undershoot was attenuated. The discussion focuses on explanations for the effects of scale changes on distance estimates.
    Proceedings of the 6th Symposium on Applied Perception in Graphics and Visualization, APGV 2009, Chania, Crete, Greece, September 30 - October 2, 2009; 01/2009
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    ABSTRACT: A bike rider's distance from the roadway is one of the factors that determine the safety of the crossing. First, it dictates the vantage point from which the rider sees the oncoming traffic. Second, it governs the distance that must be crossed to clear the beam of oncoming traffic. This study investigated how the behavior of a virtual peer in an immersive bicycling simulator influences how far away from the roadway children are when they initiate crossing.
    Proceedings of the 6th Symposium on Applied Perception in Graphics and Visualization, APGV 2009, Chania, Crete, Greece, September 30 - October 2, 2009; 01/2009
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    ABSTRACT: Understanding how humans perceive their rate of translational locomotion through the world is important for designing virtual environments. People have access to two primary classes of cues that can provide information about their movement through the environment: Visual and auditory cues (e.g. optic flow, optical expansion, Doppler shift) and somatosensory cues (e.g. effort, proprioceptive feedback.) An important research question is the relative weighting of these cues for perceiving the rate of translational movement in a virtual environment.
    Proceedings of the 6th Symposium on Applied Perception in Graphics and Visualization, APGV 2009, Chania, Crete, Greece, September 30 - October 2, 2009; 01/2009

Publication Stats

633 Citations
35.33 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1990–2014
    • University of Iowa
      • • Department of Computer Science
      • • Department of Psychology
      Iowa City, Iowa, United States
  • 2013
    • Missouri Western State University
      Saint Joseph, Missouri, United States
    • Northern Illinois University
      • Department of Psychology
      DeKalb, IL, United States
  • 2011
    • Clemson University
      • School of Computing
      Clemson, SC, United States